Project: The Westernisation
Author: Lem Chuck Moth
Started date: September/01/2011
Last updated: June/30/2018
All right reserved.
Since this paper is still drafted, the readers would be advised to ignore any context errors. The content is not final and subjected to be reviewed.
Despite its rather short existence, Europe presented itself as the sole source of western civilization. Many theories were invented to support the claim. One of such theories based the Western Civilization as the product of the Caucasian race. Supposedly originated from the surrounding region of mount Caucasus, the existence of the Aryan culture actually supports the theory that launched the Caucasian race as the progenator of modern Civilization. Written mostly by European scholars, history of other part of the world was then compiled in the supporting fact that Europe was always been the center of the world. Instead of exploring into its deeper past, they based their theory upon Europe making itself as a world powerhouse. More Aryan theories that were compiled during two Caucasian nations in the rise, were proved to be much more convincing due to the support of their claim by modern development. For instance, the Aryan Invasion Theory that was mostly compiled during the colonialization of India by the British Empire was received with eye wide opening. At first received with skepticism, the theory became since the sole source of information about India' s past civilization. On the other hand, the claim of the Aryan supremacy that linked the superiority of the Aryan Culture to the physical appearance of the Caucasian race took its strength during Hitler' s quest for the control of the world. To make the matter worst, the theory is proved to be responsible of many humanity' s crises that emerged out of their political misapplication (Notes: The Research of the Aryan Root). As more misconceptions were conceived to suit European aggression, wars of destruction were seen as a consequence of European drive for supremacy. Beneath all that development, we shall argue that this specific phase of European history was the outcome of Zoroastrianism eclipsing its ancestral Meru Culture over the west. Strangely enough, its development had already been prophesied. Ups to now, scientists were generally skeptical of the Ezrekiel 's prophecy to realize. No manifestation had yet happened in Middle East to match the prediction. In addition, their rationality clearly indicates that the building of Solomon' s third Temple could never take place in the near future. Considering the political conflicts that mount around the temple of Jerusalem, the building of the third temple would have to stay furthermore just in the dream. To the Christian communities, the hope still persists even though it is clear that the prophecy could never be realizing according to their own expectation. They were waiting anxiously for the prophecy to realize since the return of Jesus Christ had also been predicted to follow the Apocalypse. Following their own drive to spread the good new, we had argued that missionaries had paved the way to colonization of Southeast Asia. Little they know that their good intention was against God's will and was in fact contributing to the destruction of the God' s kingdom and made the Ezekiel Prophecy to realize.
The Apocalypse in the Making
It is undeniable that the lucrative venture of colonization created wealth to the colonists and, to some extends the nations that hold the colonial power. The success however had a serious side effect as it created rivalry and conflicts between their own peers. Each European nation took turn to rise up and by subduing other contenders claimed itself as the new superpower of the block. As rivalry intensified, European nations were locked in a deadly conflict that led to the next two world wars. For secular view, they were typical of Darwinist fight between superpowers for the control of the world resource. Coincidentally enough, the Apocalypse had been written down and included in the Bible to predict catastrophic events during the End Time. While Christian communities still wonder when its comes to pass, the two world wars had already brought humanity to its knee. Failing to recognize them as man-made catastrophic events that had been described in the Bible's prediction, humanity continued on its own course unaltered by the bad experience. (Notes: The Sources of the world Misery). For rational minds, either it is a work of God punishing humankind of their sins or the outcome of men' s bad Karma, the Apocalypse provided humanity with the opportunity for a serious soul searching. Lesson had been drawn and to prevent future crisis, major correction had been done. For that, it appears that the humanity is going into the right direction. Nevertheless, we shall argue that the real culprit or root cause that induced the two world wars is still looming large and the same catastrophic event would repeat itself again if it is not addressed properly. The probable causes lies on contemporary superpowers that are holding on the most of the world resources as their own properties and tried to protect them at all cost. In the course of their existence, they had collected the most wealth either from colonization or wars of which they built their strength through Pyramid schemes. Consortiums had been formed to protect their own investment while the United Nations launched a New World order to discourage potential challengers. Made legal under International law, super rich individuals are moving around their assets to look for opportunities without having to deal with the messes that they left behind. As it is now, the world is fully loaded with bad practices and there are no more room left for such free enterprise. With that environment, scholars already foresee that the third world war is just around the corner.
THE EUROPEAN RENAISSANCE
Just as the Roman Empire lost its strength, the Ottoman Empire started its own odyssey to take control of Europe. After taking over Contantinoble and converted it into becoming its headquarters, the Ottoman Empire' s extension over the Balkan were made secured by Muslim military forces under the one rule of the Sultan Soleiman. Nevertheless, the Ottomans could not capitalize on the fall of the Roman Empire. The rising of European independent superpowers continued on the Christian drive for dominating Europe through the renaissance that lasted until the World War I (1913-1918) ended. After the Ottoman Empire took its turn to succumb, decentralized empire was a thing of the past. New nations were building themselves to become superpowers and, in the process were competing for the world' s control.
The Birth of Superpowers
In contrast to the Meru Culture that sees capitalism as a promotion of greed, the western culture views it as a mean to help nations in their drive for the competition of natural selection process. Adding to their supporting argument, the concept was actually invented and promoted under the watch of the Catholic church. It is said that the Night Templars who helped Christians to make their pilgrimage to Jerusalem came up with the idea of safeguarding their client' s belonging during the trip. In handling their customers' properties, they extended their services into a broader range of pooling and distributing assets and became very rich and powerful by the new business. The banking system soon followed to give the western culture another boost for materialism. Resources were collected from all around the globe as well as commodities and merchandise through the international networks. For the wealthy life-style of European high societies, slavery was openly commercialized to suit the need of the European aristocracy. These modern developments were made possible by the Banking system that gave both the corporation and consumer the advantage of capital expedenture to facilitate the market transaction. The major drawback was that nobility spent more than they could afford. It is said that the Night Templars were persecuted by their own debtors who were then more powerful than them. Nevertheless, capitalism continued to fuel Europe into another era of material development. Through the progression of science and technology, corporation flourished with their new inventions of household products and military application. It would not take long for them to become strained by competition. Once again, the banking system gave the corporation another way out, by providing capital leveraging to bring competitiveness to another level. In a partnership arrangement, corporation received more capital funding and in turn used it to strengthen their position against competitors. While fighting off their old one, they established their own controlled territory to guard against new competitors. The game continued on until only a few players were left to compete for the final round. To avoid backlashes, pacts and accords were made to support each party to stand against opposition' s drive to take over the monopoly game. The drive gave birth to new European superpowers to grow and challenge the old one. Just as the Ottoman Empire was on its declining, other developments emerged to split Europe into three political and economical spheres. Among them, the Austro-Hungarian Empire was the only one that was formed as a consortium to consolidate their strength while other superpowers were founded through the immediate outcome of economical development. While Russia rose-up on its own traditional resources to represent the eastern Europe, Germany rose up to represent the western Europe in science and technology' s achievement. For other superpowers such as Portugal, Spain, England and France, creating their own consortium would require constant fighting with each other as each one of the contenders was not willing to subordinate the other. With the notion of nationality came into play and the border frontier to be protected, each nation became more and more defensive of their own identity. As congestion grew, they shift their focus away from the trouble Europe and the world became their next venture. Fueled by capitalism, the colonization became the last draw to rob the world of their resource in propelling the European drive for prosperity. Ran by business adventurers who, in looking for high profit margin, took the risks to explore over-sea markets, As corporations became multinationally funded, business was made global and border's barrier had to be conquered. To achieve their goal, they procured themselves with the state of the art military mean to establish their business without any regards to the local organization or states. Southeast Asia where spice trades had been the focus point since the antiquity, became among the first of theirs colonial target. Equipped with canons and rifles, merchant ships came not to trade but to control the market place. Nevertheless, their endeavors could not break-through the native resistance if they had no support from their country's government to back them up during the next phase of colonization. Either by force or through corruption, local infrastructures had to be destroyed first for the colonial rule to take place. New migrants were encouraged to move in making themselves available to the colonists as cheap labors and along the way, to bypass altogether the need for local support for the transition of power. Mass migration was also seen common to colonial practices in the need to carry on major projects. Unlike the natives who saw the successful drive of the colonists as the lost of both their identity and country, the immigrants had nothing to loose in their new countries. Through hard working, they became the driving force in the colonial establishment while the natives were made inept to take any part in the new politic and economy.
The Monopoly Game
As a people, the Jews were known to be particularly successful of their business endeavors. With higher income, they brought themselves higher standard of living and in the process brought-up the image of Europe as a whole to become the most wealthy part of the world. Nevertheless the majority of European population did not share the sensation of wealth enjoyed by the Jews. Many repulsed their audacity that they put forward to achieve their wealth at all cost. In Rome, the Jew communities thrived along with Mithraism during the start-up of the Roman Empire.
Nevertheless, circumstances had changed when Christianity started to infiltrate itself into the mainstream of European communities. In the early fourth century, the adoption of Christianity by the Emperor Constantine would moreover separate the Jews from the Christian believers of the new Empire. Under the new faith, the Jews found themselves guilty of defying Jesus Christ. Under the Roman Catholic rule, they became subjected to harassment that further dispersed their communities into the greater Europe. Nevertheless, some of them were still in good terms with the Roman authority. As they had always been, the Jews were politically and culturally flexible. By submitting themselves to the new order, they still managed to thrive alongside the Roman Christianity. Added to their credibility, the concept of Corporation was conceived to become another trademark of the Western culture. Before the renaissance, Europe was virtually united. Under Roman Catholicism, European nations thrived by cooperation. The decline of Catholicism that started with the break-off of the Protestant churches from Catholism induced rivalry among Christian nations. To defend their own trading networks, each rival nation invested heavily in their army. After European resources were exploited to the exhaustion, they shifted the focus elsewhere where there was still opportunities for European emerging powers to share the profit. At the same time, they went on global trekking to seek out new potential colonies under the pretext of spreading Christianity. Sponsored by special interest groups, exploration brought back information about the New World that could be potentially colonized. The travel of Ferdinand Magellan in 1521, in particular, led European adventurous mind to shift their interests toward the east. Used to be in close alliance in the past. Spain and Portugal' s rivalry started to wear down their relationship as competition was openly promoted. To avert further conflict, the treaty of Saragossa in 1529 gave the Spanish a free hand in the Philippines, while the Portuguese gave themselves the sole rights to the islands of Southeast Asia. While the Spanish occupation of the Philippine was done without serious challenge, the Portuguese venture in the Southern Sea was, on the other hand, facing with heavy setback. As we had argued, the Southern Sea market was not virgin as they though. Through Angkorean control, the southern sea route took became the ultimate alternative of the Silk Route for international trading between the west and the east. Following the last conflict between the Sri Vijaya and the Chola, the Angkorean control fell. The Mongol's incursion moreover subdued the last of the Khmer control over the sea trade and opened up opportunities for Chinese merchants to take part of the southern sea trade. The close down of the Silk Road by the Ming Dynasty finally drew the residents of the Silk Road to look for the southern opportunities. Their presence caused the failure of any attempt to open up the sea route again by the local courts of Southeast Asia (Nokor Caktomukh: The new Angkorian Court: The Reign of Prah Lampangraja). Evidences also show that Muslim ventures also started to move in and with the support of the Ming Dynasty established Malaka as a new trade center of the South China Sea. After spending a lot of efforts and resources to subdue the Muslim control of the Island, Alphonse of Albuquerque forced the Ming Dynasty to abandoned the southern Sea Trade altogether. As more competition was on the way and little support was obtained from Lisbon, Alphonse of Albuquerque was himself ready to quit. With no commercial interest to look forward to, his hope to keep his colony as a Christian community was fading. Before he moved out, he tried to sale Malaka to Siam but the deal was turned down. As other European contenders were on their ways to fight for the Asian resources and market, Siam also saw little chance of holding on to the highly disputed island. Through colonization, other European nations also built themselves up as the next European superpowers. Among them, England and France became were next to take on Southeast Asian venture. Facing with the colonist's military strength, Bangkok and the rest of Chinese communities knew that theirs best bet was to collaborate. Their successful policy inspired other Chinese communities to start on building their own Southeast Asian franchise the colonial way. Through their collaborations, Western colonists found in Southeast Asia safe-haven for theirs venture as Hue and Bangkok had turned themselves into becoming two of the next successful players in supporting their colonial game.
The World War I
In the name of civilization, the colonization was presented as a valuable gift to the new colonies. Old habit of native life-style was scraped out and replaced with westernized ways of life. In contrast, we argue that its adverse affect constituted a catapult that drive the Meru Culture toward its End Time (The End Time: Introduction: Meru' s prophesied End Time). According to the Ezekiel's prophecy, the Antichrist would be born and in his worldwide quest to control the world, he would start the war of Ammagadon against the God' s Kingdom. The reality of the World War I was no less dramatized than prophesied. Originated in Europe, it was actually a global war that resulted in the high casualty of human life in a short four years period. In their quest to control the world, European superpowers ended up splitting themselves into two antagonist camps. The first alliance that was formed on the Triple membership of the Russian Empire, the French Third Republic, and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, was simply known in modern history as the allies. They were fighting against the Central Powers of Germany and the Austria-Hungary empire. The war seemingly started by the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria, heir to the throne of Austria-Hungary by Yugoslav nationalist Gavrilo Princip in Sarajevo on 28 June 1914. This set off a diplomatic crisis when Austria-Hungary delivered an ultimatum to the Kingdom of Serbia and, as a result, entangled-international-alliances, formed over the previous decades, were invoked. Within weeks the major powers were at war, and the conflict soon spread around the world. Russia was the first to order a partial mobilization of its armies on 24-25 July, and when on 28 July Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia, Russia declared general mobilization on 30 July. Germany presented an ultimatum to Russia to demobilize, and when this was refused, declared war on Russia. These events however were just the catalyst for triggering the war, but were not the root cause of the war itself. Before the alliances were formed, evidences show that conflicts already started between the superpowers in the fight for their controlled territory. France for one, had been locked in conflict over its frontier with Germany for a long period of time. It started over forty years earlier when the Franco-Prussian War had broke down the Second French Empire giving the provinces of Alsace-Lorraine to a unified Germany. Eager to reclaim back the lost provinces, France accepted Russia's plea for help. Russia urged its allies to open up a second front in the west to relieve pressure on its eastern front due to the Central Powers' attack. Germany declared war on its old rival when France started mobilizing its army. To carry on its campaign against France, Germany invaded neutral Belgium and Luxembourg. The violation of Belgian neutrality prompted the United Kingdom to join the allies in the fight against Germany, With the western front taking-up all Germany's attention, Russia was able to conduct a successful campaign against the Austro-Hungarian' s front, but its army was stopped by the Germany's army during its invasion of East Prussia. The defeat and its internal revolutions brought the Russian royal government to collapse in March 1917 during which the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk granted the Germans a significant victory. Just as their campaign was going to suffer a great set-back at the eastern front, the allies however continued the fight with the fresh help from the United states in 1917. After the stunning German Offensive in the spring of 1918, they rallied and drove back the Germans in the successful Hundred Days Offensive. On November 1918, the Austro-Hungarian empire agreed to the Armistice and Germany, which had its own trouble with revolutionaries, agreed to an armistice on November 1918. Borders were redrawn, with nine independent nations restored or created, and Germany's colonies were parceled out among the victors. During the Paris Peace Conference of 1919, the Big Four powers (Britain, France, the United States and Italy) imposed their terms in a series of treaties. The League of Nations was also formed with the aim of preventing any repetition of such a conflict. This effort however failed as the next world war II started in just two decades later. The question is why the league of the nations failed to address and solved these problems at the first place. Economic aggression, renewed nationalism with border conflicts, and feelings of pride of the winners vs the humiliation of the losers were cited among its immediate causes by scholars in their secular view. Without having to discuss explicitly each one of their opinions, we shall present our own answer that is extending more than just on economy and politic, but also on race, culture and most importantly on religion as well. They are about the profound spiritual discrepancies that plagued Europe since its renaissance and stayed to become the root cause of the Would War I while at the same time restricted European league of nations to find viable solution to avert the next destructive World War II.
THE DISCREPENCY OF WESTERN CULTURE
History proves to us that without higher authority, humanity is prone for making mistake and incurred self-destruction in the process. After the World War I, serious attempts had been made to prevent it from happening again, but many of its root causes have not been recognized and properly addressed to prevent the next World War II to happen only in a short time later. In correlation with the deficiency of western core of religious dogmas, we shall identify some of the problems that had been proved to exist in the past and are still seen to cause current international conflicts as well. They were among many more problems that contributed to the happening of the two world wars that already passed. Left untreated, they could become the cause of the next World Wars III to come.
Of Religion and Morality
After Seth and later Ishta formed their own religious schools and proclaimed themselves as the head of the pantheons, images of the Gods and Goddess were seen everywhere. In Greek mythology, Zeus took the limelight as his statue was majestically erected among his lesser gods of the mount Olympus. In Egypt, the image of the Son God Ra could not be missed in the pantheon of Isis. Since then, the relationship between God and men took a different turn. While Seth and Ishta were becoming themselves object of worshipping, the Sumerian God was phased away. As they were more and more revered, other religious figures and head of religious institution took their turns to claim for a piece of lesser Lordship. As worshipping became a Big business, bad practices were the norm as religious leaders fell obligated to beat out rivalry and in the process, forgot about their real obligation to Morality. While the focus on God is the same, the practices and the end results were totally different. In the western mythology, God already took a spiritual form and became abstract. His messages to men were to be carried through prophets or God messengers. Through them, God had made it clear of his feeling regarding his people' s lack of moral conduct and its serious subsequent outcome. This was a concrete proof that the natural world is far to be a perfect creation (Notes: The four Noble Truths). The tribes Samara and Israel were particularly affected due to their imminent status as direct descendant from Seth and Ishta. To ease the fear of God' s retaliation, the notion of salvation had been introduced. Scapegoating was another mean of shifting responsibility from the bad outcome that was resulted from their own immorality. It became instead another marketing tool to recruit more members of their church through the false promise of salvation. Blamed their bad actions to the Devil or Satan, the new teaching promises salvation through sacrifices (Notes: The Notion of God, Devil and the AntiGod). This fight between God and Evil as taught in the Western World diverged greatly from the core of the Meru Culture. In their originality, the Sumerian core belief was based on primordial powers in the form of a spectrum of seven potential energies of Manora (Manu-la). In their original setting, they were neutral until they were applied to the dynamic nature of the physical world. It was the kinetic energy (Karma in Buddhist terminology) induced from the wrong application of cosmic powers that cause suffering. Unlike God' s energy that is neutral, karma has two different effects of bad and good outcomes. What need to guard against is the bad Karma that is induced by sin or immorality. Even the Red Energy, often labeled as the Kala (bad) energy, is still considered as neutral among its peers. At the critical moment that the Ten Commandments were grossly ignored, humanity wondered how God allows suffering to happen under his watch. Both Christians and atheists alike often asked when God is coming to save the world from current crises. Even though the question induces different meaning relatively to the view of each camp on God' s existence, the answer is that God' morale code is always been here. Jesus Christ had been known to sacrify his life to restore God' s morale code back in the Jewish community but was condemned instead for his good deed. After his death, Christianity used the crucification as an escape route to bypass God' s moral code (or dharma) altogether. It became one of the common mistakes (among God' s worshippers) on emphasizing upon God' s grace more than his morale code. Unlike a God' s promise that expired after it was fulfilled, God' s moral code is timeless and stays to prove his existence. It is up to humanity to exercise its responsibility on its own discretion to improve its spirituality. Consistent to the fact that the God of Abraham was no longer dwelling on earth, Buddhism emphasizes on God' s Morale Code in its core teaching. In Hinayana Buddhist doctrine, men are created in such way that they do not need God if immorality do not corrupt them. In other way of saying, God has no role in enforcing self-discipline. Buddha Gautama had advised (to his follower) to emphasize on his dharma instead of worshipping him. Applying to Christianity, Buddhism conveys that the repentance worked only if it leads to the start of a self-disciplinary action. Buddhism also taught that unlike the Devil who could be locked up in the abysses, Mara (Antichrist in Christianity) could be born at any time during the decline of morality. The practical lesson is that one should set himself on guard against bad Karma and by doing so prevent MArA from interfering in his or her own actions. Only through this discipline that a human being could build up his own merit that will propel him into the next stage of salvation. According to true Hinayana Buddhist doctrine, any human being is possessing internally the same Godly potential that could work-out toward attaining enlightenment (Notes: The holding Ground of Hinayana Buddhism). On the other hand, Mahayana schools adopted Hinduist view of emphasizing on building own merit as a way to get God' s blessing. Both schools agree that men alone were responsible for their own action and could work to reduce their karma through self-discipline (Notes: The Buddhist Law of Karma). While the Law of Karma was originally focusing on ultimate personal salvation, its practice could be extended to the salvation of the whole humanity as well. Christianity might not share the same view, but agrees that sins were the source of sufferings and are already too strong for humanity to deal with them on its own.
Of Religion vs Science
In the monopoly game where winning is crucial for surviving, the practical concept of righteousness, ethically taught by ancient religious school had been tossed aside as outdated or inadequate. Coincidentally enough, it happened during the decline of the Meru Culture. In the Hindu mythology Siva was a God of creation, but the Meru Culture that was created by him was actually evolved from Brahmanism and was itself subjected to the law of evolution. While its conception was built on absolute truth, its practices are on the other hand subjected to the relative changing of circumstances in relation to time and space. After Meru exited Middle East, the Abrahamic schools made their best to carry on the left over of his heritage. Bad practices however were the main cause of the deviation of each school 's own version from its original core (of the Meru Culture) and consequently caused the current misunderstanding between themselves. To make the matter worst, each school is close to its own belief or bias view resulting in a deep mutual mistrust. Under the canopy of the Christian churches, catholism flourished along side European development in astrology and alchemy. A movement called the enlightenment (Lumiere in French) was formed in France around the 10th century to guide the foundation of knowledge through a rigorous discipline known later as the scientific rationality (Note: The Scientific Rationality). One of its iconic breakthroughs was a new model of the universe that placed the Sun rather than the Earth at the center of the universe. With the new invention of telescope, scholars were able to observe the sky and took astronomy off the ancient disciplinary of astrology by a more rigorous scientific method of observation. On the same development, other branches of science were formed and put to use for humanity' s insatiable need for materialism. Detaching themselves from the churches, scholars used empirical method to work on their own term and dedicated their work to themselves. The result was staggering as Science and technology became apparently Europe' s Biggest achievement that stood out during the latest of human development. For the conservative church's laymen whose status depended upon the acceptance of their communities to sustain their popular support, the movement became a threat to their absolute authority. Needless to say, harassment had been made to discourage scientific works that appeared not only valuable to scientific discovery, but became a revolution to free themselves from the control of the church as well. The incident of Galileo Galilei (1564 - 1642) being punished because of his support for the scientific discoveries that were deemed as heresies by the Catholic churches, became since an iconic event of scientific movement to promote scientific method as the only way to acquire knowledge. Their success had set the way for another worldly development that brought new knowledge to be screened through scientific rationality. Specialized schools or institutions were formed to concentrate on scientific application and in the process limited their scope only to scientific discovery. It created by itself another system of belief of which the base of modern core policy was made to seat reality on scientific rationality alone. To counterattack the dominance of the churches, they look for ways to discredit religious faith. In the name of science, they went ahead to discredit and discard theologies that could not be proved by scientific methods as fallacies. Some schools went head-on denying everything that had been accepted in the past while others went further attacking the core of already established religious believes. With no adequate assurance provided to support their theory, they went ahead concluding that the supernatural world simply does not exist. Due to their lack of support argument in the statement, scientists could be as irrational as religious laymen are. To make the matter worst, this secular view had also led to a different kind of bad practice. Disconnected themselves completely from the past, scientists started to claim themselves as the precursor of western civilization. New generation had been taught in such a way that science owed nothing to the religious institution of the past, but to a few Greek philosophers and scientists whose works happened to fall outside of religious scope. From here on, it appears that religion and science went on separate ways and in the worst case scenario became antagonist. It is important to note that during all this time, Buddhism continued on the Meru tradition in curbing bad faiths and practices. Its rational approaches moreover conveyed scientists to see Buddhism as being more of a philosophy than a religion. On their bias view about God, they accepted Buddhism as compatible with science mostly because it does not emphasize God in its core of rationality. However the scientific acceptance of Buddhism could not go beyond its own scientific limitation. Based on the fact that spirituality is also important for humanity as well as its physical nature, Buddhism left open logistic proven core of religious believes to coexist with the Buddhist rationality.
Of Religion vs Politic
Continuing on the feud between the scientific institution, a group of scholars and politicians started to form themselves as the driver of modern European humanity. Due to their rejection of the religious dogma observed by the Catholicism, they classified their believes and core policy as agnosticism. Of its restricted sense, the group's identity is about their sate of ignorance on the nature of God of which Christianity was based upon. In practice however, it could mean a freedom fight against the church' s authority on humanity to be based on the name of God. Their main goal was at first to eliminate all religious obstruction in the scientific development, but along the way was to curb altogether religious role in public institution. In politic where the churches had full control over the state since the start-up of Catholicism, the movement took another turn in encouraging new generation of power-elite to detach themselves from the control of the Church laymen. Even though the concept of the separation between religion and state was not yet fully fermented, western nations had already abandoned religious guidance for conducting the state affair (notes: Science vs Atheism). The policy was considered revolutionary since through the late stage of conservative dilemma, it was mostly the religious institutions that run the state affair and they were well known of the unholy business behind their faith. Nevertheless, their revolution did not stop there. In the high of their might, European superpowers were looking for ways to expand their control over the world. Common to all colonial policy, European leaders went head-on challenging the religious conception of sins that is critical to the way of which result is achieved. The slogan "the result justifies the mean" became known as a modern day mantra for current practices of the world politic. The Buddhist teaching of moderation that was intended to minimize the side effect of bad Karma was then portrayed as a pathway to failure. It marked the beginning of a new movement that aimed at curbing religious interference on business activities that were carried on by the aristocratic societies. With the strength of capitalism, new power elite emerged from the aristocracy 's class and asserted themselves into the politic of the state normally reserved for nobility. With their optimistic approach, they claimed the whole world as their own. A new era of conservative policy then started and it was not the religious discipline that was to be preserved, but the new aristocratic societies formed with their own revolutionary perception. The first to start its impact on humanity is the concept of Democracy, which in its purest form, was emphasizing on the conception of state decision making and legislator, to be based on majority of popular vote or support. Evidences show through history that without strong enforced morality, democracy was often subjected to manipulation. It started with the French revolution that, by eliminating the monarchy, is said to give the state power decision making to the people. Evidences show instead that it was the new emerging French aristocrats who grabbed the state power for themselves while the poor Frenchmen were left to their own destiny. Inducted into believing that democracy was meant to give them the chance to run the state affair, they played the critical role in the drive for the bloody revolution. After a series of genocidal fighting for power, Napoleon Bonaparte emerged as the first ruler of France ever to receive strong gratification from the French people. Nevertheless, we could see that the popular support for him is due mostly to the success of his military career during which time he mostly stayed in battlefield nurturing his ambitious campaign for the world conquest. The next European leader who received the same level of popular support was Hitler. Following the success story of Napoleon, he built the Gestapo as a war machine to become the world class army that was second to none. Bringing Germany into a New World military power, Hitler became the icon of a New successful leadership style ruling over Europe. Despite of his defeat, he still inspired many world leaders of today through his policy to base national pride on a strong army and the victory from battlefield. He also proved to us that with proper manipulation, democracy can go in par along with dictatorship. Echoing the Darwinish natural selection process, Hitler's policy is being widely observed by superpowers of today. As time passed by, Big nations used their influence on small nations to become the power builder of international politic and to some extend the world' s policy maker. In this man-made selection process, stronger nations thrive in setting theirs own tune to conduct the world affair and weaker nations have to obtain protection from their Big brothers for their own survival. As they grew in numbers, rivalry took place and fragmentation of the world politic is what we have now.
A NEW PHASE OF THE AGE OF ENLIGHTMENT
In theory, the conception of Enlightenment is based on applying reasonment or rationality over irrational belief and bad faith. It was introduced by Buddhism based on the fact that Buddha Gautaman could attain Nirvana through his enlightenment. On their own development, scientific communities used rationality as a way to verify their scientific achievement. In practice, the conception got distorted along with time and diverged depending upon it was applied. Without going deeper into finding how the two discipline connected (Notes: The Spreat of Buddhism in Europe), we shall focus our study here on its immediate affect as it was applied by European societies as a whole.
The Birth of Modern Cosmology
On its own development, the enlightenment movement took a different turn after the clash with the Catholic Church. Amid the conflict, one group of scientists declared themselves as agnostic meaning that they had no knowledge in regard to the religious claim of God and his creation. Among their key figures, René Descartes was a French scholar to make his mark in the development of mathematics by inventing the Cartesian coordinate system that was named after him. With that invention he transfer classical geometry into the analytical tool that set the bridge between algebra and geometry to be used in the discovery of infinitesimal calculus and analysis. On its high impact application, the analytical geometry allowed scientists to verify their theory as inducted through the deterministic aspect of the causality law. It was through this mathematical rationality that Isaac Newton developed his law of universal gravitation out of the observed motions of the planets by previous astronomers. His mathematical model became since the basic building mechanism of our cosmos through the Cartesian representation of space and time (Notes: The Cartesian Representation of Space and Time), leading to the break through of Astronomy as a branch of science. Adding into its progression, Einstein formed his theory of relativity based on light travel and the interference of gravity on its trajectory. The direct implication is that what we see now is just an image of the past. While in a small domain of space and time, an observer could perceive at best reality, the theory implies that in a Bigger domain (of space and time), reality often gets distorted. This is because along its path other causes might interfere into its traveling image (Notes: Relative vs Absolute Truth). The discrepancy led Einstein to develop a scientific methodology known as thought experiment to improve human perception over what they called the cosmos. The result is staggering as many predictions that he made had been verified through scientific mean. On the same development, cosmology was conceived as another branch of science. While making progress in many arenas, this new methodology still fails to verify many theories that were derived from Einstein' s relativity; one of which is the existence of the black hole (Notes: The Existence of the Black Hole). Failing to realize that thought experiment had been practiced in the ancient world since the dawn of civilization, scientists recreated theories of their own to challenge ancient theology that was based on the existence of the supernatural world (Notes: The Existence of the Spiritual World). Many of the meditation techniques had been used by both the Hindu and Buddhist school in the development of cosmogony in the past and that relativity and the notion of space and time had been understood by both religious schools. The lack of the knowledge of Life that was common to agnosticism and to the western world in general might have been the reason why they did not recognize that the black hole could not be of this physical world. Still we have the reason to believe that Einstein and his colleagues knew then that they had stepped out of the domain of the natural science. The fact that he suddenly started to have insight of the God of Spinoza, convinces us that one way or another Einstein started to doubt about his atheist stance. On the other hand, his attempt to develop the general theory of electromagnetism that was proclaimed to be the theory of everything appeared to go nowhere. Working on the black hole, other scholars came to the conclusion that entities of this physical world including suns, galaxies and even the whole physical world (Notes: The Physical World vs the Universe) were one way or another controlled by a black hole. Knowing it or not, agnosticism had just prove the existence of the spiritual world and at the same time, validate the duality concept of the Gnostic church of Christianity. Still objected to the personal god of the Bible, evidences show that Einstein was inclined to believe in the pantheist manifestation of God through nature that constitutes the main characteristic of Brahmanism. Einstein' s view on pantheism led to the acceptance of Brahmanism to be growing among fellow scientists. Due to its core discipline of not emphasizing on God interference for salvation, Other scientists moreover were inclined to accept Buddhism in a close compatibility with science. Only theism that based its dogma on the teaching of Christianity that was mostly rejected, not only by scientific institutions but by other theist religious schools as well (Notes: Christianity vs other Religions). Through history, our study also confirms that theism in general is also true as supported by all religions that were derived from the Meru Culture. In exertion for the salvation, Christianity could also be classified a a derivative of the Meru Culture also. Once the Trinity of God intervention is fully understood and accepted, we have the reason to believe that there will be no more conflict in conception between scientific and religious institutions.
The Birth of new Ideologies
As we had seen, agnosticism had propelled the progression of science in a new direction as their discoveries had contributed to the birth of cosmology as a new branch of science. Unfortunately, this scientific discovery did not help to resolve the conflict between the scientific communities and the Christian church. Instead, As it is now, two camps of politicians emerged as the outcome of the fight between the church and the state. The right wing of which the conservative groups were formed, stayed faithful to Christianity. On the other hand, the left wing movement that was Known later as liberalism, went on attacking openly the church's credibility and used science as their logo in the fighting. To make the matter worst, both camps did not look for the complete resolution of theirs different view points, but capitalized instead on the conflict to promote their own political agendas. Behind the thick curtain of secrecy, both worked on strengthening their own political parties to take on the world for themselves. For the liberalism, Einstein's dilemma was conveniently ignored as the next theory of the Big-Bang would give them enough reason to toss aside the Catholic Church' s claim that God did create the universe. At the same time, they embarked on man-made revolutions that deemed to eliminate religious interference in the course of humanity altogether. On the same way that the catholic churches had tried to limit other views than their own out of concern about heresies, the liberalism tried to protect its ideology against opponents of different views. Little they know that they had committed the same mistake of the Catholic Church in regard to Science and Religion (Notes: Of Science vs Religion). Their revolutionary drive against the existing nobility and clergy, allowed members the bourgeoisie (of the market place) to turn themselves as the new emerging aristocrats in both the politic and economic arenas later in the history of Europe. Following the French revolution, feudality was virtually wiped out from Europe while revolutionary ideas had contributed to the birth of more and more radical ideologies, in the formation of government of the people. In 1848, the German philosophers Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels were commissioned by the Communist League to publish the Communist Manifesto that summarizes their own theories concerning the nature of society and politics. It features concerns mostly about their ideas on how to replace the capitalist society of the time with socialism. The Manifesto ends with the call for forcible overthrow of all existing social conditions that exploited the people and the justification for a worldwide communist revolution. The movement had been widely supported by many layers of European societies, but only until 1922 that a true communist nation was officially formed under the leadership of Vladimir Lenin along with the Communist International (Comintern, 1919-1943) that advocated world communism. The French Communist Party (PCF) was originated in 1920 by members resigned from the socialist French Section of the Workers' International party as part of the Communist International. The party entered the French parliament as the opposition party in promoting strike and opposing colonialism. In correlation with the comitern, the PCF supported the Popular Front to fight against the Fascist regime after 1934 and opposed the 1938 Munich agreement with Hitler. The party was banned as a result of the German-Soviet Non-aggression Pact, but reemerged after the German invasion of 1940 the party began to organize opposition to the occupation. Shortly before Germany invaded the Soviet Union the next year, the PCF reformed itself in May 1941 and stayed to play critical role inside the French government to come. On a different path, the commintern was abolished in 1943 by Stalin who, in a more practical approach, changed the party's mission in a more moderate drive against the new established aristocracy of the free world. Instead of committing to overthrow the international bourgeoisie and the creation of an international Soviet republic as a transition stage to the complete abolition of the state, the new policy called for each nation to start on its own initiative. Coincidentally enough, the Darwin's law of natural selection process gave the strong contenders their natural right to suppress their weaker contenders. In the "dog eats dog" s world, the law of the Jungle "the Big fish eat small fishes" rules supreme appears to induce Stalin in having doubt about the realizable of the communist doctrine of wealth sharing among men. While the Soviet Communist Party was on its revisionist campaign, a new form of socialism was promoted through out the New World order, apparently to be more compatible with the new scientific finding. In this new approach, Market socialism emphasized on allocation of capital goods between socially owned enterprises of which both initiatives of actions and generated profits would be controlled directly by the workforce. On the other hand, Non-market socialism aims in circumventing the inefficiencies and crises associated with capital accumulation and the profit system that involves the substitution of factor markets and money, with engineering and technical criteria. According to different economic laws that are supposed to yield best result for society, rather than for individuals.
Darwin' s theory of Evolution
With the decline of the church's authority, scientific discoveries set European scientific institution on the march against faith in general. Among the new dicovered theories, the Darwin' s theory of evolution received its immediate acceptance thanks liberalism. According to the theory, men and other living organism was the product of natural selection and the survival of any species lies on how they adapt to the surrounding resources. After a long journey of research on the island Galipagos, Darwin published the result of his observation in 1859. While the result could be seen as part of a scientific fact of microevolution, he included also in his publication the broad concepts of natural selection in the formation of species, without providing additional empirical assurance to its validity. Though the scope was restricted mostly on biological evolution, the atheist world had it extended immediately on the origin of life and on the conception of cosmic evolution as well. This mistake is typical of scientific communities when trying to induct special theory based on scientific facts to a general theory without any assurance other than the absence of objection from colleagues (Notes: The Natural Induction Process). At the time being, the Darwinism of natural selection on human kind became the driving force to challenge not only the Christian creationism, but other views including the intelligence design and extraterrestrial origins of life that had also suggested other possible causes in the formation of life on earth. The Buddhist Law of Evolution conveys that the conception of life is infinite, as it is not restricted to the physical causes only and that the evolution of the physical world is subjected to both continuos and catastrophic events. In that regard, the Darwinist law of evolution is not complete and applies empirically only to a domain of limited space and time. The inclusion of the broad concepts of evolution that predated his own theory however had led to the contemporary misconception of the origin of life as later formulated by the secular view. that according to the Buddhist teaching, became the primary cause of human suffering. Looking at its harmful effect that had already been done the Darwinist theory of natural selection brought humanity back to the phase one of its developments when the law of the jungle ruled supreme on both humankind and animal habitat. In that environment, it is clear that the human specie is winning the battle and set itself on top of its weaker competitors. As a result, wild animals are on the bring of extinction due mostly to the lost of their habitats. Vital resources that were once plentiful to sustain their lives are now deprived through the aggressive nature of humankind. Lucky enough, some still manage to survive not by chance or luck (Notes: The Notion of Luck), but by conscientious intervention from conservatism. Now that it is the human specie's turn to face the same Darwinist law of natural selection, luck alone could not be counted to save humanity from extinction. It came to the worst moment that capitalism, being seen as the propeller of prosperity, already took the best of humanity. As religion was perceived to be the source of pessimism, the separation of the state from religion became a catalyst for optimism that propel even more the success story of capitalism. In promoting greed, business communities started to look for alternative ways to free themselves from religious constraints (Notes: Religious View of Capitalism). They were assured from the secular think-tank that morality would come as natural as a human body being formed from the star-dust. A higher authority is not only inadequate to induce morality but also irrelevant in preventing catastrophic event to be caused by humanity from happening (Notes: The Religious Morality). The World War I however occurred to prove the opposite. According to religious teaching, sin or immorality was induced from bad practices or Karma into becoming the recipe for self-destruction. With no focus on common welfare, conflicts erupted and humanity locked itself into the spell of the war-torn destruction. By destroying each other out of the competition, only the strongest was expected to survive. It is clearly now that the natural selection process started to weight within their own kind. Instead of pulling itself or herself of the deadly conflict, each contender used pact and alliance to promote their own sense of security. As each one of the contenders tried to build its own circle of influence, Bigger scale of conflict and destruction occurred when war could not been averted. The world War I came and gone with unusual high impacts that had never been seen before in the history of human kind, still the western world had no clue that capitalism was one of its primary causes. With no objecting views against them, European superpowers continued to misuse capitalism on their monopoly game. After the war was over, the allies went back to rebuild their colonies, as nothing had mattered. With less competition in the way, opportunity was made more open for the winning party to cash in their rewards.
THE IMPACT ON SOUTHEAST ASIA
In a lawless world, Darwin's theory of natural selection applies perfectly to the jungle-like Southeast Asia after the colonization. While natives lost their will to fight for their countries, migrants took the opportunity to step-up fighting for their own account. Being by far the most westernized of the region, Coastal Chinese communities became crucial for foreign powers to seek helps in their ventures into Southeast Asia. From colonialization to Japanese invasion and later on to Maoist propagation, they served as the Southeast Asian factors for international conflicts to make their ways into Southeast Asia. During the next World War II, they were the only beneficiaries among other participants of the war.
The Southeast Asian Factors
After the re-establishment of the South China Sea trading route by the Ming Dynasty failed, Chinese settlers of Yueh background already infested Southeast Asia of their life-style. Taking the opportunity of the Ming's decline, they asserted their own authority in the sea venturing between the west and the east. It changed the whole control system that served the colonial rule ever since it was controlled by European superpowers through the colonial venture. The decline of Portugal and Spain would give England and France the opportunity to move in to establish their colonies in Southeast Asia. With the British India taking hold firmly on the politic and economy of India, Southeast Asia becoming colony of the two new aggressors was a matter of time. No one knew this better that Hue and Bangkok as they made themselves in subordination to the aggressive drive of the western world. While Hue lost most of its suzerainty under the French colonial regime, Ajudhya had to face its own hard time adjusting to colonial demands. Nevertheless, both courts had nothing to lose except of their dignity of which they had none, but only to gain by supporting the colonization. In contrast, the native Cambodians knew themselves that they could not fit into and benefit from the colonial environment (Notes: The Long Boat vs the Small Boat). With the help from the Viet nationalists, the French colonists transformed the French Cochinchina into South Vietnam by dismantling native feudal systems and changed Prey Nokor into becoming a Viet city of Saigon. By using their Cinicized subjects, the European colonists knew little or chose to ignore the effect of the codependency syndrome that was taking toll on their young protégés. In contrast to the less fortunate natives, they were promoted to be the new authority figures that carried through the colonial agenda. As the Westernization was strictly requiring their full cooperation, they became increasingly aggressive on the native even to surpass their masters. It was not all that codependency was about. While still waiting for the auspices moments, they were docile and cooperative. Along the way, they were able to strengthen their own colonial expansion on native communities of the mainland Indochina by diverting the colonial strength for their own advantage. On its own ambitious drive, Bangkok followed the same policy to subdue the whole Siam country into its control.
Of Confucius background, they knew that superpowers do not last long. Confucianism is always right about the changing of the world politic as the consequence of the Yin-Yang cosmology. In a highly competitive world, European nations started on quarreling for their supremacy. Even though World War I ended without much impact on Southeast Asia, they did not have to wait long for the next opportunity to come by. World War II soon started with its subsequent impact on both the European countries and their native colonies, giving opportunity for the new power elite to start on their own hidden drive. Adding into their fortune, Japan 's new interest in the imperial drive gave Bangkok and Hue additional support that they needed. Evidences of Japanese interference in the Siam Court started as early as in the reign of King Ekathotsarath (1605-1620) of Ayudhya (The Kingdom of Siam: The Last of the Ayudhyan Court: The Reign of King Ekathotsarath). On the other hand, the court of Hue' s interaction with Japan could be traced since the reign of king Nuyen Phuc Tan (1648-1687) when the latter handed over a princess to the Japanese Emperor (The Birth of Vietnam: The Nam-Tien or the Vietnamization down South: The Court of Hue). The two incidences prove that Japan already made itself known among new players of the southern sea trade business and was already on its way to assert itself into the global affair. After the fall of the Shogunate, a new national leadership of the following Meiji period transformed the isolated feudal island country into an empire that closely followed Western models and became a great power. Through contact with the west, Japan became the first Asian country to be westernized and the only Asian country to participate in the First World War. Under the same westernization, a group of politicians brought and spread western ideologies into Southeast Asia in the bet for benefiting from the international ideological conflict. Among them, Ho-Chi-Ming was not a communist by faith, but was a nationalist who saw in communism the opportunity to carry on his personal ambition. During his political career abroad he had approached both the communist bloc and the free world for works as a free agent. Even though his proposals were mostly rejected. Still the commintern used him to promote its own hidden agenda and in the process allowed him to accomplish his goal. The most notable credit to the International Communist Party was his help to create the French Communist Party (PCF) and his own formation of the Indochinese Communist Party (ICP).
The Indochinese Communist Party
Born Nguyen Sinh Cung, the founder of the Indochinese Communist Party had as many aliases as the number of changes of his political career. Nguyen Ái Quoc was the last alias known when he was a member of the Viet Nationalist along the line of the Communist International Party. He was known to be an insider of the French Communist Party (PCF) and actively participating in its creation. As the leader of the ICP, he was not particularly of high academic background, let alone of Communist doctrine. Nevertheless his pragmatic background had served him well. In addition to Confucianism, his scholarship at the Lycee Quoc-Hoc and his experiences through out his early life at the western world provided him with a practical mind-set that was well suit particularly to handle the Cold War. Unlike other Viet nationalists, he saw the emergence of communism as the true opportunity for the Nam-Tien project. It was him who, in a meeting at Hongkong, laid plans to unite factionalist Viet Communist parties in 1929-30. They presented labor, peasants, women and youth. The party was named at first "Vietnamese Communist Party" but changed its name later to "Indochinese Communist Party" (ICP), probably at Moscow' s order (DrAscend: To Love our Domination: P. 97). His first approach to the commintern clearly failed to achieve its goal. In his 1927 essay, he confronted the basic dilemma the party of the proletariat in an agriculturist country (Anatomy of a war: the communist party until 1945: P. 26). In his argument, he came to Leninism via the colonial question to justify the drive of the Communist party of Vietnam. Nevertheless, it did not impress Stalin whose new political drive had already diverged from the Leninist doctrine. On a collision course with the Free World, Stalin extended the Soviet Union to cover very much Eastern Europe based solely on the concept of the proletariat class' s struggle. Ho' s proposal sounded more like an invitation for Russia to take on the extended protecting role on Indochina from the French Colonial rule. As Stalin was in the process of consolidating the Soviet Union, Ho' s proposal could have adverse effect on Russia' s European alliance. With great audacity, Ho publicly excoriated the Western European Communist parties for their indifference to the issue. He argued that even the democratic bourgeois revolution could not succeed in isolation. What he meant was that colonialization was not finished and that the Cold War was really all about a new form of dependency control. Failing in his first attempt to set Vietnam as member of the Comintern, Ho went ahead to launch the Indochinese Communist Party (ICP), apparently under the total supervision of the Commintern Party. Condemned by both left and right Viet nationalist groups, the party was seen as anti-Viet nationalist since it was mirroring the concept of the French Union of Indochina. Weathered through early Vietnamese doctrinal disputes, the party gradually emerged from the shadow. Leaders of native tribesmen, who were in a sense the true peasants of Indochina, took no time to join in the coalition. Perhaps to avoid confronting the Comintern, Ho kept himself in the background that turned out to be a good safety measure for him to avoid French cracking down on the movement. He allowed all the party directive measures to be ran by recruited minority leaders who saw it as an opportunity to free themselves from the oppression of the colonial rule. Under their own initiatives, they were enthusiastic and took no time to start campaigning against France. During the popular front period (1936-38), they had published extensively propaganda pamphlets and started to recruit new members from rural as well as urban background. To further strengthen its position, the party issued its first resolution in the defense of its association with Russia. It argued that since September 1938, Britain and France had been maneuvering to embroil the Soviet Union in a war with Germany. As a result, the resolution suggested that everyone would become embroiled in the new global war, whether they liked it or not. In all likelihood the apocalypse would extend to Indochina since the Japanese had already occupied Hainan and the Sprattly Island offshore. It predicted that America would push their people in the fighting against the imperialist Japan, which in most likelihood had been active in its own war' s expansion in the Far East. The resolution then concluded that for the welfare of humanity, oppressed nations would start to fight back and the global war would weaken the imperialists and strengthen the international revolutionary movement. Done perhaps under the direction of the Comintern, the resolution catches the unwanted attention of the French authority. In September 1939, the party was facing its first serious setback. Following the Nazi-Soviet pact and France' s declaration of war on Germany, the French colonial authority decided to destroy the ICP and stopped other left wing activities once for all inside the colony (Viet: The Communist Party and the Vietminh: Setbacks in 1939-1940: P. 163). The crackdown was swift and the ICP losses were very high (Notes: The ICP' s Casualty). With most of the leaders of the minority groups eliminated, the ICP soon succumbed. Ho-Chi-Minh took the opportunity to form his own party and named it the Vietminh in 1945, using the ICP 's resolution as his own.
- HSEA: A history of Southeast Asia, by D.G.E. Hall
- FPCC: The French Presence in Cochinchina and Cambodia, By Miltone E. Osborne
- FIndo: French Indochina, by Verginia Thompson
- IHIF: Iconographie Historique de L' Indochine Francaise, Documents sur l' histoire de l'intervention Francaise en Indochine, By Paul Boudet et Andre Masson
- CIUP: Communist Indochina and U.S.Foreign Policy: Postwar Realities, by Joseph J. Zasloff and MacAlister Brown
- Viet: Vietnam 1945: The Quest for Power, by David G. Marr
- HCam: A History of Cambodia, By David Chandler
- Thai: Thailand: A short History, by David K Wyatt
- Einst: Einstein: The Life and Times, by Ronald W. Clark
- OHW: The Oxford illustrated History of modern War, Edited by Charles Townshend
- WWI: The World War I, Wikipedia
- WWII: The World War II, Wikipedia
- PD: The Political Detention, By Bunchan Mol
1789: The fall of the Bastille; 1793: Louis XVI was guillotined; 1818-1881: karl Max formed the concept of Communism; 1838-1858: Darwin developed the concept of "natural selection" based on the theory of evolution; 1863: King Norodom signed the Franco-Cambodian treaty; 1862: Napoleon III gave French colonist authorization to invade Vietnam; 1860-1904: The reign of King Norodom; 1863: King Norodom signed the Franco-Cambodian treaty; 1905: Albert Einstein published the theory of special relativity; 1914-1918: World War I; 1922: The birth of the Soviet Union under the leadership of Lenin; 1929-30: Ho-Chi-Minh formed the Viet Communist Party; 1932: Franklin D. Rosevelt (Democrat) became president of USA; 1933: Hitler became chancellor of Germany; 1939-1945: World War II;
- The Research of the Aryan Root
Many research teams had been formed first by the colonial regime and later by the fascist regime to locate the Aryan root. They all came to the conclusion that Europe was the home base of Aryan development. While the statements were relatively true in connection to the European development during the last two millennium, they were nothing more than illusion if applied in a Bigger domain of Space and Time. As a matter of fact, we shall argue that European civilization was not the product of the Aryan Culture and rather of its dark side.
- The Sources of the world Misery
After the two world wars had come to pass, humanity is still trying to make sense of the human suffering. Many religious schools, including Christianity, relegate the cause to Satan or the Devil and in the worst case to God himself. The opponents of the theist view, on the other hand, attributed the events as of natural selection process and use humanity' s imperfection as a proof to deny God creation. Buddhism furthermore hints that Karma is the source cause of suffering and that humanity had to work to prevent it from happening again.
- The four noble Truths
In Buddhist teaching, the four noble truths consist of birth, maturity, old age/disease and death. These truths persisted on all living thing of the Meru universe. As an entity itself, humanity is also subjected to same truths. Of each creation, the Meru Culture taught us that humanity had been guided through the trinity of God' s interference. Brahmanism started first to take care of the birth. Sivaism came next to take care of its maturity. Last and not least, Buddhism would take care of its old age and disease in the preparation for its death and salvation.
- The Notion of God, Devil and the AntiChrist
In western cosmogony, God and Devil were two antagonist powers and were constantly in fight. Consorting with the Evil spirit, the Antichrist was an entity who, through his earthly power, challenged God' s will and destroyed God' s work. Satan who once resisted God' s will by refusing to bow before Adam, was often wrongly associated by the western world to the Devil itself. In Meru Culture, MArA is synonymous to the Antichrist (or AntiMeru) of the western culture.
- The holding Ground of Hinayana Buddhism
According to the Mahavamsa, the Nagadvipa was the place that the four Buddhahood cycles had been started and completed. The reason of Buddha Gautama to choose Indochina as the holding Ground of Hinayana Buddhism was because it is basically where arahatship could be attained without supernatural interference.
- The Buddhist Law of Karma
7-Science vs Atheism?
Buddha Gautama hinted that ignorance or misunderstanding is the prime cause of current humanity' s suffering. In his teaching, Buddha Gautama emphasized the Law of Karma to be taught in the Buddhist discipline as a guidance for humanity to avoid unnecessary suffering. In that note, we call for the secular world, as well as other branches of the Meru Culture to be more open to the Buddhist law od Karma that could be integrated in any discipline curriculum to extend humanity' s understanding far beyond the scientific scope of the natural selection rule.
- The Spread of Buddhism in Europe
In Buddhist tradition, the effort of king Ashoka in promoting Buddhism worldwide was more successful in the east than in the west. However evidences show that some aspect of Buddhist Culture had been adopted there along side the Paganism. From the fact that the gods Varuna and Mittra were invoked in a close connection to the god Aryaman, we believe that Europe owed their past heritage to the two offspring of the Meru Culture. While Varuna ruled over eastern Europe through Greece in contribution to the Helenistic civilization, Mittra ruled over the western Europe through Rome in contribution to the Estrucan civilization.
- The Cartesian Representation of Space and Time
The conception of the classical three-dimensional space could be modeled in the Cartesian representation of space by three reference axes. It was extended to include the ax of time as the fourth dimension to represent the dynamic physical world of the Newtonian classical cosmology. In the Meru cosmogony, time (Kala) is more that an ax for reference as it represented one of the four divinities to hold on the edge of the Meru Plane.
- Relative vs Absolute Truth
In general, the relative theory could also be applied to the overall conception of reality through other natural sense and perception as well. The theory led to the conclusion that we as humankind can only experiment relative truth and could never know the absolute3 truth. True as it might be, the premise has also its exception. As Einstein led the way, a group of scientists found in though experiment a complementary to the empirical method in achieving better reality. Hindu used the same method to attain higher truth since the get-go of humanity, On the other hand, Buddhism has its own stricter discipline to attain complete enlightenment.
- The Existence of the Black Hole
Astronomer had verified objects in the sky that fit the definition of the black hole, which gravity absorbed everything around it including light. In correlation to the Big Bang theory, it was assumed to be the main cause of the formation of our own cosmos. Through its effect, scientific community knew that the black hole exist. Nevertheless, the existence of its natural state is not scientifically verified. Through mathematical rationality, scientific communities hoped to prove its existence as a reality. The problem lays on the mathematical finding that the black hole only exists in singular form outside of the natual world (The Man Race: Notes: The Fishy Truth).
- The Existence of the Spiritual World
The existence of the Black hole outside of our conception of space and time confirm that another world (or worlds) also exists beside our natural or physical world. Called either as the Unnatural, the Unphysical, the Supernatural or the Spiritual world or any other name, this world contains the black hole that according to scientific claim is the main cause of the Big Bang. In that respect, the Big Bang' s theory confirms religious claim that spirit is the source of life (even for the physical world itself). Yet, it does not validate the theory of the creation of the universe as being currently stated.
- The Physical World vs the Universe
Due to the lack of knowledge of the physic and spirit duality, the scientific institution treats the universe to be the same as the physical world. When dealing with multiverse as a collection of universes, Eintein 's general relativity leads to the misconception of space and time interconnection. In Buddhist cosmology, the seven spiritual worlds were modeled as parallel planes with each one having its own time and space dimension and no interception. In this presentation, the universe is one and contains both physical and spiritual worlds. The Nirvana plane is the only permanent plane of the universe.
- Christianity vs other Religions
Christianity is the only one western religion that separates the intervention of God through his reincarnation. Through its own conception of the Trinity of which the Godfather and his son had the same godlike spirituality, it offended Jadaism and Islam of their belief that God is one. Nevertheless, the Catholic Church rejected the teaching of the duality of physic and spirit by the Ngostic church as a form of heresy. It turns out that the conception of spirituality intermingling with the physical world is what the Meru knowledge of Life is based upon. One way or another, the Gnostic church had possessed and retained this core concept of the Meru Culture while other Abrahamic schools already lost most of their originality. Derived from the Meru Culture, Sivaism and Buddhism also based their cosmology on dualism.
- Of Science vs Religion
Science is a set of knowledge gained through observation and rigorously verified through empirical rationality. On the other hand, religion is a system of belief on the cause of nature and the purpose of the universe gained through transcendental meditation. The dilemma arises when scientists try to cover the domain of religion using empirical (scientific) method as a mean to secure its scientific reality. At the same time, religious laymen make a claim that religion is based on scientific facts. The separation of the spiritual from the natural world suggests that science and religion should have separate domain to fit the method used either through emrical or transcendental meditation to secure their own realities. In any case there should not be contradiction.
- The Natural Induction Process
The Natural Induction or simply Induction was a process on generalizing scientific facts into an abstract law or concept, according to the universal Law of Cause and Effect. Applying to scientific application, empirical method could be applied to provide assurance of the validity of the law on some of the case studies that are deducted from the law. On a higher application of which the empirical method does not apply, though experiment is used to check the validity of the theory. In any cases, contradiction should not exist against known facts and other valid theories. The lack of objection could be counted as passing the contradiction criteria with other findings of different source, but is not complete to assure the validity of the law.
- The Notion of Luck
To the scientific world, luck or chance is associated to the void. Through mathematical rationality, probability might prove that the complexity of the contributing factors or causes of such event is high for human understanding. To the Buddhist rationality, luck or chance is (the same as other unpredictable events) the effect of either unseen, or hidden, or unknown (to the current comprehensiveness of humanity) causes.
- Religious view of Capitalism
In the early Meru environment, members of the human species used natural resources as much as they needed to sustain life and when they died they left everything back to the earth for recycling. Greed was then totally banned along side with other sins. As part of the Tree of Life, knowledge had been created along the path of humanity' s progression to cope with the natural environment. The alchemy of which science and technology had been derived from, provided humanity with mean of self procurement that was yet under tight control of religious morality. Under the Meru Culture, capitalism is actually resulted from greed.
- The Religious Morality
Most atheists mistook the act of kindness of the dominant monkey sharing the banana with his female entourage to be the same as a religious morality. According to Buddhist teaching, animals also have the same spiritual connection and need as human do. It could be the same if the male monkey is capable of spiritual understanding that his kindness should not be rewarded for his own physical or natural need. In any case, there is a deep distinction between morality gained through experience (of a natural process) and religious morality gained through unconscious mind.
- The Long Boat vs the Small boat
Cambodians had an expression that better describes their mentality of" the long boat". It means that with all the rigorous discipline gained from past culture, they could not cope with the modern time' s natural selection process. The Cambodian long boat works best on stable water of a rather calm lake, but could not compete with the small boat or canoe that works best in the rapid current of a turbulent creek. Dignity, personal-honors and free-spirit were some among Cambodian traits that were inherited from the feudal system of the past that became major drawbacks during the colonial rule.