The Man Race
Project: The Man Race
Author: Lem Chuck Moth
Started date: May/01/2009
Last updated: April/01/2016
All right reserved.
Since this paper is still drafted, the readers would be advised to ignore any context errors. The content is not final and subjected to be reviewed.
The Mnong are of ethnic Khmer-Mon stock, and like other tribesmen of Southeast Asia, are remnants of ancient societies that predated the Great Flood. Another ethnic Khmer-Mon stock, the Stiengs claim that they were the only tribesmen inhabiting Southern China in the ancient time. The claim implicates that all Khmer-Mon tribesmen were the same as the Tian people of the Tian-Shan range. The fact that the Mnong' s dialect is closely related to the Stiengs suggests that they were once lived close by each other (Prey Nokor: The Kingdom of Hiong-Wang: The formation of Jinnan). Elaborating the Stieng' s account about homogenous culture back in the ancient time, the Mnong have an interesting account that originally, men lived with animals and spoke the same language.
Life was wonderful and perfect in those days. Men and animals lived together and talked with each other. Then a great catastrophe came; some says a huge flood. After that, men ceased living with the animals and talking with them; they have lived separately ever since. (MGRV: The Mnong: Legendary History)
This story is controversial and does not make sense if we do not know about the recent theory of evolution that affirm the derivation of hominoid from primate, not only in physical anatomy but also in psychology as well. Our knowledge of DNA' s classification also reveals that men and animals shared a big part of genes at the start. The theory of evolution also confirms the Mnong' s assertion of human evolution to be linked with their life-style and environment. From the time that Human natural living diverged from the Animal' s habitat, it is fair to say that the human race was created. The Mnong' s tradition went further to assert that the diversion (between men and animals) came later and that it took a catastrophic event to make the change. As the Hoabinhian Culture already attained its advanced stage prior to the Great Flood, the Mnong' s huge flood could not be the same flood as remembered by Southeast Asian tribesmen (Prehistory: The Hoabinhian Culture: The Cultural Factor). It must to be another one that happened in the deep past and as the Mnongs remember it, they themselves must to be survivors of that flood. The Mnong' s statement is powerful as well as informative that requires us to review back what we knew about ourselves.
The Theory of Evolution
From Darwin' s findings, it is implied that the evolution by natural selection plays important role in the formation of human specie. Despite all the missing links, the theory was so far accepted as the only scientific explanation of human existence. While some theologians rejected the theory because of its contradiction against ancient religious wisdom (that God created men), Buddhism had its own law of evolution to explain the life' s creation of this universe. A close derivative of the causality law, the Buddhist law of evolution extended the conceptual evolution of living organism to all existence of the Universe (The Western Civilization: Notes: The Causality Law). The difference with Darwin' s theory is that the Buddhist law of evolution includes a broader range of causes (of change) than of restricted natural selection and that revolution also plays important role in the changing course of the evolution itself. In that sense, we classify a revolution as also an evolution with a new start. As asserted by the Mnong' s story, a catastrophic event was seen present during the transition (Notes: The Cause of Catastrophic Events). Concerning the development of human specie, catastrophic events were accounted along side its recent and deep past history. Using scientific methods of today, many of the accounts had proved themselves to be real and could be treated as part of sciences. Nonetheless, many others still stayed as myths because of their supernatural connection. For instance, the Great Flood of Southeast Asia was in fact responsible for the conception of the contemporary Man culture of today and through the claims of the natives, was directed by the god-king Samanta. As the Man civilization progress, many recollections of catastrophic events were compiled into basic core of religious believes. In conclusion, it is clear that natural selection alone is not enough to evolve the human specie to its current form and its modern adopted life-style of to day. We shall look at humanity' s course of transformation from its debut (after the Great Flood at the footstep of Himalayas) to its current stage. On the same premises, we shall also look into contemporary religious belief (on God' s interference) in its development through both the notion of evolution and revolution. Based on this general law of evolution, we induct that what is called human creation is actually an infinite series of evolution (or revolution) that did not only shape the physical body of men apart from animals, but also theirs mentality as well.
THE HUMAN CIVILIZATION
Cambodians use the word "Aryathor" as a translation of the western word civilization. Derived from the Sanskrit word Aryadharma (arya-dharma) meaning the Aryan law (or Aryan rule), the word has a special meaning for the western lexicon of civilization. By this definition, a civilized society must to start with a set of noble laws that characterize its constitution. The oldest law known of today was, according to both Hindu and Buddhist folklore, is the law of Manu. It was the constitution of the early civilization named after the first initiator of Human Culture known of today. Since it was conceived at the footstep of Himalayas, the Man culture stayed into becoming the backbone of human civilization of our current kappa (Notes: A Buddhist Kappa).
The Eden of the Man Culture
The Chinese word "Man" was known at first in Chinese records, in reference to race of people of southern origin. It was the transcription of the Sanskrit word "Man" referring to the primordial Manu of the human race. It was meant to be a reference (in the Sumerian tradition) to the Man rulers descended from the line of the legendary king Samantha. In conjunction to the Buddhist law of evolution, the Man tradition recognized the progression of their culture as due to a higher authority or spiritual benefactor called Yang. On its specific meaning, it was a reference for a "king" but had a spiritual connection to a higher authority (often referred as the god-king) than that of the conventional King. For instance, Yang Bot could be identified as the primordial Buddhisatva of the Buddhist cosmology and Yang Gia could be identified as the Mother Earth Kia of the Sumerian Cosmogony. We shall argue that the concept of the living-god or Man in modern religious schools was formulated around the deep tradition of the spiritual Yang Kings. As told in indigenous stories, their involvement in humanity was often compared to the loving care of the father toward his children that became known as a basic trait of the Yang Spirits. Another important of their characters was their ingenuity and their responsibility to bring-up the native tribesmen into becoming the first of the world' s civilized societies. As we had seen, this tradition contradicts the western conception of the Mon-Khmer identity to be associated to a subgroup of the Austroasiatic speaking natives of Southeast Asia (Prehistory: The Hoabinhian Culture: The Language Factor). As both the Khmer and the Mon identities were not native and were actually resulted from the Indianization of Southeast Asia, the Mon-Khmer conception had so far created confusion between the two peoples (Dvaravati: Notes: The Dvaravati' s Culture). Even though it had yielded to many important findings in regard to the Angkorean Culture later in the history of Southeast Asia, we had argued that the Mon-Khmer language had been evolved in many stages from its original Hoabinhian Culture. As people, the Mon-Khmer natives were actually the survivors of the great flood who through the loving care of king Samanta became the progenator of a new human race to spread around the world. Unlike the Austronesian or the Proto-Malay people who ventured out earlier from the Himalayas footstep, the rest of the flood survivors stayed put at the footstep of mount Himalayas waiting patiently for the flood to subside. At the mean time, they were inducted later by Manu to incur in a rigorous training by members of the Yang kings. It started with the introduction of agriculture that propel their civilization to a new level apart from their original hunting and gathering life style. The Rangao tribesmen moreover remembered that a goddess named Yang Xori introduced the rice plantation to them.
One day while Yang Xori went on her way to participate in a Rengao sacrifice, she saws some tribesmen digging roots to eat. She took pity of them and gave them rice seed to plant. Henceforth, rice was the basic Rengao crop and the chief staple of their diet. (MGRV: The Rangao: Legendary History)
Unlike root crops such as Taro or Yam, rice requires elaborate process to grow and to husk before it can be cooked as meal. But once harvested, rice could be kept yearlong if stored properly, which allow the tribesmen to involve with other activities that enhanced their life-style. Evidences show that the rice crop became then the main staple of the Khmer-Mon Tribesmen. Its cultivation, including soil processing and elaborate irrigation, had led to the next progression of agriculture in the next human civilization (Notes: The wet rice). The rice plantation was crucial among many factors in making humanity becoming self-sufficient and became creative in the long run. In the next development, we shall see that the eastern footstep of Himalayas became the cultural base of humanity, close enough to the Eden of the Man Culture as portrayed in various religious theme that spread along with the Man Culture. One important factor was that as part of the tropical region, Southeast Asia was naturally the orchard of many wild crops that became major staples for human consumption. In that beginning, the garden already provided variety of tropical fruit trees that became most of Southeast Asian food source. Matching the Garden of Eden in the western religious school' s cosmology, we shall see that Southeast Asia was also the birthplace of the next human civilization as well. In consistency with the book of Genesis, anthropology would find in Southeast Asia not only an orchard of natural fruit trees for human physical nourishment but also a forest of cultural knowledge made available for the development of their mentality as well.
Manu the Great
As the first progenator of the man civilization, Manu was known in Buddhist tradition as Mahasamanta. The association of the Sanskrit word "Maha" to his name reflects the ancient Kamara tradition of calling him "the Great Manu" or "Manu the Great".
As the Man culture spread, it is expected that his name be also recognized around the world. Apparently the Sumerian royal title "the Big Man" translated by modern scholars from the Sumerian pictographic script was meant instead to be "the Great Man" that supposed to be an attribution to his character and not to his physical appearance. According to the Buddhist cosmogony, Mahasamanta built-up his kingdom at Baranasi where he started a long lineage that included many great kings and religious figures in the ancient past (Notes: The Kingdom at Baranasi). His exploit and contribution to humanity had been recorded in many ancient chronicles. A list of his direct descendants that was later copied down into the Xiang-Mai chronicle constituted a lineage as followed (CMC: The succession of kings: P. 1):
The son of Mahasamanta was named Vararaja. The son of Vararaja was named Varoja or Kalyana. The son of Kalyana was named Varakalyana. The son of Varakalyana was named Ubositha. The son of Ubositha was named Vara-ubosatha. The son of Vara-ubosatha was named Mandhatu.
Through out the list, we could recognize kings by the name of places, cities or kingdoms that were named after them. The first of the line, King Vararaja was apparently the founder of the first kingdom of Southeast Asia, if not the first of the world. Kuru Ksetra (the Kuru Kingdom) was known in Indian tradition to be the center of humanity along the spreading of the Man Culture. Also known as Varadhana or the Brave Kingdom, its location could be verified to be at first centered at Yunnan but later extended itself into China (Nagadvipa: The Hiong-Wang Kingdom: Lin-Yi or the Jungle Kingdom). According to the Mnong' s story, the rocky mountainous top were soon explored and inhabited by the flood survivors (Prehistory: The Dispersion: The Mnong' s journey toward the mountaintop). Known later as the Tian-Shan range, the high ground of mount Himalayas' footstep appeared to be the safe heaven for the flood survivors to explore. Indication would show that king Viroja extended the Man Culture westward while his son Kalyana established his legacy at Kalyani that was still located at the east. The names of the next descendants were less recognizable as the name of local places, which led us to believe that they were already settling outside of Southeast Asia:
The son of Mandhatu was named Varamandhatu. The son of Varamandhatu was named Cetiya. The son of Cetiya was named Mucalin. The son of Mucalin was named Mahamucalin. The son of Mahamucalin was named Mucalinda. The son of Mucalinda was named Sagura. The son of Sagura was named Saradeva. The son of Saradeva was named Rata. The son of Rata was named Bhattiraco. The son of Bhattiraco was named Ruciya or Suruciya. The son of Suruciya was named Panada. The son of Panada was named Mahapanada. The son of Mahapanada was named Pattapa. The son of Pattapa was named Mahapattapa. The son of Mahpattapa was named Suddasana. The son of Suddasana was named Mahasuddasana.
Due to lack of information, we could not elaborate on how extensive the first spread to the western world was. Indications however show that the Man cultural development on the Tian-Shan Range already reached Middle East by one of his descendants of the latter list. Rajagrha that was generally known as the western country ruled by a faction of king Samanta descendants could be identified as Parthia. The existence of Ur in Mesopotamia indicated in addition the transplantation of Kuruksetra at Middle Eastern region even before the birth of Meru, the 23th generation down the lineage. After marrying the Queen of the West, Meru started on his massive conquest deep into Central Asia and further west at Middle East to build his Cakravatin Empire.
The son of Mahasuddasana was named Meru. The son of Meru was named MahaMeru. The son of Mahameru was named Acsima. The son of Ascima was named Mahaascimaraja.
Archeology confirms the existence of the Meru establishment at Ur through the pictograph tablets unearthed that were dated around 3500 BC. Since then, evidences show that Meru continued his odyssey over Middle East and beyond through conquest. His descendants were crowned as Cakravatin monarchs to rule the earth under the title of Rajadhiraja (universal monarch). The list continues down to Buddha Gautama whose ancestral connection to Mahasamanta was established through the Meru lineage. It was through that specific lineage (known in Buddhist tradition as the Sakyaraja) that the Meru culture made its way around the mount Himalayas. The same way that the God of Genesis was known to encourage humanity to consume the fruit from the Tree of Life and prohibited the consumption of the fruit from the Tree of Knowledge (of God and Evil), Buddha Gautama later warned humanity to be cautious in consuming the fruit from the rest of the forest' s knowledge trees as well.
The Progression of the Man Culture
As recorded in Hindu tradition, we know that the progression of the Man Culture expansion was carried on in many phases into many parts of the world. This was due to the need of changing environment to stimulate different generation across the western world. Before going further, it is wise to be cautious that the human race (as any other racial classifications and nationalities) was based more on culture rather than on ethnicity. In contrast to Darwin' s theory of natural selection claiming that humanity is the product of physical evolution alone, the Man tradition asserts that humanity evolved through God' s interference and as anything else of god's creation has its life cycle. As the old saying says "What goes up must come down", the rise and fall of a civilized society is expected to be part of the overall humanity' s evolution. At each of its transitions, a generation of human race was conceived. As each generation came back to top over its ancestors, the transition from one generation to another was not always smooth. Conflicts occurred as the new generation has the temperament of overrunning the old one and on the reverse side, resistance is to be expected as the old generation tries to preserve its past glory. Southeast Asia as well as many other parts of the world had extensive experience with the dynamic cycle induced by the evolution of mankind. It is also important to be cautious that Manu, as we know of today, was referring to Manu Vaivasvata, the latest generation of the four existing Manu of the Hindu folklore (Civilization: The Impact of the Kala Yuga: The Harrian and the Hittie). Conceived during the start of the Kala Yuga, Manu VaivAvata was often confused with his ancestor Mahasamanta, the primordial Buddhisatva. His descendants that ended down to King Sodhodhanakumara, the father of the future Buddha Gautama, as we shall see, were originated from the court of Babylon. Due to political crisis that drove them back to the Gangetic India, the Middle Eastean migrants were known as the Sakya.
We counted over all 334,569 monarchs reigning successively over big and medium cities, starting from Maha Samantaraja and the foundation of Banaransi. Their race stayed pure; they never take women from the people for spouses and it was why they were called Sakyaraja. (SIAM1: Chronicle de Sinhanavati)
As we shall see, the Sakyaraja was an identity given to King Samanta' s descendants that (included Meru himself) who specifically made their way through Central Asia to found their own dominions. Like many other lineages descended from Maha Samantaraja, the Sakyas went to the extent of conserving their bloodline pure. Unlike the Meru lineage who was on their way to the west, other descendants of King Samanta were carving their dominions locally at the east, notably:
Baranasi, Rajagrha, Mithila, Vesali, and Kusambhi (SIAM1: Chronicle de Sinhanavati)
Some of these names could be still identified with modern cities and states of the Gangetic India due to later Meru' s worldwide developments. In the ancient past, they were in fact localities of the world where the Man and later the Meru Cultures were spread to the World population. Starting from Baranasi of Gangetic India where the Man Culture started its expansion, the next place was Rajagraha that could be identified as Parthia and its western dependency where the Tai race (also know as Cham) originated. On the other hand, Mithila was actually China proper where evidences of the first spread of the Meru Culture started from Mongolia before making its move to Middle East. Last and not least, Kusambhi is identified as Yunnan of the southern China of today. It was actually the seat of Southeast Asian legacies of the Nanda (cow) and the Xiang (mountain goat) clans who were directly descended from king Samanta' s son Urorojja. Known later as Varadhana, the extended kingdom of KuruKsetra was mentioned in Chinese text to be an ancient Kingdom named Hiong Wang. Originally located at the Kun-Lun of mount Himalayas, Kuruksettra extended itself following the migration of the Jin eastward into China' s present day southern seacoast and down to the Indochinese plain (Prehistory: The Move toward the Plain: The Split of the Kun-Lun Society from the Austroasiatic Family). Since the southern part of the mainland Indochina was still submerged, the extension was first restricted to the high ground of the Khorat plateau and gradually moved down to Cochinchina. Among the lineage descended from king Samantha, only the Sakya and the Nanda could keep their bloodline pure and were known as belonging to the small family (Colavamsa) while the rest had more ore less tainted bloodline and were known as belonging to the big (Mahavamsa) family. The last lineage VaivAvata were also originated from the small family line of the Sakyaraja but through the Kalayuga had their bloodline tainted with Middle Eastern blood.
NOKOR PHNOM AND THE HIMALAYAN CULTURE
After the Great Flood, we have argued that the eastern side of mount Himalayas became the birthplace of the Man Culture. These rugged regions of the Tian-Shan range were also part of the Khmer legacies of Nokor Phnom. It is here that mythologies found in many of the world cultures had originated out of local development by king' s Samanta' s direct descendants. Many aspects of the Shan cosmology, as we shall see, contributed to the formation of Meru Culture and through its transition around the globe, had been implanted into other religious believes of today. We shall check out that religious scriptures (as well as tradition of all past religions) found all around the world, were mostly derived from the same Himalayan Culture.
The Hilltop versus the Valley Civilization
As stated in the Khmer-Mon tradition, one important factor that worked out for both the civilized and the indigenous people during the early stage of civilization was the plentiful of lands and natural resources right after the flood. In most part, evidence shows that the civilized groups settled down at the plains or at the shallow delta regions, in contrast to the indigenous people who preferred to stay isolated, deep in the forest or at the high mountainous region. The Bahnar Krem tribesmen had a story about Yang Bot and Yang Gia and their two children (MGRV: The Bahnar Krem: Legendary History). The eldest son who was driven by a temperament free spirit left his parents and went to live on the mountaintop. Plenty of distractions that he found on the high ground kept him from coming back home. As he lost himself in the wilderness, his mother started to worry about him.
The elder' s son prolonged absences saddened his Mother, Yang Gia, and she died. The eldest son returned home after his Mother' s death.
His absence caused his Mother, Yang Gia, to worry about him and died of distress. He returned home later just to have his angry father chasing him back to where he came from.
His failure to understand that her death was at least partially due to his fault angered his father, Yang Bot, so that he struck and chased the elder son back into the jungle.
He went back to the mountaintop and wondered there while his younger brother, with the help of his father, went on to develop a civilized society out of his descendants on the plain. This next diversion would explain the split between the mountainous Jin and the Valley Shan people of the northern Shan countries.
Yang Bot remained on the plains with his younger son, instructing him and watching his descendants' progress.
With their elaborated water-work, they transformed the submerged region into fertile land, good for their agriculturist life style. Contacts were made naturally between the new settlers and the mountainous counterpart during the trade. It was up to the mountainous indigenous tribes to come joining in the agricultural world, but difference of life-styles and other factors would prevent a complete assimilation. The unreachable tribes were still able to retain their identities and their primitive lifestyle but would face with a different fate. Because of their isolation, they deprived themselves of the benefit brought by new emerging cultures and remained underdeveloped.
Yang Bot began to worry about his elder son and searched for him. Finding him and noting that his son had not progressed, Yang Bot attempted to help by giving him a language and instructing him in the use of weapons.
At first, the education provided by Yang Bot was enough to help them cope with the natural environment but not enough to face with the increasing aggression of the civilized world. Perceived as primitive and lack of strong government, Yang Bot had all the reasons to worry about his eldest son' s mountainous offspring. With no means to defend themselves, they could easily fell prey to slavery. According to the legend, Yang Bot spent the rest of his life with the mountainous people trying to bring them to civilization. Thank to the martial art instructed by him, the mountainous Jin people were not only able to defend themselves but on the contrary became warrior tribesmen.
Unfortunately, the mountain climate caused Yang Bot to become ill and to die before he could fully instruct his elder son in the things necessary for progress. Since that time the descendants of the elder son have remained in the mountains, speaking different dialect, and have not advance as have the descendants of the younger son, who stayed in the plains (Notes: The Tibeto-Burman tongue).
Yang Bot' s death prevented him from completing his instruction and left the Jin lacking of one important key ingredient of Civilization, the ethical values. Their aggressive life-styles soon earn-marked them as the conquerors, however their unfinished schooling would be soon picked up by one of Yang Bot' s descendants named Meru. Under the Meru Culture, the mountainous Jin set sail for their global enterprise. On the other hand, their civilized Valley people that were enjoying better life styles would be soon facing with other problems. Due to their geographical accessibility, their wellness attracted migrants from other regions, notably from the north. Intermixture would make the Valley peoples more dilute than the mountainous people and in the process lost all their originality.
The Jin of Nagaland
Among the indigenous on the mountaintop of Nagaland, the Jins were perhaps the most ancient tribes of the region since the Great Flood. As we have argued, they were the progenitors of the Tian Culture and the direct ancestors of the Khmer-Mon people. They were also known as kinsmen of Buddha Gautama who was often referred in Buddhist texts as Prah Jin Sri or the Merry Jin (Notes: The Jin as the Conqueror in Pali). However diversion occurred during their long journey around mount Himalayas. Unlike the Sakya who were mix-blooded of the Jin, the Central Asian and Middle Eastern stocks, the Jin and Khmer-Mon Tribesmen were the direct descendants of the Hoabinhian people (Prehistory: The Hoabinhian Culture: The Language Factor). Culturally, they had only recollection of local deity called Yang and no one of the Hindu divinity. Due to their living condition close to natural resources, scholars classified them at first as animistic (Notes: The Animistic Religious School). Nevertheless, their rich heritage with the primordial king Samanta made them very much religious as much as modern Buddhist Khmer-Mon people are. The legend of Yang Bot of the Banar Krem' s story, who spent his last days in the mountaintop teaching his eldest son to cope with civilization, still left its mark on the Kun-Lun ranges of the Tibet Mountain. It is suggesting that his teaching was not restricted to the Tibet Plateau only, but expanded to all the Tian-Shan range as well. From the fact that Indochina was always known to the Chinese as the country of the Mans, we believe that Yang Bot was no other that the primordial Buddhisatva, known as Manu in Buddhist texts. From his teaching, the Tians had their own culture developed long before other civilizations of the world. There are indications that Manu himself was a Jin and was responsible to bring up the Hoabinhian culture to a new high. The association of the Tian culture with the Jin implicates that the Jin country was soon covered-up the Tian-Shan' s range. After the flood, the Jin (more precisely the Jin leadership) must to spread themselves along the whole mountain range. In conjunction with the Bahnar Krem ' story about Yang Bot and his eldest son, the Jin leadership went on to educate the rest of the Tian-Shan people and brought them to civilization. They then built their kingdom known as Ta-Tsin or the Greater Jin on the ground of the Central Asian stocks who were presumably Miens. The development could be confirmed by old Tibetain tradition about the formation of Central Tibet itself. According to the Old Tibetain chronicle, the ancient name Bod originally referred to only a part of the Tibetan plateau, together with Ratsan, has come to be called Dbus-gtsan (Central Tibet). The early kings Yarlung (Vara-Lung in Chinese, Vara-anga in Sanskrit) were, as they themselves say southerners. They first conquered Central Tibet and then the rest of Tibetan Plateau, except for those regions already allied to them by marriage or personal oaths of fealty (TIBET: Entrance into Central Asia: P. 16). It is said that the first king of the Yarlong Dynasty came down from the Sky and that connection with the sky was maintained during the early long list of its kings. Only after the reign of Dri gums Btsampo that the "Sky-rope" was inadvertently cut off. After he died he was buried in a tomb. There follows another long list of shadowy kings before ascertainable historical personages emerge, and true Tibetan history begins (TIBET: Entrance into Central Asia : P. 16). The reference to the Sky was meant to be the heaven, but could be also a reference of Maghalaya where presumably Baranasi was formed by King Samantha at the Kasi mountain range. In parallel to the Tibetan development, we have also argued that the Kachin tribes were moving down into the mainland through water streams and settled themselves along the valleys among the Khmer-Mon tribes. Interesting enough, the Chinese called them still the Kun-Lun (the mount Kun-Lun) people. Their exodus from the footstep of mount Himalayas, as we shall see, was due to later Central Asian development of the formation of the Western Kambojas (The Sakadvipa: The impacts on the Jin: The decline of the Jin). Needless to say, their Jin compatriots that did not leave were subjected to transformation brought by the western Kambojan powerhouses. That could explain their adoption of the Sino-Tibetain language until modern days. On the other hands, indications show that the Jin started to diverge from the valley' s Shan people through contact with their southern peers of the Sea (or Fish) People. With the new development of the Meru world in Middle East they were later classified as the Nagas. Beneath the divergence we could still detect interesting links, among them is the use of the svatica of the counter clockwise symbol as the decoration of their valuable commodities. We have no idea that this development, happening in the southern part of the Tian-Shan range, did also happen in other parts of Southern China as well. Chinese tradition however had the recollection of the Kun-Lun people living along the Red rivers' Delta, deep into the southern part of the Chinese continent (Prey Norkor: The Kingdom of Hiong Wang: The Stieng' s account of the Tchou Dynasty).
The Great Migration of the Kun-Lun People
As their name implied, the Shans retained their identity rooted from the Khmer legacy of Nokor Phnom (the Mountain Country). They are among all ethnic groups of the Tian-Shan range of closest relative to the mountainous Jin (Notes: The Shan Identity). The Kun-Lun identity is, on the other hand, a Chinese reference to the Tian-Shan range and as the birthplace of the Meru Culture, it extended itself to include the Kun-Lun range that seats the sacred mount Kailas. As valley peoples, the Shan developed their life-style differently from the mountainous Jin who through later military training became more and more aggressive. The split came later after Meru brought his court to take over Middle East and developed the western civilization based on the Moon Culture. In their eastern stronghold, the Shans still received their education from original members of King Samantha' s family who later formed the Xiang dynasty. Spreading themselves into the eastern part of the Tian-Shan Range, they formed their communities as a confederation of states known in Chinese text as Kiao-Tche. Also known as Hiong-Wang (Brave Kingdom) in Chinese source, the country gave its inhabitant the identity of Brahman (Brahm as its short form). While the majority stayed resident of the Tian-Shan Range, some of the Mnong retained their deep connection with their peers who, for some reason, preferred to stay put at their southern flooded region. Due to their particular habitat, they developed life-styles in adaptations to the submerged landscape that took many more centuries to be completely drying out. It is interesting to note that the Mnong, unlike their Kun-Lun kinsmen, lived in huts directly built on the ground mostly in high attitude. Along with the Stiengs and other mountainous tribesmen, the southern Mnong were driven down south into their present day settlements at the mainland Indochina. Scholars attribute their migration as a subsequent of the attack of the Shang Dynasty that resulted in the break-down of the Xia Kingdom later in their history.
During the great Migration of peoples, which affected the classical east as well as the West, Xiang leaders were among those who established more or less ephemeral states on Chinese territory. It seems clear that these Xiang were ethnically unrelated to the Tibetain-speaking people.(TIBET: Tibet and Central Asia before the Empire)
The Stieng' s account of Djiang moreover collaborates to the establishment of southern Xiang at Indochina and Central China (Prey Nokor: The Kingdom of Hiong Wang: The Stieng' s account of the Tchou Dynasty) under the Tchou dynasty. Its legacy could be checked out in northern Siam countries where Xiang (a short form of Xiayang, the Xia Country) remained as a reference to a feudal community of Xia until modern days. Back to their Himalayan high ground, we could see similarities between the Jin and the grass root Shan people that stayed still from their shared legacy of the deep past. Common to the survivors of the flood, their houses are built on stilt and grouped in villages. Because of their agriculturist life-style, they have no tendency of migrating as they are not prone to leave their homeland behind. In contrast to the nomadic life-style of Central Asian stocks, the agriculturist Shans were well known to be more attached to their homeland where they inherited through many generation of ancestral ownership. Only under severe circumstances that they left their countries in search for safer grounds. The Shan however see themselves unconnected with the Jin and other mountainous people of the region and claimed that they were instead migrants from of either central Asia or China. As other agriculturists of the mainland Indochina, the Shans were subjected to the mixture of foreign stocks and cultures. Due to the specific geography of their country, they were the most affected by many cultural exchanges due to Central Asian and Chinese influence. Unlike Chinese communities of family oriented and close networked culture, the Shan communities were open to foreigners and allow other races to merge in. They were willing to accept the new comers' presence and even their leadership to the point of assimilating themselves with them. The first to come that were recorded in their history were the Central Asian Tai or Yuan culture that was found spreading among the indigenous Austroasiatic Lawa tribesmen (The Sakadvipa: The Sakan Incursion: King Suvanna Kahamdeng and the Formation of Nararatha). In parallel to the Sakan development, we shall see that more and more foreign migrants had moved in to share the heritage of the Lawa tribesmen. That explains why the Shans were living in an environment surrounded by many ethnic groups that could be verified as modern migrants from either Central Asia or China. The latest of such interference was when the Cham or the Yueh aristocrats had topped themselves as Chao-Fas over the native feudal chiefs by means of magic or political tricks. Under these circumstances, the Shans are now seen to be the most diverse ethnic groups of the region and were prone to loose their own heritage and identity. Ethnography however could distinguish the Shans who through interference of foreign culture, became more or less similar to the new immigrants from abroad.
THE SHAN MYTHOLOGY
In deciphering the Vedic texts, scholars found out that the Rig' s Veda' s records were actually accounts of the Aryan legacies. What they did not know was theirs origin as most believed that they were from Anatolia and that all aspects of Vedic elements were conceived from the same origin. We shall argue instead that that Meru was actually the progenator of the Aryan Culture and that Himalayas was his birth place among the Jin people. Being the closest relatives of the latter, the valley Shans also retain the Jin' s rich heritage. Of ethnic Lawa tribesmen, they were however subject of identity change after many centuries of Sakan interference from Central Asia (Daya-Desa), Despite all that transformation, they still possess and retain rich tradition and life-style that connect their past to the unique Kamara (Kun-Lun) Culture of Southeast Asia.
The Transition from the Makara to the Meru Culture
Evidences show that the Tian-Shan range had been the birthplace of many concepts of both physical and spiritual aspects, later found in the Vedic texts and other Hindu scriptures. The Meru cosmology, for instance, had already been taught to the Shan people long before the Hindu culture had been conceived in India. The Shan cosmology already included the Sun, the Moon, their circular motions and the eclipse' s occurrence through the interference of Sura. Specific aspects that would be presented next indicate that the Shans were responsible for the transition from the Makara to the Meru Culture
The foundations of Mount Meru rest on a great fish. It is so large and long that each of its scales is eighty-eight "eye-reaches" broad. (SHL: Shan Cosmology and the Creation: pp. 204-205)
The Shan' s cosmology places the Meru plane directly on top of the Makara that is depicted as a very large fish to represent the physical world and its population. It is so large that most often it is portrayed to bite its own tail while spanning itself around the globe. The depiction implicates that the earth (our planet earth) and, to the extent, our physical world are round and limited. At it maturity, the Makara has already occupied the whole earth. This limitation created a serious restriction for the Makara to grow and worst yet forced the Makara to die by self-inflicting wound (Notes: The Tale of a Makara). The limitation of the physical world moreover restricts the Makara' s aptitude in the attempt to make comprehensive understanding of the whole universe and became subject to disillusion and unpredictable surprises (Notes: The Fishy Truth). The spiritual world, on the other hand, was described as flat or unlimited, and was supported on each corner by four spirits.
Our world is flat and square. One spirit supports each corner, so that the world rests on their hands. (SHL: Shan Cosmology and the Creation: p. 204)
The four spirits that support the Meru world are the earth, water, fire and air. Other spiritual worlds are also flat, meaning unlimited, and were characterized as planes. Located above the Meru world, they are known as heavens and there are many different levels of them (Notes: The spiritual planes) and the only one located under the Meru plane is the Hell.
In the center of the world is fire. All the burning places are there, where the wicked are for a time punished for their sins. (SHL: Shan Cosmology and the Creation: p. 204)
As the Meru plane is closely connected to our physical world than any other planes, its spiritual representation is based on the same four constituents that make-up our planet earth. In the same concept, the Meru World is described to evolve around an epicenter named after him as mount Meru, a conceptual representation of the physical mount Himalayas. It is a typical example of the generalization of spiritual concepts based on the physical reality, seen in many other disciplines of the Meru Culture. As to human creation, it is clear that the Tian scholars had already asked question about their own existence. Their explanation was not totally in agreement with the recent theory of evolution of Darwin and involved gods in the making of Human species (SHL: Shan Cosmology and the Creation: p. 204).
The four gods who created the world made our first parents. Each god made one man and one woman. When these human bodies were formed of dump-clay, they were placed round the celestial fire to dry; that how heat entered into man.
The Shans believed that gods made the man' s body out of the dump-clay and let it dry with the celestial fire. The drying of the Human body to the heat also explains the difference of skin' s colors.
One man and one woman were soon removed from the fire; that is how white people were made. Another pair was left a little longer near the fire and became slightly browned; that is how Shan and Chinese people got their complexions. Burman and really dark people descend from the pairs who were well baked and got burned.
It was then believed that the heat and nothing else, was the responsible agent that makes the difference of skin' s colors. The geographical distribution of the white, Yellow and dark skin' s colors was consistent with the intensity of the heat generated by the Sun' s light. Now that the human bodies were formed, another important god' s intervention was to make men and women alive.
The breath of the gods made the first men and women live, and it is the same till this day, from when the breath of the gods is taken from us, we die.
The Shan account of God' s interference in the human creation had been found with some deviation in many religious scriptures of today. It became a conflicting proposition with the recent scientific theory of Evolution formulated by Darwin. As we had pointed out, anthropology appears to support the important role of evolution in human creation. Even though the Shan' s cosmology credits gods in the creation of men, it also emphasized the importance of earth' s elements in the formation of the human' s living body consisting of the wet clay (water and earth), the heat and the air. This conception of life involving four of our physical world' s elements: water, earth, fire (energy) and air, became since the de-facto standard in many other religious believes as well, concerning the creation of human being (Notes: Buddhist Conception of Life). To theologians moreover, the human creation is much more complex that could be done only by the God almighty. They claim that the DNA' s pattern to serve as the blueprint of body' s formation is very much too sophisticate for natural evolution to accomplish.
The Three Celestial Brothers
In the Shan cosmology, the spiritual world where our spirits belong to is depicted as a plane parallel to other spiritual planes. On the other hand, the physical world where we live in is limited. It was represented by the Makara curbing itself in circle to fit into the earth' s limited environment. At the end, the Makara had to bite its own tail. In addition to the earth, our solar system was composed of the sun, the moon and the eclipse. Their motions were observed and the Shans knew that there are interactions between them (SHL: Shan Cosmology and the Creation: p. 200-201). The sun was the first to be noticed and they observed that it makes its journey round and round contouring the mount Meru.
The Sun is a golden bowl, and on the rim of the bowl sits a peacock; both bowl and peacock are in a crystal box, which rests on a flying chariot. It is not drawn by horses, but has wheels that are whirling round and round.
The moon also travels round and round on a chariot but unlike the sun, it has its unique progression and regression cycles.
The Moon is a hare covered with silver, which lives in a crystal house with fifteen windows. It rests like the Sun, on a chariot, and travels around mount Meru. On the first night of the waxing Moon one window is opened, on the second night two windows are opened, and on the third three windows are opened. On the fifteenth night all the windows are widely opened, and we say that it is a full Moon. On the first night of the waning Moon one window is closed, then another, and another, until all are shut, and there is darkness.
Unlike the Sun and the moon, the eclipse is a dark planet and because it interferes with both the sun and the moon, it is also called Sura.
There is a dark planet, which we only see when there is an eclipse, called the lord Sura, which sometimes comes between our world, the Sun and the Moon.
Besides having their own physical characteristics and motions, the three planets also possessed distinct personality and spirit that later characterized the trinity of the world cultures of the ancient past (SHL: Shan Cosmology and the Creation: pp. 200-201). Their peculiar relationship explains the dynamic of our world civilization as recorded later in history. In the beginning, the three planets were three great brothers who seam to get along fine. However, their brotherly rivalry came when they were supposed to make offering of rice to one of the gods and in the process got his blessing.
The Sun rose early and offered rice well cooked and hot, which he took from the top of the rice pot, and he said "Oh, great Lord, may I shine warmly and brilliantly in the world!"
The Moon was next to make his offering.
He took his rice from the middle part of the pot, waiting until the rice was cool. He said "Oh, great Lord, may I always be cool, peaceful and beautiful!"
Sura was the last to offer his rice.
The third brother Sura slept too long in bed and took the rice from the bottom of the pot; not only the rice was cold but was burnt as well. He then reviled the Sun and the Moon, as they had taken all the good rice, and said "Oh, my Lord, make me higher and greater than my brothers."
The three brothers got their wishes, but Sura knew quite well that the god was not impressed with his offering. He got a bigger body than his two brothers but only in shady form. He then nurtured a deep animosity toward his two brothers that grew with more mistreatments from the two.
During his visit to mount Meru, the chief of god gave Sura three pellets and informed him that whoever swallowed a pellet would become immortal. Sura took one of the pellets and became immortal and he hid the other two under his pillow. At a time that he was out, the Sun and the Moon went to visit him and as they always do during his absence, they peep into his belongings. When they found the two hidden pellets, they swallowed one each and became immortals. When Sura found out that the rest of his pellets were taken, he was very angry and went on chasing both of his brothers. For them not to see him, he followed them in a dark colored chariot.
Sometimes he catches the Sun and some other times he overtakes the Moon. During the fight their faces are darken, but at the end, they manage to free themselves and Sura is always beaten.
The Aryan Identity
In many of its hymns, the Rig-Veda makes use of the word "Arya" in three specific references. First, the adjective "Aryan" is used through out the manuscript of which scholars agreed that it should be translated as noble. Second, the same adjective is also used as a general reference to a member of the Aryan folks or tribesmen whom we shall identify as the Brahman themselves and their family' s members. It is important to note that Southeast Asian Brahman, popularly known as the white robe ascetics, claimed themselves as Aryavamsa (The Ramana-Desa: The Split of the Khmer-Mon Legacy: The Ari monks). In the course of reciting the hymns of the Rig-Veda, the Brahman also refers a group people as Aryan folks implicating that the Aryan tribes were no other than their immediate families. Their communities were closely networked that gave way to the casting system later one in the history of the Hindu Culture. Last and not least, the word Aryaman is invoked in many occasions as a divinity alongside with other gods, mostly Varuna and Mitra. Unlike other major Vedic gods, Siva was not invoked in the Rig-Veda even once. Nevertheless, we know that like Brahma, Siva was an important member of the Trinity of the Hindu god. With the consideration that the Brahmans were themselves Sivaite, Siva must to be reverred and invoked by other name during the pre-Hindu period. In the Rig-Veda, Aryaman was the first reference to the spirit of Meru who like Brahman, was an ascetic figure. This identification of Aryaman to Siva would lead to the conclusion that the Aryan invasion was no other than Meru' s massive conquest to build up his Cakaravatin Empire at Middle East. Also mentioned in the Rig-Veda, Iswa-la (or Iswin) was mostly invoked in connection of his victory through his military campaigns over his enemies. The Rig-Veda seams to emphasize on the horse-drawn chariots in playing a big role in convincing the locals of the technology advance of the invaders. From their depiction on Sumerian clay tablets, we have clear ideas on how effective these early horse-drawn chariots were. With four heavy wheels made out of solid wood and no bearings, it is likely that the Sumerians scared their enemies more by the noise from the chariot' s wheels rather than the chariot' s speed itself. Nevertheless, the horse-drawn chariot became the first psychology warfare ever recorded in history of mankind. To establish himself as a universal monarch, Meru spread the Tian culture on his new conquered territories that underwent transformation to fit local beliefs and tradition. In his new venture, Meru brought along Sumerian scholars from the old Ta-Tsin to boost the local civilization into a new high. We had argued that by this time, the Sakan establishment of Ta-Tsin had already started in Kamrakanta (Prehistory: The move toward the plain: The legacy of the Flood Culture). Horses were tamed and horse-drawn chariots were already used to suit Meru' s western conquest. Due to the fact that horses became their essential commodities, the new people of Central-Asian Ta-Tsin became then classified in Hindu folklore as the horse people. This startup of the Sakan warrior race was undoubtedly the precursor of the next development of the Moon Culture. Under the Meru leadership, the Man Culture underwent change into the Meru or Kamara Culture and took its own course deep into the Himalayas Mountain and later into Central Asia. However the spread of the Meru Culture could not be done without the occurrence of the next event. A legend recounted in Chinese source, mentioned about the marriage between Meru and the Mother Queen of the West that resulted later in the expansion of the Meru Culture in Middle Eastern region.
The prince Mou (Meru) of the state of Tsin had at the tenth century BC visited to the "Mother Queen of the West". After that the Kun-Lun were everywhere. (DICI: P.219)
The Komara settlements in many parts of the world could be checked out and identified by the variants of the word "Meru". Due to the ill definition in ancient scripts of the vowels "o", "e" and "u" and the addition of the prefixes "Su" and "Ku", many variants in Sanskrit could be: Mera, Mara, Sumeru, Sumer, Samar, Komeru, and Kamara. A natural or manmade mountain, representing the mount Meru, was often found nearby or at the center of each settlement. It is important to note that Samartian of Eastern Turkestan and Sumer of Mesopotamia should be listed among their early settlements at the west. Result from cultural mapping verifies that the Tian or Meru culture had since moved its epicenter around the mount Himalayas where unearthed vestiges or legacies identified as belonged to the Kamara culture were found through Central Asia, the Middle East, the Gangetic India and finally back to Southeast Asia. Common to ancient dating system for historical data, the spreading of the Meru Culture in the tenth century BC is clearly an error. As we shall see, it is mistaken with another event relating to the second unification of Egypt by another king Menes (Civilization: Mahabharata: The decline of the Meru culture). Considering that Meru was not too far down the line from Manu and that his exploit would lead to the Sumerian settlement at Mesopotemia, we should date the event prior to the foundation of Egypt that started at the last part of the fourth millennium BC.
THE SPREADING OF THE HIMALAYAN CULTURE
Through time and space, humanity evolved. Nevertheless, evidences show that it was not the natural selection process that brought the world civilization to its current stage. Through their own account of the flood myth, the Austroasiatic acknowledged gods for their advanced foraging lifestyle and that their self indulgence was the main cause of God' s wrath while other societies were still practicing hunting-gathering lifestyle. After the flood, the Kun-Lun societies were emerging out of the survivors of the Great Flood by the leadership of King Samantha and his direct descendants. Evidences show that this time, other human races who stayed along the Austroasiatic communities had been absorbed into the movement as well. Together they were classified later as the Tian people speaking the proto Mon-Khmer (Barman) Language. Evidences also show that the effort of king Samanta and his descendants did not stop there as the campaign to bring the Man Culture to the rest of world already started.
The Countries of Brahmans
The progress of civilization came as a mix blessing to the hunting-gathering societies of the world. They saw the new culture as a bridge to better life style and prosperity. But all the promises of a more advanced society were not free and the price tags were often too high for the natives. The utmost cost was undoubtedly the stripping of their previous identities and life-styles just to fit into the new order. As part of the new society, they received new identity and were expected to follow new rules that might not even suit their current life style. For some, it was as natural as a child' s play but for others it could be of life and death situation. This pattern had been seen repeated and unfortunately aggravated, during next stages of cultural development alongside the secular and the theist schools of modern-time religious institution. For the Austroasiatic people, the absorption into the new Man Culture was immediate since they were part of this transformation before. In connection with Brahmanism that was created by king Samantha and his immediate descendants, their countries were later known as the countries of Brahman. As expected, their foundation was later affecting the Austronesian societies of the Chinese continent that hold many memories of them. The country of the Huang king (cakravatin monarch) was often cited in Chinese account in later association with the Hiong-Wang (Varadhana in Sanskrit) Kingdom. From its etymology, we knew that it was the country of Brahman and should have its historical past in close connection with the Kun-Lun people. The identification of its location to be at the east of Himalayas and at the mainland Indochina would agree moreover with the Chinese sources of placing the countries of Brahman at the southeastern footsteps of Himalayas. According to the Chinese text Man-Chou, there were both the country of the small Brahman and the country of the grand Brahman. The text locates the first to be at the source of the Chindwin River.
The River Mino is at the west of Li-Chouei. It has its source in the kingdom of the small Brahman of the Northwest. (DICI: PP. 170,171)
This northwestern country of the small Brahman must be Tagaung where rich tradition in connection with the Sakya of the Gangetic India had been mentioned in Burmese source. Located a little farther-east, Ta-Li or Li-Chouei could be identified as the country of the Naga King Coladhara, mentioned in the Mahavamsa to be visited by Buddha Gautama (Nagadvipa: The Visit of Buddha Gautama: The Country of Pandaranga). It was also referred in another Chinese source, as the Srasvati Kingdom where Buddha Gautama went to beg for his meal, during his visit to Nagadvipa. On the other hand, the Chinese word "Li-Chouei", meaning the beautiful watery place, is a close match to the Sanskrit word "Srasvati", meaning the abode of lagoons or ponds. As to the Srasvati river, Li-Chouei is also a Chinese reference to the Irravati River of today which leads us to believe that it was no other than the mystic Srasvati River of the Rigveda. Also in the passage, the Mino River was mentioned to be located at the West of Li-Chouei which, was no other than the Chindwin River. The identification of the Mino river is also important because it was the origin of the Minoan Culture that played important role in the western Civilization (Civilization: The Indianization: The Arianization of the Gangetic India). It was then a resuscitation of the Sun Culture after the first primordial Manu, known also as Brahma. It is interesting to note that the merging of Chindwin and Irrawadi into the same river might contribute to the consorting mythology between Brahma and Srasvati in the Hindu Folklore. On the same premises, the country of the grand Brahman that was also known as Ta-Tsin, was mentioned to be farther west of the Chindwin River. Right at the basin of the River Brahmaputra (the son of Brahma) Manipura was what we need to look for the country of the grand Brahman.
From Ngan-Si, to the west, pass through the River Mino, we arrive after one thousand li to the kingdom of Ta-Tsin; after traversing at the west a chain of mountains, we arrive after three hundreds li to the kingdom of Ko-mo-ru.
The Kingdom of Ko-mo-ru was obviously the Chinese reference to the Kumeru kingdom and was referring to the kingdom of Kalyani, as mentioned in the Mahavamsa. It is important to note that the Kingdom of Ta-Tsin, mentioned to be the same as the Kingdom of Komeru, was also referring to Manipura. This association reflects the vastness of the original Ta-Tsin Kingdom as a whole, before it was split in two different countries based on both geographical and political attributes. Unlike Ta-Li that was located at the heart of a mountainous region, Manipura was located in the delta region close to the Bay of Bengal. It was actually the Kingdom of the grand Brahman and, as we shall see, was the original kingdom of the ocean Naga king Mahodhara before it was driven south to the Menam Valley (Nagadvipa: Nokor Tuk).
The Srasvati River and Takkasila
The Rig-Veda invokes the word Srasvati many times, either as a reference to the Goddess Srasvati who was the consort of Brahma, or the river of Srasvati where supposedly Brahmanism was taking hold. For long scholars had tried to find the mystic river in Indian continent, since it was assumed that all Hindu developments took place at the Indus and later in the Gange Valley. Its identification is important since it leads to the location of Brahmanism ' s origin and the actual birthplace of humanity. As Brahmanism predated the Indus and the Gange Valley' s civilization, both the Indus and the Gangetic valleys could be excluded as potential location of the River. Two indications in the Rig-Veda furthermore limit our territory search at the surrounding of Mount Himalayas. The first invocation hints that Srasvati was a full course river, having its source from a mountain range and ends its course at the ocean.
Pure in her course from mountain to the ocean, alone of streams Sarasvati hath listened. (RgVeda: Hymn XCV, 2)
The hymn indicates clearly that Srasvati, as it flows from the mountaintop to the ocean, is not a tributary nor a branch of any other river and must to be a full course river of it own. The second invocation is about Srasvati being among seven other sister rivers of the same threefold source.
Seven-sistered, sprung from threefold source, the five tribes' prosperer, she must be invoked in every deed of might. (RgVeda:Hymn LXI,12)
The Indus and the Ganga rivers, could be two of the seven sisters, but as we have argued were not the birthplace of Brahmanism. It agrees with the Mahabharata of listing the Ganga, the Sindhu, and the Srasvati as different rivers among all rivers of the Bharatadesa (Mahabharata: Bhisma Parva, II, P342). It is also important to differentiate between Saravati and Srasvati as they are listed also as two different rivers. Excluding the Indian continent, we have no other place left to look for than the eastern footstep of mount Himalayas. As Srasvati, the other sisters must to have their source from the mount Himalayas and ends their courses in the ocean as well. Brahmaput or son of Brahma could also be eliminated from the listing since as a consort of Brahma, Srasvati could be as well his Mother. We came to the conclusion that Srasvati is among the four rivers of the mainland Indochina and that they have their sources from an array of valleys located at the heart of the Kun-Lun range of Mount Himalayas. As we have argued, it was the birthplace of both the Man and the Meru Cultures. The mentioning of five tribes to be prospered by the river reveals the diversity of the population of TakkaSila to make up the original tribesmen of the Indochinese continent. The same as Srasvati River, Takksila had its identity blurred through its progression along site the history of humanity. Located at the western side of Mount Himalayas, the modern-day Takkasila (Taxila in short form) was mentioned in both Hindu and Buddhist texts as the very first academic center of both the western and oriental world. In Western tradition, Taxila got its name because of a monument, presumably the very first one that was built of stone at the location. It was here that eminent scholars build their schools and took in young apprentices from aristocratic families that came to educate themselves. Through the progress of science and technology, the western civilization lost its focus during their journey to take control of the world. Through the elapse of time, the history of Takkasila lost its originality as scholars were focusing on contemporary success of the western civilization. It was actually built in the memory of the Southeast Asian Takkasila that was actually the original kingdom of the southern Jin. The Sanskrit word "Takka-sila", a combination of the word "Takka" meaning water and "Sila" meaning rock or mountain, was at first a reference to the unified Water-mountain Kingdom of the flood' s survivors. It conveys the fact that during the Great Flood, humanity' s habitat had been reduced to the mountainous region that was half submerged by water. Takkasila became since the symbol of their homeland and the birthplace of the Man Culture, a legacy that was brought through out the world by the next Meru development. After the move, evidences show that the Southeast Asian Takkasila was broken-off into two separate countries that were Nokor Phnom (Mountain Kingdom) and Nokor Tuk (Water or Sea Kingdom). Nokor Phnom that was the seat of the Man Culture and became later known as Varadhana was at first left to the direct descendants of King Samanta to reign over the Kun-Lun people. Adhering strictly to their bloodline conservation, they were known as belonging to the small family of worldly rulers known in Sainskrit as Colavamsa. Led by Meru, another line of King Samantha' s descendants would find the new created Adam and Eve not as obeisant as God wanted them to be. Used to be practicing hunter-gatherer life-styles and were subject of Darwin natural selection process, Meru' s implantation of humanity over them worked until the start of the Kala Yuga. From its birthplace of the east to its glory days at the west, the Himalayan culture brought humanity into a new phase of evolution that through modern history conveys a bright future of the western world.
The Mount Meru
In both Hindu and Buddhist traditions, Meru represented the celestial mount where deity descended to meet the Human race. As a spirit representing the celestial mountain, the mount Meru was later identified as Mount Kailas of the Himalayas mountain range. The Chinese word "Kun-Lun" is referring in general to the northern range of mount Himalayas, as a close reference to the sacred mount Meru itself. Apparently under Meru leadership, the Jin broke out from their southern tradition and moved up north to the Tian-Shan range where they set up their communities to spread out the Tian Culture. Found on the ground of the indigenous of the steppe, the state of Tsin was most likely located at Samarkant, on the Eastern Turkestan mountain range, also named as the Tian-Shan range. On the other hand, the mystery about the "Mother Queen of the West" whom after meeting her, Meru started his journey westward, could also been solved. The Mother Queen of the West would then be herself the consort of Siva named Parvati. She was known in Cham Cosmology as Po Nagar or Po Yang-Ineous-Nagar, the Goddess Mother of the kingdom and was later mentioned to be the progenitor of the Muslim World (Champapura: The Cham Cosmology: Yang Po Nagar). Parvati was portrayed as of black complexion and was often called Muk Juk, the "Black Lady" in both Cham and Hindu traditions. All the evidence lead us to believe that Parvati was perhaps an Middle Eastern (perhaps an Egyptian) Queen who went out to meet King Meru and formed a long lasting alliance between the West and the East. It coincides with the archeology' s finding of Egypt about the unifier of Lower and Upper Egypt who presumably was also the founder of the first Dynasty (3000-2800 BC). His name "Narmer" (Nar-Mera), meaning "Baleful Catfish" in Egyptian etymology, could also be a Sanskrit word meaning the Man Meru and a reference to Meru himself or his son named Maha Meru (the Great Meru). It is important to note that the Sumerian tradition often abstracts direct descendants of a king or to the most extends a dynasty, as a living person for the sake of simplifying their history. For that reason, we have the reason the believe that Narmer was a representation of all Meru' s descendants whose exploit in Middle East resulted in the foundation of the first known Cakravatin Empire of the western world. One important aspect about this new discipline, there is no sex discrimination as the Goddess Parvati received the same supreme status as Siva himself. In his early presentation, Lord Siva was often portrayed side by side with his consort Parvati. Being a supreme god, Lord Siva could stand accused to be under sway of his consort who, according to Hindu folklore, would command a big feminine part in the Soma culture. Often enough, they were both represented by the same entity of half man and half woman. It was the representation of a combined man and woman' s power in the development of the Meru or Soma Culture. It is important to note that new Culture was conceived according to certain rules, crucial to the harmony of the new union between the East and the West. The concept of a Cakravatin Empire, already conceived under the Sun culture, was perfected and applied into a big scale realization. The result is immediate, as the Moon Culture had boosted the world civilization to another level. Societies were packed bigger and bigger and cities were formed to be part of a state system. Needless to say, this development continued on and through its progress was leading to the concept of worldwide unification under a consortium, deemed to develop a common set of laws, known as the Meru Culture. In later presentation, the notion of the universal God Siva was portrayed as part of a complete family in close tie connection. It is conveying the fact that during his mature life, Meru had applied himself as a responsible man with a bigger family to take care. Added into the picture, Ganesha was conceived as the son of Siva and Parvati. Pictured as a man with elephant head, Ganesha represented the race of the Kula Guchala, the family of the elephant kings who used tamed elephants to accommodate their life style. From personal transport to war accessories, elephants had played important role in the development of the next Meru societies. They constituted the next generation of wealthy Rajaput who, through dedication, constituted the major force in intercontinental trade system. Also present in the picture, the bull Nanda was presented as a cow. They were actually the Brahman of the Meru court who were actually the conceiver and the preserver of the Meru Culture. As we have seen, the Nanda were members of the eastern agriculturist who domesticated the cows in the use for the agricultural works. Descended from Mahasamanta, the Nanda carried on the Man Culture and were responsible to the birth of its many offspring later in the history of mankind.
- ISSA: The Indianized States of Southeast Asia, by G. Coedes
- SHL: The Shan at Home: With Two Chapters On Shan History And Literature (1910), Mrs. Leslie Milne Wilbur Willis Cochrane
- MGRV: Minority groups in the Republic of Vietnam, Department of the army pamphlet
- CMC: The Xiang-Mai Chronicle, by David K. Wyatt and Aroonrut Wichienkeeo
- SIAM1: Annales du Siam, Premier Partie, Translated by Camille Notton
- TIBET: The Tibetan Empire in Central Asia, by Christopher I. Beckwith
- DICI: BEFEO IV: Deux itinaraires de Chine in Inde I: A la fin du VII Siecle, By Paul Pelliot
- Eden: Eden in the East, Stephen Oppenheimer
3000-2800 BC: The First Dynasty of Egypt; 3000-1200 BC: South Asian Civilization; 3000-700 BC: Civilization of China; 2700-1450 BC: Cretian Civilization; 2500 BC: Indus Valley' s civilization; 2300 BC: The Jins left the footsteps of Himalaya toward the plain; 2070-1600 BC: The Xia Dynasty; 1300-1046 BC: Shang or Yin Dynasty;
- The Cause of Catastrophic Events
In a natural environment of time and space, a course of events characterized by the same equation is continuos. A Catastrophic event only occurs when a new set of causes started to interfere into the development. From this conception, catastrophic events of high magnitude were normally believed as the effects of supernatural cause.
- A Buddhist Kappa
A Kappa is a Buddhist time frame for each Buddhistsatva to achieve his goal as a Buddha. At the same time, he would lead humanity into the ultimate personal salvation through Buddhism. There were three Kappas and three Buddhas who already received theirs enlightenment in the past. In our current Kappa, Buddha Gautama already received his enlightenment and when his kappa ended, the next Buddhistsatva named Metreiya would start his own kappa to lead humanity for the next salvation to come.
- The wet Rice
There are still debates on the wet rice cultivation' s origin and how early it was started. Evidences however show that the Hoabinhian and later the Khmer-Mon societies were among the first agriculturists to use animals in agricultural work. The domestication of the cows for instance, to help them for the hard labor of soil processing, was especially an adaptation to the wet rice plantation. The achievement later earned them the classification as the Cow or the Bull Race, in the Hindu folklore.
- The Kingdom at Baranasi
Located at present day Kasi Hills, Baranasi became since the seat of the Man Culture. It became known later as Meghalaya or Magdhara, the center of the Buddhist Cakravatin Empire.
- The Tibeto-Burman Tongue
Scholars classified the Tibeto-Burman tongue as tonal. It supports the fact that the mountainous people, with less progress than the Valleys people had developed a language with less sophistication than the latter. When Yang Bot brought civilization to them, they had not many words to adapt to the new culture and tone was used to extend its vocabulary base.
- The Jin as the conqueror in Pali
In Buddhist text, the Pali word "Jin" associated with Buddha Gautama is translated as the conqueror. It is not suggesting that Buddha Gautama himself was a conqueror, but that he conquered humanity by his dharma. Still we believe that calling Budhha Gautama as "the Jin" in Buddhist text was more associating to his ethnic background or a reference of him as the last transition of Meru.
- The Animistic Religious School
The Shan Identity
On its original development, the Animistic school was a family' s affair. A religious figure who acted as the administrator or community' s strong-man of the village received thair knowledge and skill from father to son through family connection. Often referred as the medecin man, the Shaman took care of his community as part of his extended family. The Shamanism was actually a primitive form of Brahmanism. As its name implied, the Shaman or Xiaman was a member of the Xia Dynasty' s shool of administration.
The Shan Identity has Chinese root from the Tian-Shan range. Referring to the mountainous people, the Shan people were in fact the people of Nokor Phnom. Most people of today' s Shan country are unaware of that tradition and seams to have no idea of how they got that identity from. Claiming themselves Tai, the modern valley' s dwelling people are subjected to modern incursion from Central Asia and China.
- The Yarlung dynasty
The Old Tibetan chronicle does not say when the Yarlung dynasty, the first king came down from the Sky, ruling the vast dominions of the Tibetan Empire, started. The long list of kings who are supposed to have lived and ruled the earth started with Dri gum btsanpo, because he cut the Sky-rope, died and buried in a tomb(TIBET: Tibet and Central Asia before the Empire).
- The Tale of a Makara
As the world civilization keeps growing, the tale of a Makara might serve as an inspiration. It was perhaps the Khmer folklore or retrieved part from a religious manuscript, taught to general people. It was told by my grand-mother, as a bedtime story, when I was still a youngster.
There was once a baby Makara born from nowhere in the big ocean of the world. While still small, the fish enjoyed plenty of food and grew up and grew. When its body size filled up the ocean, the Makara hardly moved and engulfed anything found at the approximately of its jaw. One day, the fish woke-up and found a big creature never seen before right in front of him. What came immediately to his mind is that the creature was one of his competitors. No wonder, the fish thought, that the food was running scarce. Hungry and angry, the Makara open his jaw wide and make a big bite out of his rival. Little the Makara knew that the creature was his own tail and the bite spilled-out his own blood over the world. The fat spilled from the wound caught fire and the fire destroyed everything. That was the end of a Kalpa.
The tale of the Makara is telling us that since the world civilization is now filling up the earth, any competition you would face could be of your own venture. Any wrong move would bring this mature civilization to an end.
- The Agriculturist Society
Archeology confirmed that Southeast Asia was at the forefront of agriculture since its early stage.
- The Fishy Truth
Due to its constraint, the Makara or humanity was subject to the Fishy Truth of physical reality' s constraint or limitation. Like human comprehension, Physical Science is bound by infinity (The Causality Law: The Quantum Theory: The Physical World). The Natural Science is even more restricted since it is bound by both zero and infinity.
- The spiritual planes
We could find the names of these heavens as well as the aspect of each one of them, through Buddhist or Hindu literature.
- Buddhist Concept of Life
The Shan' s conception of life that became the core of Sivaism is based on both physical and spiritual worlds. It was the four (not one) gods who created human out of dump-clay, but each human needs the breath of God to survive. Buddhism defied God ' s direct intervention in creating life and emphasized the creation of human' s body essentially on the cosmic manifestation. The body of men as well as of any other living creatures were conceived from the four of our physical world' s elements: water, earth, fire (energy) and air. Because these elements are impermanent and are subjected to transformation or change, the human body and subsequently human life had to go through life cycle as anything else in the Meru or Physical world. At the contrary, the soul is not in itself of physical attribute and in its pure spiritual form is permanent.