The Chola Dynasty
Project: The Chola Dynasty
Author: Lem Chuck Moth
Started date: March/01/2005
Last updated: June/30/2017
All right reserved.
Since this paper is still drafted, the readers would be advised to ignore any context errors. The content is not final and subjected to be reviewed.
A millennium had passed since Southeast Asia brought itself up as an important part of the world civilization. Started with the Funan Empire, the cakravatin establishment freed the mainland Indochina from the dominance of China. At the time that the Funan empire was about to succumb, the Khmer Kingdom of Prey-Nokor took the lead and by carrying on the Hinayana Buddhism set Indochina as the next power house of Southeast Asia. Once again, Funan prospered and was recognized by the Chinese court as the Pacified South and was left to manage itself. Once again, the Khmer Empire started to build itself up to recover the last legacy of the Hiong-Wang Kingdom. The advent of the Chenla uprising however split the Khmer court into two major powerhouses. The alliance between the Khmer and the Sri Vijaya fallen houses. Formed under the tutelage of God Indra, the consortium brought back Buddhism into the limelight. In resurrecting the Khmer Kingdom at Prey-Nokor, the new Khmer court built a new cakravatin empire and transformed Indochina into becoming the next Buddhist center of Southeast Asia. The other powerhouse that started to challenge the Khmer court was formed by the Cham aristocracy behind the Chenla court and took its residency at Java. Under the tutelage of the Chalukya of South India, the javanese Court started to harass the Khmer Kingdom of Prey-Nokor. To stop the harassment, Jayavarman II reinstated the cult of Devaraja and moved the center of the Khmer cakravatin empire inland. Through his work, the Khmer Cakravatin Empire changed its focus and started to exert its expansion policy. A new line of kings, with the Indra's logo embedded in their crown name emerged in the Angkorean court to carry on the new Angkorean policy. They were the Sailendra or Ketomala Kings who were famous for their construction's endeavor of stone temples in the history of the Khmer Empire. Evidences show that the sailendra succeeded to convince both the Chola and the Javanese court to realize that their common interest was not about fighting each other, but to be reunited under the Cakaravatin umbrella. As expected, the consolidation brought more strength and security to Angkor as the presence of the Chola leadership brought more wealth and sophistication to the union. Together, they controlled the sea route and Angkor became in a true sense the Middle Kingdom of a Cakravatin Empire.
The Three Celestrial Brothers
Like the Sun, the Moon and the eclipse going in tune, the Angkorean empire had to embrace a bigger family of leadership that shape-up the dynamic of Angkorean future. Each dynasty, though originated from the same mystic couple of kaundinya and the Nagi princess, diverged itself from its counterparts through current association with the new wave of Indianization. By now, they had developed theirs own characteristics that enable us to identify with a degree of certitude, which one of the three South Asian powerhouses the lineage belonged to. Besides the Aditya and the Soma dynasties, we shall see more of the Rashu line of kings in the politic of Southeast Asia. Consecrated by king Bhavavarman's brother-in-law, the Brahman Somasarman, Tribhuvanesvara was identified later as the God king of the Rashu lineage. Its first manifestation was in the form of the Chenla's uprising that resulted in the falling of the Funan Empire. On the same premises, we had argued that the rise of new Indian and Javanese dynasties, had its origin from the dispersion of the Khmer and the Kambojan court during the Chenla uprising (Dvaravati: The Indian escape ground: The eastern dynasties of India). In reversing their course, they were the contributing factor in the dynamic of the Khmer Cakaravatin Empire's politic that lasted until the medieval time. Except for the inscription of the great charter of Leyden, inscribed on copper plates, the Chola left very litte information of theirs own. From other sources, we know mostly about their exploits but virtually nothing of their background. Indications however show that they were formed by the Cham legacies of the Chalukya Court under the Chenla leadership. As we shall see, the emergence of the Chola had very close connection with the Southeast Asian development and its impact extended itself on both politic and culture of the Indian societies as well. Unfortunately, evidences show that western dependency started to take the upper hand on both Gangetic and South Indian royal houses and in the process, limited the interference of the next Angkorean Empire against the Tartarization.
In its collision course with the Tartarization, the Legacy of the Meru Culture started its accelerated decline. In South India, the Cholan Empire built itself to become the next Vishnuite powerhouse and started to incurse into the politic of Southeast Asia. It was at this critical moment that Angkor started to face serious crises of pertaining the safety of its cakravatin establishment. For the Angkorean scholars, the effects of the Kalayuga manifested themselves in many disguised forms of natural causes. Besides the traditional feud between the Sri Vijyan and the Cholan clans on religious believes, the change of environment added more strains into the union. Under specific premises, we shall look on specific impact created by the combination of social, cultural and economic factors that led to the final split between the two powerhouses.
The Geographical and Cultural Factor
Geographical restriction always plays important role in the sovereignty of a kingdom. Right after the flood, Southeast Asia was divided into two cultural epicenters. Nokor Phnom (The Mountain Kingdom) that was the seat of the Kun-Lun or Tian Culture was under King Samanta' s agriculturist development. On the other side, Nokor Tuk (the Water Kingdom) became the exploration ground of early humanity toward the sea (Prehistory: The Flood Culture: The Fish People and the Journey back to the Sea). The Buddhist folklore later commemorated the split of the Coladara and the Mahodara ream of the Naga King that were going to be ehoed in the Hindu folklore as the formation of MahaBharata from its epicenter Bharata ream of the gods. This split of the man race from the ream of gods was what the western scripture referred as the creation of Heaven and Earth. The Tai tradition furthermore provided additional information that it was Khun Khek who started the man venture on earth of the Mahadara ream of the Ocean Naga King. According to Vishnuite folklore, it was from the wast ocean that emerged the earth to become the home of humankind. Conforming to the Genesis of Adam and Eve being chased by God from the Eden of Heaven, the Malay aboriginal people were the first to venture out to the sea and through their sea-venturing skill colonized the earth of the Mahabharata world. The austronesians were next to venture out the sea, but due to their limitation they could not make their journey as far as their Malay compatriots. For most of their success stories, Java was most likely the farthest of their sea venture that they could make. Evidences also show that both polynesian and austronesian tribesmen had already incorporated ancient culture among their settlement in the new world, as more often enough their villages were run by a medicine man or Shaman. Practicing more or less the tradition of headhunting practices, they used the knowledge (of God and Evil) to create their own God through their existing spiritual world. According to the Genesis, it was their first sin against God and as we shall see, was not the last. In the history of mankind, men continued to challenge the authority of God and received punishment accordingly, as due to their bad Karmas. According to the Genesis, the next sin was committed by the descendants of Adam who built the great tower of Babylon to show off their own glory against the Moon God Tsin. As a punishment, they were spread through out the world after being induced to speak different language. It was intended to create misunderstanding and prevented them to conspire against God. Due to its geographical isolation, Southeast Asia was the last part of the world to be affected by the sins of men. Nevertheless, the impact was particularly strong since it was the birthplace of the world's cultures and leadership. In that perspective, the foundation of the Angkorean Empire could be regarded as a mix blessing for the Kun-Lun people. Angkor was formed as a cakravatin empire to consolidate all the factions back into the same entity. The unification of all courts under the Angkorean Empire, temporary resolved their politic and cultural difference but more rivalry soon weakened their alliance. Through aggressive expansion, each faction was more concerning about their own benefit than the overall welfare of the cakravatin Establishment. The secession was mostly made possible by the geographical remoteness of their locality. Often started by independent minds, they managed to detach themselves from the central authority. For Angkor, the local development was only just a small setback as compared to the overall Southeast Asian development. Remote sites of the continent had been explored and new communities sprung up by ventures from the established communities. To make the matter worst, the emergence of the Cholan Empire would set Java at the mercy of this South Indian Empire. The breakout from Angkor of the Mon country, officially known as Ramandesa, was due to the same environmental connection. Undeniably, the close communication between this western part of Indochina and southern India would facilitate the work of the Cholan Empire. Also noticeable, the Karenous, Jin and other mountainous tribesmen were spared from the new development mostly due to their geographical isolation. Evidences show that they were for the most of their existence closely connected to their environment (Nagadvipa: Sri Vijaya). On the demographic issue, Southeast Asia was no longer the homeland of the Kun-Lun (Kamara) people as seen by the Chinese in ancient time. In their modern assessment, scholars had established difference in Southeast Asian communities that were to become the next contributing factors of unrest that undermine the unification of the cakravatin establishment of Angkor. The split stayed until modern days to give the misconception of mass migration theory a start (Notes: The Mass Migration Theory). Our own finding would set this demographic diversion mainly through the interference of the Meru, the Rashu , the Param Kambojan and the Sri Vijayan culture.
The Politic and Economic Factor
During the early foundation of the Funan Empire, we know that Southeast Asia had abundant of natural resources. Fertile lands had provided good crops without much effort while fishes were abundant in river streams, lakes and ocean to feed the people. Precious metals such us gold and silver were easily mined and Southeast Asia earned its reputation as Sovannaphumi, the Land of Gold (Kamboja-Desa: The Funan Culture: The Societies). However, these resources were not the sole sources of wealth that sustained the mighty power of the Funan Empire. Once the natural resources had exhausted, it was the sea-trade that maintained Funan as the Southeast Asian economic powerhouse. Evidences show that Funan had made all necessary measures to secure its control of the Southern Sea-route. After the breakdown of Funan, the Khmer Empire spent the last half of the tenth century to develop its sovereignty on the mainland and worked to secure the control of the sea-trade business along with the Vijaya. At the same time, the Javanese court of Central Java was seen cooperating with the Chola of South India to develop the Cholan Empire of Southern Sea. In his Chu-Fan-Chi, the Chinese author Chau Ju-Kua provided detail information about a full blown sea-trade development between China and the Arab countries. It was compiled when he was holding the post of inspector of foreign trade in 1178 AD. Even though sketchy, the records were proved to be current of the time of its publication (CJK: Preface by the Chinese editor Li-Chau-Yuan, called Yu Tsun or Tung Shan: P.43). The provided observation was of a quality of eyewitness accounts pertaining countries that were involved with the sea trade business with China, including Angkor and its dependency, during the Sung Dynasty. As mentioned in the records, the early intercontinental trades between the west and the east were done through the country of Ta-Tche. Referred as the Arab countries, Ta-Tche (the Great Kingdom) was actually a reference to Mahabharata (Maha Nokor in Khmer) and its center of gravity was not always located at Saudi Arabia. Under the consortium of the Great family of leaderships, Ta-Tche was actually ruled by a Great King referred in Arab source as Maharaja who was apparently either appointed or elected by the consortium. The Arab source itself often mentioned that Maharaja was local to Southeast Asia as evidences show that the Sri Vijaya was actually the key player in the sea trade business from the beginning. So far, they had done tremendous job in building relationship with both the Arab countries and the court of China. Under the unifying factor of the Angkorean Empire, rivalry took a back seat and each of the contenders took their essential role in controlling the sea-trade to the common interest of all parties involved. While the Angkorean Empire took care of the coastal line from Champapura to Malaysia, the Sri Vijaya positioned itself for the control of the strait of Malakka. What contributed to the success story of the consortium was perhaps the collapse of the Hiong-nu leadership in Indian history (IH: Lords of the Unuiverse: p. 159). According to Indian history, Victories over the Huns were done by the effort of Baladitya along with the cooperation of the Mukhari and the Varadhana royal houses. The Maukharis, comprising one or more dynasties, had established themselves in Central Uttar Pradesh with their capital at Kanauj on the upper Ganga. On the other hand, Baladitya who was then a member of the late Gupta court, was apparently leading the Khmer consortium to fight against the Chenla uprising (Xiang-Mai: The Indra Consortium: The Pala and the Rise of Mahayana Buddhism). He was perhaps one of the founders of the Harha-Varadhana empire before he headed back to Southeast Asia to resolve the Khmer affair of Prey Nokor. With the Cham leadership subdued in both the Gangetic India and Southeast Asia, it was not before long that a descendant of his, Jayavarman II brought the Khmer Empire back to life. Economically, Angkor was formed as the last attempt to consolidate the sea-trade business without creating serious friction between all contending factions. It was when the Chola and the Sri Vijaya managed to coexist peacefully and together had propelled the sea-trade into becoming the next lucrative venture of Southeast Asia. Under the leadership of Yasovarman I, evidence shows that Angkor was strong enough to command respect from both the Sri Vijayan and the Cholan houses. The cooperation resulted in making Angkor into becoming a stronger cakravatin empire that enabled Yasovarman I to start embellishing his Middle-Kingdom Yasodhara. Unfortunately, the Angkorean success story had its side effect. A new International development would set the Chola to take control of Angkor and to wrest the sea-route from the Sri Vijaya. Skirmishes did not only destroy their well-established alliance but also failed the purpose of the Cakravatin Empire of Angkor as well. Each contender started to ignore the central leadership role of Angkor and in the process of defending its own interest was fighting for its own account. As the conflict aggravated, each party's negligence to common interest had led to a full-scale conflict and war was seen next as the only viable solution to end the conflict.
The Religious Factor
It is undeniable that religion had played important role in shaping up societies and subsequent empires in both Southeast Asia and India. Without the separation of the state from the religion, the world of politic and religious institutions intermingled. Under the cakravatin establishment, Buddhism and Hinduism had been complementing each other in the making of the Khmer Empire. While Buddhism had been introduced to the people and played important role in the social harmony and order, Hinduism was basically the ultimate player in the state decision making that separate the power elite from the people. Social classes had been distinguished, but the distinction between classes was not rigid and most of all was not based on Hindu casting system. Orthodoxy was however starting to emerge through the revision of eminent schools in both Hindu and Buddhism. While Visnuite and Sivaite each claimed their own universality, other branches with lesser gods emerged to serve lower stratum of societies in needs of worshipping (Notes: The Hindu casting system). These religious developments resulted in the emergence of many South Indian dynasties to be formed and fought for supremacy. At the end, the Chola seamed to get the upper hand and while taking control of the Hindu World, worked itself out to bring back the Vishnuite supremacy. On the opposite side, Buddhism was no match to Hinduism in term of promoting itself among powerful elite seeking to elevate themselves from the people. After the formation of the Pali canon of Buddhism, Ceylon emerged as the front-bearer of Hinayana flag. Evidences show that they were supported by the Sri Vijaya even though Mahayana sect was still dominant in the latter's court. As it was making its way deep and deeper in the core of the cakravatin establishment of Angkor, the Hinayana concept was soon confronted by the Hindu priests of the Chola clan (Notes: The practicality of Buddhism). While the Aditya's house of Brahmanism and the Soma line of Sivaism merged under Buddhism, the Rashu line of kings and their priests brought with them the orthodoxy of the new Hindu developments over the birth place of Buddha Gautama. It was part of the overall decline of Buddhism in India as prophesied by Buddha Gautama himself. Since the exodus of the Meru Culture from Middle East, the Abrahamic School of religious believe had been subjected for abuse. Under the God Ashura, Zoroastrinism was laying its claim over new development of Middle East. Under the initiative of the Emperor Constantine, Christianity became Rome's state religion and Rome' s propaganda for expansion through military mean (ARom: Romes Becomes Christian: p. 254). At the high of its might, Constantinople started the extension of its frontier along side with Christianity into the east. At the same time, Islam was conceived through similar practices that allowed the Arab countries to make their own odyssey for world expansion. Without the leadership of a living god, Ashura set the two religions in a clash course (Notes: The Conception of a world religion). Using the name of the same universal God to propel their agenda, they ended up fighting each other for supremacy. With Islam on the rise, the Arab countries started to regroup themselves and challenged Rome for supremacy. The situation complicated when Constantinople challenged the Muslim countries in the fight for Jerusalem and tried to break the monopoly of the Arab world in trading with the east. The legacy of the Sharia Law, conceived outside of the Meru Culture was invigorated more or less to propel the effectiveness of the holy wars to come. Amid the western development, Chao-Ju-Kua already mentioned that Constantinople had established control over the Gangetic India.
The country of Tien-Chu is subordinated to the country of Ta-Tsin, so all its rulers are selected by Ta-Tsin. (CJK: Tien-Chu: P. 110)
The intrusion of Constantinople to the east explains the emergence of the Solomon legacy of the next Angkorean kings of BottomSurya's lineage. Their feud with the Sri Vijaya, as we shall see, would have the big impact on Buddhism and the welfare of Southeast Asia ever since. Before attaining Nirvana, Buddha revealed to his disciples the course and the timeline of his religion during its first half and a prophecy of its future for the last part of the Yuga. It was predicted that Buddhism would face its major setbacks that started with its first disappearance from India. In tune with the world development, Vishnuism sprung up first in Southern India by the Cholan leadership to challenge both the Sri Vijaya and the Angkorean Empire. Their rivalry, as we shall see, was actually the main cause of the next political crises that change the course of the Angkorean Empire for good. As the Chola already had their own agenda, Angkor became their target. Joining with Angkor would provide them with opportunities to achieve their goal of launching Visnuite as the sole religion of the Cakravatin Empire. During the next reigns following Yasovarman's rule at Angkor, we shall see a development that allowed the Chola to strengthen its position in the Middle Kingdom.
THE CHOLAN INTRUSION
While Southeast Asia became the seat of a Buddhist Cakravatin Empire, a similar movement regrouped Indian scattered societies under Hindu religious schools. Unlike the Angkorean Empire, the Chola started as a consortium of Hindu ruling houses rather than a kingdom ran by a well-established court of its own. Its leadership was seen transplanted first at the Chalukya court under the lineage of the Pulakesin and later of Vikramaditya. Only after Rajaraja I (985-1014) took over the Chalukya court that the Chola officially emerged as an empire. It was then that the Rashu clan who was resident of the Tamil country since the Sangam era emerged from its dormant stage and started to expand its control over both northern India and Southeast Asia. Close to their traditional hometown of Ayudhya, the Pala resumed the legacy of Ramayana after being taken over by the Chola.
The Origin of the Cholas
Like other Indian royal houses, the Cholas did not leave much information of itself in the form of chronicle or stone inscriptions for the compiling of its modern history. From limited vestiges left behind, scholars knew that the consortium started its debut in 846 AD by king Vijayalaya (846-871). It coincide with waning of the Pallavas under the strong attack by the Chalukyas. Seizing Tanjore from the Muttarayar feudality lord of the Pandyas, Vijayalaya topped himself as the overlord of the South Indian feudality lords. Our assumption is that he was a member of the Sri Vijayan court (as indicated by his title) who after the fall of Funan, went out to carve themselves South Indian dominions at the expense of the local Pandya lords. The fact that his son Aditya (871-907) sided himself with the Pallava Overlord Oparajita against the Pandya suggest the presence of the Nandas in the Pallava's court. To recall back, the Aditya's legacy was actually an ancient lineage of the Sun God Uru who either served as ministers in the court of Meru in Mesopotamia or stayed as local native overlords of Southeast Asia. Of their Asiatic root, the Nandas were critical to the Sakan intrusion in both Gangetic and Southeast Asia. Their efforts to keep the Sakas out were fruitless due mostly to the latter' s advance in military prowess. Started from the fall of the Shang Dynasty, the intrusion of the Sakas in Southeast Asia became apparently a problem without solution. They brought the prejudice with them and more often than not the natives became their exploit (). Before he entered into Nirvana, Buddha Gautama was known to make supernatural efforts to pacify Southeast Asia to make ground for his religion. Despite his effort, he already predicted the course of Buddhism during the last of the Kalayuga during which time, the Nandas were to bear the Buddhist flag. According to Buddhist tradition, the throne of Maghadha was delegated to king Bimbissara, soon after Buddha Gautama escaped his palace to seek enlightenment in the forest. As time passed by, the descendants of Bimbissara fell more and more into immoral conduct. It was PadmaNanda who rose up to end the reign of the Sakyan king Ajatasatu and finally made a stop to the Sakan unjust rule in the Gangetic India. His action made his court becoming immediately subjected to the latter's retaliation. Alexander the Great was seen forcing his way to invade the Gangetic India, but circumstances stopped him from doing so. Disappointed, the Mauryas decided to conduct their own vendetta. Caught up with the Buddhist law of Dharma, Ashoka changed his mind and attitude and started a new Maryan Empire based on Buddhism. That would quiet down the Nandas who stayed in the background until another Sakan intrusion by the Hiong-nu or Cham leadership, made it way to change once again the politic of Gangetic India. Once again, another Nanda by the name of Vikramaditya, emerged to fight off the Cham rule over the Gangetic India. He was later credited as the liberator of Gangetic India from the Sakan leadership (Notes: The Work of Vikramaditya). Nevertheless, the incursion of the Hiong-nu from Central Asia continued and the Vakataka's court found itself displaced to Deccan. Champavati was then formed as a center of the Maghadhan Empire until Chandragupta II managed to take the Vakataka court under the Gupta Yoke by neutralizing the rising Cham power. At Southeast Asia, his son Kaundinya topped himself on the Cham throne and by forming the Khmer Empire, continued to fight off the Chinese incursion (Prey-Nokor: The Preceptor of Nokor Khmer: Kaundinya and the Nanda Dynasty). Subdued, the Chams seek protection from their victors and stayed close to the Khmer court of king Viravarman. At India, the Chams were being absorbed into the Buddhist consortium of the Gupta court, but some form of Taoism (based on the Rashu Cult) was also present along with petty Cham courts. During the Chenla uprising, the Chams rallied behind the Chenla Kings to fight against the Kushan (The Chenla Empire: A Cosmic Battle: The Rise and Fall of the Kushan). This complex arrangement explains the next emergence of the Cholan leadership in India after the Buddhist Khmer consortium formed Angkor. As we had argued, the next emergence of the Chalukya court ot South India was actually the outcome of the break-down of the Chenla Court of Southeast Asia. The Chalukya king Aditya who was more likely a descendant of Vikramaditya decided to take over the Pallava. In a final clash of 891, he managed to defeat the Pallava king and took Tondaimandalam. Alarmed at the growing power of the Chola, ancient Indian royal houses were in guard against the new Southeast Asian intruders. The Rashtrakuta king Krishna III conquered the Ganaga Kingdom and invade South India. He inflicted crushing defeat upon the Chola at Takkolam in 949 and took it under his control.
The Reign of Jayavarman IV (928-942)
Jayavarman IV was the maternal uncle of King Isanavarman II and seized power while his nephew was still reigning. Many indications implicate that he usurped the Angkorean throne from his nephew. First, he was not a direct descendant from Yasovaraman I and was connected to him only by marrying one of his sisters named Jayadevi. On the other hand, his crown name connected him to Jayavarman II or further back to Jayavarman Kaundinya, instead to Yasovarman direct lineage. After taking control of Angkor, he moved his capital from Yasodharapura to a place where he founded a new capital, Koh-Ker. At this new location, he built a mountain temple with a great five-stepped of pyramid, to shelter the linga of the God King Tribhuvanesvara. The change of capital confirms the political shift in the Angkorean court due to the increasing external conflict that would later contribute to the Dynastic Crisis. He left many inscriptions at the location of Prasat Damrei (Elephant Temple), in one of which he dedicated the erection of a Linga to his elder brother of the same mother named Rajendravarman. The short reign of Isanavarman II could then be due to his uncle's usurpation and that the Chola was making its way to take control of Angkor. An inscription found at the temple Andon (Eal temple), also located at Koh-Ker, appears to provide a better version for the transition. It appears that prejudice might have been the cause of the conflict that triggered the dynastic crisis (Notes: The transition between Isanavarman II and Jayavarman IV). Jayavarman IV took control over the Angkorean throne after a family's conflict erupted between Isanavarman II and the Sri Vijaya. Unfortunately, we could not know of the exact nature of the conflict that allows us to clarify that the ascension of Jayavarman IV of the Angkorean throne was actually not an act of usurpation against his nephew. Nevertheless, his reign appears to have the support from the Hindu court of Angkor and that the Sten-An Isanamurti who was a grandson of Sivasrama became his presiding priest (Acarya pradhana). It indicated that his ascension to the Angkorean throne was approved by the Angkorean court and could be an arrangement that allowed Isanavarman II to better challenging the Sri Vijaya court by moving back to Java. At the time that Angkor's suzerainty was extending itself to include the Southern Sea, his short reign could mean an unexpected change of itinerary of the Angkorean court that required Isanavarman II to leave Angkor. New development occurring at Java might have been a close connection to the Angkorean political under-change. The sudden emergence of Sinduk as the founder of Javanese power houses in the eastern part of the island signals an external interference into the Javanese court. His crown name of Sri Isana (vikramadharottungadeva) was on the other hand a legacy of the late Isanavarman of the Chenla clan. Scholars date the end of Isanavarman II's reign in 928, a year after the reign of Sri Isan at Java in 927 indicating a smooth transition between the two reigns. One reason that might suggest the sudden move was due to the picking up of business activities in Java where sea-trade was known to connect the west directly with China. It must be a rare opportunity to command more of his attention that forced him to make the decision. Under the religious name of Sinduk, he established the new Javanese Empire once again into becoming a maritime power. This surname could be related to the legacy of the Sumerian God King Meruduk (Notes: Meruduk) that was also a reminiscence of Dvaravati. In Angkor, the reign of Jayavarman IV appeared to be uneventful. He died in 942 and his posthumous name was Paramesivapada. The next king Harshavarman II (942-944) was his son with the queen Jayadevi. His posthumous name was Brahmaloka. His unusual short reign might indicate a crisis that was being cooked up between the Sri Vijaya and the Sailendra for the contention of the sea-trade. Throught out the dynamic development brought by all Sakan incursions of all kinds, the Cholas incorporated in their core tradition many Tartaric features of the Sakan world. During the next Angkorean development, they still retained the Khmer spirit of the past and according to the Angkorean tradition of Devaraja, they still observe Sivaism as an important part of the Trinity. As a Cakravatin Empire, Angkor's suzerainty was held through cooperation of its dependencies. So far, we had seen that Buddhism had played important role in helping Angkor to establish closer relationship with both the Javanese court and the Sri Vijaya.
Until now, the Angkorean court had carried on the near impossible task of maintaining unity between factions broken out of the Meru' s mainstream by foreign interference.
The Cholan Influence on Angkor
The apparent influence of the Chola on the reign of Rajendravarman I and his son Jayavarman V could be checked out through the settlement of South Indian priests at the heart of Angkor and the presence of Rajakolamontries serving in the Angkorean court. Further study is needed to find out the source and the historical meaning of the title that appeared in inscriptions specifically through out the two reigns (Notes: The Title Rajakolamontrie). Under the Rashtrakuta king Krishna III, the Chola turned into the dark side and Angkor became next his important alliance in the fight against the Kuruvas.
The Reign of Rajendravarman I (944-968)
He was a son of a sister of Yasovarman I named Mahendradevi who was married to a governor of Bhavapura (Lavo) named Mahendravarman. Through his mother side, he was a nephew of Jayavarman IV. The fact that both his parents having their titles associating to the God King Mahendra, related him to the legacy of the Chenla ruler, Citrasena. Before ascending the throne of Angkor, he inherited the throne of Bhavapura from his father. The findings convinced us that the Land Chenla Court was now back in good term with the Sailendra court of Angkor and was already accepted as part of Khmer Cakravatin Empire. Rajendravarman II was invited to ascend the Ankorean throne perhaps because the late king Harshavarman II was still very young. He had the same chaplain as Jayavarman IV, the Sten-An Atmasiva. He was the sponsor of the inscription at Baksei Chamkrong that defines the lineage of the Devaraja dynasty of which he listed himself at the end as the reigning Angkorean monarch. His legitimacy to the Angkorean throne was apparently settled through his maternal side. Nevertheless, the inscription of Preah Enkosei mentions that he was also a member of the Soma-Kaundinya Dynasty (SomaKaundinyavamsa) through the Baladitya ancestry (Inscription du Cambodge 4: Inscriptions de Vat Prah Einkosei: Inscription de la stele K. 263: Face A). This past connection strengthened his right to the Angkorean throne, but conveys to us that he was not part of the recent Anhgkorean main dynasty. His title "Rajendravarman" was hardly an Angkorean legacy as it appeared only at the first time in the list of the Angkoprian king. Instead, the title appeared to be more in use in the Cholan tradition of South India after the advent of king Rajaraja I taking over the course of the Cholan Dynasty. His tight connection with the Chola of South India could be checked out with the presence of Rajakula ministers (Rajakulamontrie) as mentioned in many of his inscriptions. The inscription of Bat Chum mentions that he is of the "Somanvayo rirasamangalabhudharac" dynasty (JA Tome XII, X serie: George Coedes, Les inscriptions de Bat Chum). Consistent with the fact that Theravada Buddhism was already wiped out from India, both kings practiced Mahayana Buddhism. The finding led us to believe that as members of the original Soma-Kaundinya family, his ancestors had spent most of their time in South India either in the Pallava or Chalukya royal house. The extending of the Angkorean court into the Cholan ream gave them the opportunity to join in into the Southeast Asian Cakravatin Empire. Rajendravarman I was obviously the first among the Cholan peers to take advantage of the new consortium and ascended the Angkorean throne. The fact that he moved the capital back to Yasodharapura proved that the Chola was now in full control of Angkor. As we shall see, there were military attempts to take control of Champapura during his reign. In the last years of Rajendravarman's reign, the Sten-An Vrah Guru Yajnavaraha built the beautiful temple of Banteay Srei to shelter the same Linga Tribhuvanamahesvara that was recently brought back from Koh-Ker. His posthumous name was Sivaloka.
The Reign of Jayavarman V (968-1001)
He succeeded his father Rajendravarman I in 968 when he was still very young. It was not until six years later that he finished his study under the direction of Prah Guru. Inscriptions erected during his reign continued to mention about his strong conviction to Hinduism and his connection to the Chola Empire of South India. Continuing the policy of his father Rajendravarman, Jayavarman V encouraged Indian priest to settle at Angkor. During his reign, two foreign (paradesa) Brahmans who were undoubtedly Indians, buying land and founding Sivaite sanctuaries. The great dignitary revealed by the inscriptions were, in general, like the king himself, adherents of the official Sivaism. He recruited imminent Brahmans from South Indian Hindu school to join in his court. Apparently these Brahmans were from the Cholan court of Raiaraja (985-1014) who, as we shall argue, might have been one of his close relative. The inscription found in the temple of Inkosey moreover mentions that he gave his sister Indralaksmi in marriage to the Indian Brahman Divakara-Bhatta (Le Cambodge: Le center de Siem-Reap, P. 405, by Etienen Aymonier). The Brahman was quoted to be born in India on the bank of Yamana and was the builder of various Sivaite structure. This cultural interchange in the high court of Angkor however appears to have little effect on the prospect of Buddhist practices at Angkor. As in previous reigns, Buddhism continued to be practiced by the people and officials of high ranking alike. From the doctrinal point of view, it presented itself as the heir of the Yogachara School and the representative of the "pure doctrine of the void and of subjectivity". Restored in Cambodia by the efforts of Kirtipandita, it borrowed part of its terminology from Hindu rituals and involved above all the worship of the Bodhisatva Lokesvara. We do not know much about the end of his reign during which the dynastic crisis brought the Sri Vijaya line of kings to take control of the Angkorean throne. Nevertheless, we know that when Sri Dharmaraja attacked the Angkorean court, Jayavarman V (the ruler of Lavo) had escaped to Haripangjaya and took over the Mon's throne for himself. According to the Mon tradition he died three years later (Notes: The Death of Jayavarman V). We do not know much about the rest of his descendants at Haripangjaya who, after an epidemic plague broke out, had to escape south to Tathon. The increase of activities of the Cholan court of Tanjore after the reign of Rajaraja I led us to believe that the fallen Khmer court went further to start their Indian venture at the Cholan headquarters of South India.
THE JAVANESE CONNECTION
A new phase of Javanese history started with the Cham development of Po-Nokor. Since then the history of Java became closely connected with the development of the Cham World. After the Chenla uprising, we had seen that Java became the refugee camp of both the fallen courts of Champapura and the Land Chenla of Prey-Nokor. In connection with the Chalukya and later the Chola, the Javanese court built itself up into becoming a powerhouse of the Southern Sea. During thr formation of Angkor, Java got itself entangled with the politic of the northern Javanese Sailendra house and became Buddhist. The unified Javanese house under the dynastic name of Sinduk, became since an important part in the development of Angkor and the mainland Indochina as a whole.
The Reign of Sinduk at Eastern Java (927-947)
Since the formation of Druvapura, Java became the seat of Vishnuism. As a legacy of the fallen Chenla house, the Javanese court was Vishnuite and was in close alliance with the Chola of South India. On the other hand, Buddhism was brought in by the new comer Sailendra in conjunction with the court of Sri Vijaya. Fight erupted during their first establishment in Central Java. After the Angkorean Cakravatin Empire was formed, evidences show that the two rivals came out into an agreement that bind them together. The subjugation and the absorption of the petty Javanese courts allowed the Sailendra to expand its control over all Javanese territory. Up to the 13th century, Sinduk was regarded as the founder of the eastern Javanese royal house that, as we shall see, was no other than the resuscitation of the Sailendra empire. His ascension started with the definitive move of the capital to the east between the mountains Sumeru and Wilis. Unlike his Javanese predecessors, Sinduk left a fairly number of stone inscriptions at the upper valley of the Brantas River. A legacy of the Angkorean Empire, stone inscriptions constituted valuable sources of historical facts in the study of the organization and institution of Java. We shall see an expansionist campaign that brought the Javanese court in becoming a new player of the South China's sea-trade. His venture went deep into western Java that included the Hindu stronghold of Bali. Normally controlled by the traditional Hindu top cast of the Brahmans, A new development to revive back Buddhism was underway in spite of the strong Hindu presence in his court. Scholars had attributed to his reign the composition of the work named Sang hyang kamahayanikan. Composed by Sambharasuryavarana, this work is a precious source of information for Javanese Buddhism, rarely present in Java after the exodus of the last Sailendra court (Xiang-Mai: The Indra Consorium: The Sailendra). Unfortunately his Buddhist drive have come to a face serious obstacles. Through Tartarization, South India became the seat of more cultural incursion from Middle East. Orthodox Vishnuism, carried by the bird's clan Garuda (annanuki in Sumerian folklore) started to challenge Buddhism for supremacy in the Cholan's controlled territory. The Chola then fell deeper and deeper into the sway of Zoroastrianism and the application of the Sharia Law was seen widespread over the Cholan dominion. During the high of its territorial expansion, Buddhism was virtually disappeared from the Indian Continent. As remarked by Cho-Ju-Kua, the common people became combative and devoted solely to robbery and added that Maghadha was once a Buddhist center.
Some says that the Law of Buddha originated in this country, for Hun-Tsang the master of tribidala in the Tang period, (when) he got the Buddhist classic (to bring to China), had already reach the west. (CJK: Chu Lien: p. 97)
At the same time, evidence show that the Chola Empire had already extended its Vishnuite influence on both the Javanese and the Angkorean courts. In a close associate with the Cholan royal house of South India, the Sailendra had to adjust its policy in regard to the western Sanjaya royal house. It invigorated the Hindu legacy of West Java, especially of Bali which under the leadership of the new Javanese court, became part of the Hindu cultural center of Java. After the Saivaite king Bailitung, descendant of Sanjaya, had returned back from East Java to Mataram of Central Java, the Javanese Empire was set to invade the Sri Vijaya. That explains the association of the Sailendra court with the Cholan Empire, later during the attack on both the Buddhist strongholds of Srey Langka and Sri Vijaya. Through the Cholan influence, we shall see that the Sailendra had to yield more to the Hindu influence. Even though Buddhism still prevailed, we shall see the leaning of future generation of Sinduk 's lineage more and more toward Vishnuism. Among his other great achievement, the Javanese version of the Ramayana epic was composed a little later in his reign (Notes: The Epic of Ramayana). Its theme was mostly vishnuite and was about the conflict between the Vishnuite Chola and the Buddhist State of Sri Langka. One might ask, is the Javanese Ramayana was just an epic story about the exploit of the fight between the Visnuite Chola empire and the Buddhist Kingdom of Sri Langka? Judging from the fact that in Hindu Tradition, it is the norm that historical facts were embedded in religious folklore to be easy mesmerized, the answer is yes. As we shall see later, we could find a complete information about the dynastic crises between the Vishnuite Cholan and the Sri Vijayan royal houses that plagued the suzerainty of Angkor embedded in this version of Ramayana. In the epic story, Sinduk himself received the role of the brother in arm to Rama in the fight against Ceylon. As portrayed in the epic, Rama dragged along his younger brother Lakshmana into the battle despise the latter' s lack of will to join in the fight against Sri Langka.
The Javanese Ramayana
In the Javanese Ramayana, the casts of Rama's ancestors were not all Vishnuite. The epic starts with the past history of the Javanese kings and how they were related to Middle Eastern political and religious figures of the Muslim world.
The Serat Kandas begins with Adam in Mecca and all his sons Abil, Kabil and Satan. Then comes a curious association of Noah and Uma. We come next to the account of the birth of Vishnu and Vasuki and Muslim figures then disappears. The genealogy of early Javanese kings is worked into the story. (HI: The Ramayana in Java, p. 73)
It is interesting to note that the three sons of Adam were mentioned as Abil, Kabil and Satan while in the Sumerian version were Ham, Sem ans Japhet. We recognize immediately that the second son Kabil of Adam was in fact representing the Sakan lineage who built Kabilvastu as the center of their Sakyan communities in Nepal. We also recognize that Japhet, the third son of Adam whom the Europeans claim as their ancestor was referred by the Muslim World as Satan. This Middle Eastern connection explains the Vishnuite interference and the fast expansion of Muslim into the region later in the history of Southeast Asia. As we had argued, Rama was an avatar of Vishnu whose manifestation was first at the Egyptian court and later in the Sakan (Cham) world where the Javanese court was a part of it.
The Ramayana begins with Canto 22 and only in Canto 46 is the birth of Rama given. In the Cantos 23 to 45 the ancestors of Rama are discussed, some are ancestors of Javanese princes. In this work, Rama is called Bhagava, Lakshmana Murdhaka and sita Sinta, Janaga is Kala and Jatayu Jintaya. (HI: The Ramayan in Java, p. 73)
In the casting, the hero of the epic Rama was a Bhagava and a divinity of the Saka kings. He was portrayed as of dark complexion that matched the Kala stock of the Middle Eastean or Tamil of South Indian origin. Lakshmana was on the other hand mentioned as Murdhaka or a Kamara, and was of golden or yellow complexion. It is likely that Murdhaka (Martakka) is the same as Marduk or Sinduk who was actually residing in the Javanese court (Notes: Sinduk as Murdhaka of the Ramayana). In this Javanese epic, the Meruduk Lakshmana plays a second role to the Kala (kling) Rama who was actually ruling over the Cholan Empire. The next passage is about the hero of the epic Hanuman, who was portrayed as the king of the white monkeys.
Hanuman (Anuman), who is the son of Rama and Sita, when both of them metaphosed into apes, loses his tail which he recovers in the sea of sand. Just at this point when the invasion of Lanka is going to begin, the author digresses into the story of the Pandavas. In canto 70 the story of Rama is again taken up. Then the sequel after Ravana's death is related. Ravana is buried under a mountain.
As a son of Rama and Sita, Hanuman could be related to a local king of the Cham Banis or Indonesians of Austronesian stocks. As the Chinese, the Austronesians had deep tradition of connecting the origin of their ancestors from monkeys. Coincidentally enough, the bad character of the epic is Ravana, the ruler of Sri Langka who was portrayed as belonging to the race of giant. His recent conflict with the South Indian Chola Empire resulted with the invasion of Rama into Sri Langka. As a religious figure, Rama was an avatar of Lord Vishnu, but as a political entity of South Inda, Rama was a subsidiary royal court of the Cholan Empire. A more descriptive account of the invasion of Sri Langka by the Chola could be found in the Buddhist chronicle of the Chulavamsa (). All set and done, the next campaign was against the Sri Vijaya.
A Chinese text recorded that at the end of the tenth century, a Sri Vijayan ambassador sent to the court of China reported the attack from Java and requested protection. During the winter of 992, it was learned from Canton that this ambassador, who had left the capital of China two years before, had learnt that his country had been invaded by She-po (Java) and as a consequence, had remained in Canton for a year. In the spring of 992, the ambassador went to Champa with his ship, but since he did not hear any good new there, he returned to China and requested that an imperial decree be promulgated placing San-fo-chi under the protection of China. About the same time, the Chinese court received Javanese envoys that brought corroborative information to China. They reported that their country was continually at war with San-fo-chi, but what they did not say was that the aggression came from them. In 995, the geographer Masudi spoke in grandiloquent terms of the "kingdom of the Maharaja", king of the islands of Zabag; among their exploits were Kalah and Sribuza. At 999 a Sri Vijaya king had moved his court to Vijaya of Prey-Nokor. He was known by his incomplete coronation name "Yang Pu ku Vijaya Sri" found in an inscription of the region.
Champapura as a Battle Ground Between the Sri Vijaya and the Sailendra
Since the formation of Angkor, Champapura had no royal house of its own. Its government so far was a delegation of the Angkorean court. The reign of Yasovarman I and later of Isanavarman II at Angkor revealed the Chenla legacy to be included into the Sailendra court through intermarriage. Since then the Javanese connection with Angkor was established. Similar development about Javanese influence over Champapura was already detected from the beginning of the ninth century. It confirms the claim that Yasovarman I inherited and also ruled over Champapura (The making of a cakravatin empire: The Deva Dynasty: The reign of King Yasovarman). A relative of the queen Tribhuvanadevi, Po Klung Pilih Rajadara, who continued to occupy high offices under the three following kings, went on a pilgrimage to Java. This Javanese connection with the new dynasty of Champa could be detected by the presence of Javanese art at Khuong-my and at Mi-son. His son Jayasaktivarman who succeeded him had a very short reign. During the next phase, we shall see the emergence of a new dynasty in Champapura as a consequence of the Cholan interference in the Angkorean court. The next king Bhadravarman II, whose family ties with his predecessor are not known, seems to have trouble accession. His successor, Indravarman, whose literary and philosophic knowledge is praised in epigraphs, consecrated a golden statue of Bhagavati in 918 at Po nagar in Nha trang. During his reign that lasted for forty years, he had to repel an army of Rajendravarman making it way to interfere in Champapura. It was during the early interference of the Cholan Empire taking hold of the Angkorean court after the usurpation of Jayavarman IV against his nephew Isanavarman II from the throne of Angkor. Apparently, the Sailendra was still in control of Champapura as an extension of their Central Javanese establishment. Their holding of Champapura however was to be challenged by the new Angkorean court of Cholan background that would make any attempts possible to lay claim over this eastern cardinal state of Angkor. By defeating the Cholan attack, Indravarman still kept Champapura under the Javanese control. The Angkorean army suffered a severe loss but managed to take the golden statue with them. In 951, 958 and 959 he sent embassies to the court of the Later Chou. His successor, Jaya Indravarman I, sent in 960 presents to the first emperor of the Sung. The alliance between the Sailendra and the dynasty of China whose accession brought up a new era of Buddhist expansion into the whole of Chinese continent, represented the ascending trend of Buddhism. Unfortunately, this Buddhist golden age was about to be over for the Sung Dynasty. The split with the Sailendra and the political uncertainty regarding to the Cholan expansion brought the Sri Vijaya to look for an escape ground and Prey-Nokor was on the top of their possible site. Being in close alliance with the Sailendra for many centuries, the Sri Vijaya had used Prey-Nokor for extending their commercial activity with China. Places such as the Tarim Vijaya were actually settled by Malay merchants in their day-to-day intercourse with Chinese merchants. From the Chinese sources, a Sri Vijayan ruler appears to have a troublesome reign over Champapura. Judging from the transcription of the Chinese text, his name was Paramesvara. It was the first attempt of the Sri Vijaya to take hold of Champapura as an escape ground. Away from its base and having no support from the Middle Kingdom, Paramesvara found himself in the odd position to survive the conflict. The situation was further aggravated by the interference of Dai-Viet who saw the vulnerability of the Sri Vijayan court as an opportunity to extend its frontier down South. Paramesvara lost his life while getting involved in Dai-Viet affair (ISSA: The Flowering of the Kingdoms of Angkor and Sri Vijaya: P. 123-125). At the same time, the breaking of the Buddhist Sailendra from the Sri Vijaya allowed the Sanjaya house to reemerge in Central Java, strengthened by its alliance with the Vishnuite Chola. In theirs new founded alliance, the Sanjaya and the Chola were now in position to claim theirs own supremacy. Their first mission was to consolidate back the control of Angkor over Prey-Nokor. They then launched a campaign against Dai-Viet who had overran both the legacies of Sailendra's control and the new settlements of the Sri Vijaya at Champapura. The ascension of Harivarman II on the throne of Vijaya in modern Binh Dinh around 988 signals the victory of their join campaign against the Vietnamese incursion in Champapura. He restored the God King Isanabhadrasvara at Mi-son in 991 and continued the diplomacy with China by exchanging presents in 992. He had also requested the freeing of 360 Cham prisoners detained at Annam. After a short period of peace, he started a campaign against Dai-Viet again. This time his campaign was to free Indrapura where he installed himself there. We can judge by his coronation title that Harivarman was a Visnuite. It reflects the political and cultural changes of the Javanese court in Central Java, under the influence of the Cholan Empire.
THE DYNASTIC CRISES
The inscription of Backsei-Cham-Krong gave us a continuous genealogy of Angkorean kings from the start-up of the Cakravatin Empire to the end of Rajendravarman I's reign. It was found at the temple known as Backsei-Cham-Krong that was built by Harshanavarman I that was perhaps dedicated to a legendary king whose reign was particularly connected to the dynastic crisis. Enduring many ordeals as a target of persecution of the reigning king, the king Backsei-Cham-Krong shared the same legendary past with the Rammana King Kyanzittha of Tathon (Ramanadesa: The three Dynasties: Kyanzittha). We shall see that the legendary king had close connection with the Chola court and also had the same ancestry from the Sailendra court. The fight appeared to happen neither at Tathon nor at Angkor, but at Sri Dhamraja where evidences of family disunion between the Sailendra and the Sri Vijaya had contributed to a sudden crisis.
The Conflict Between Java and Sri Vijaya
Starting from the ascension of jayavarman IV over the Angkorean throne, rough transitions could be noticed at each coronation event of the Angkorean throne. A long the way, we see changes across the membership of Angkorean consortium that tested the commitment of each royal house involved. In the history of Java, a Khmer princess pregnant with Udayana (Notes: The Khmer Princess), took refuge on Javanese soil (HI: Bali: P,). The princess, perhaps a consort of the Sri Vijaya king Sri Udayadityavarman, managed to escape to Java during the crisis. Her ordeal reflects the conflicts that later broke-up the two courts. The History of the Sung confirms about a succession of Sri Vijaya throne from the king Si-li Hu-ta-hsia-li-tan to the king Shih-li Wu-yeh. Scholars agree that Si-li Hu-ta-hsia-li-tan was a Chinese transcription of king Udayaditya and that Shih-li Wu-yeh was perhaps a transcription of Sri Viraujaya. It indicated a power transition from the king Sri Udayaditya whose reign ended in 960 to the new king Virauraja in 962 that was most likely due to internal crisis. The Mon tradition, in Jinakalamali chronicles, had attributed this period to the reign of the Malay king Sochita of Malay Peninsular under the name of Sri Viraujaya (Jayaviravarman in Khmer inscription). During the conflict, evidences show that the Sri Vijaya already made their move to take control of the Khmer seaport-city of Champapura. According to Chinese sources, a new king appeared on the throne of Champa in 972. Judging from the Chinese transcription of his name, he must have been Paramesvaravarman and must to be member of the Sri Vijayan court. He sent seven embassies to China between 972 and 979. The political changes in the court of Champapura reflected the split between the Sri Vijayan and the Sailendra that drove the latter into tighter alliance with the Cholan Empire. In a desperate move, the Sri Vijaya cut tie from the Sailendra and moved to take control of Champapura. Needless to say, this maneuver would draw retaliation from both the Sailendra and the Cholan courts. He was undoubtedly the same Cham ruler who sent embassies to China in 971,972,974, and 975. The accounts do not give the king's name. However embassies of 980 and 983 are said to come from a king Hsia-chih. It was during the reign of this king in 983, that the priest Fa-yu, returning from India where he had been seeking sacred books to be translated into Chinese. Arrived at San-fo-chi he met the Indian priest Mi-mo-lo-shish-li (Vimalasri), who after a short conversation entrusted him with a petition in which he expressed the desire to go to the Middle Kingdom and translate sacred books there. The situation reflects a total change in the internal politic of the Sri Vijayan court that prevented Fa-yu from completing his project in Sri Vijaya. The crisis that was due to the power fighting during the transition from Sri Udayaditya to Virauraja, undoubtedly split the long time alliance between the Sailendra and the Sri Vijayan houses. With no other information, we could not comment more on the cause of the crisis but we know fairly well what happened to Udayana. Apparently the Princess took refuge with the Javanese court and her baby was raised in the royal house of Sinduk. He later married a Javanese pricess and became the governor of Bali known under the name of Udayana (or Udayaditya). The inscriptions of the period 989-1022 bear his name of King Udayana and of queen Mahendradatta who was known as the great-granddaughter of Sinduk. By then, evidences show that a faction of the Javanese court already fell into the influence of the Chola and started harassing the Sri Vijaya. According to an inscription of Airlanga of 1041, the daughter of Sinduk named Isanatungavijaya, who was the wife of a certain Lokapala, succeeded her father. Their son and successor was Makutavamsavardhana whose daughter Mahendradatta was married to the prince Udayana of Bali. Around 990 a son of Makutavamsa, Dharmavamsa Tguh Anantavikrama, inaugurated an aggressive policy with regard to the Sri Vijaya. According to the Chinese source, he invaded Sri Vijaya in 992 (CJK: San-fo-tsi: P. 62). His son and successor, Airlanga (1016-1049) 's representation of himself as an incarnation of Vishnu reflects the late tendency toward Vishnuism. A Sanskrit inscription that was erected during his reign gives a genealogy of the lineage from Sinduk that stayed to become the next Javanese royal house. Like his ancestor, Airlanga retained the Laksmana legacy of Meruduk. His title is quoted in Sanskrit as "Jala-Anga" meaning the Water Dragon, was also a reminiscence of Meruduk. He was officially crowned under the name of "Sri Maharaja Rakai Halu Sri Lokesvara Dharmavamsa Airlanga Anandavikramatonggadeva ". After the weakening of the Sri Vijaya in 1025, he succeeded in expanding his rule over the Sri Vijayan ream. Apparently Maravijayottangavarman who, according to the inscription of the great charter of Leyden, became the ruler of Sri Vijaya was a member of his court.
The Cholan Court of Tanjore
In connection to the rising of the Chenla supremacy, Bhavavarman established a new era at 638 AD as the Chola Sakaraja. Since its consecration, evidences show that the era was observed by Southeast Asia and Ceylon ' s royal houses where the lineage of king Bhavavarman, Anurudha, had established strong presence after the Chenla's conquest. This Buddhist development had been since the beginning considered as a crucial factor for the formation of the Angkorean Empire. On the other side, we had not much information on how this era fit into the resuscitation of the Indian Cholan Dynasty, which after playing an important role in the history of South India during the Sangam era ceased to exert any effective political power for more than five hundred years. We know however that Chola Sakaraja predated the emergence of the modern Cholan consortium by more than two centuries. To answer the question, we had to look on the chamization since the get-go of western civilization being spread to South India. After the Kuru's war was won over by the Panduvas, modern history of India commemorates the start up of the Indian Sun Dynasty of Gancetic India, Manu Vaivasvata. The members of this Indian Solar dynasty were in fact the offspring's of Osiris and Isis who were conceived under the new Sun God Horus (The Western Civilization: The Impact of the Kalayuga: The Harrian and the Hittie). As we had see, the rise and fall of the Han Dynast of China was not due to natural selection process but to the cosmic force of the Godess of Po-Nokor (Champapura: The Cosmogony of Po-Nokor: The Han Dynasty). It was actually a global development very much happening during the rise of the Kalayuga. The return of Osiris and Isis back to Egypt coincided with the rise of the Hyksos . It was not before long that their industrious and war-like attitude. In the western world, the rise of Rome brought Europe into the next development of the Sun God Apollo that was going to eclipse the glory of Zeus. In China, the Han built Chinese communities to extend its expansion down to the Southern Sea. In Gangetic India, the foundation of Champavati (also known as Ayudhya) in the heart of the naga kingdom of Vanga was at the same time that we see the displacement of the Vakataka' s court to the south (The Indianization: The Rise of the Guptas: The Vakataka's Connection). Under this condition, the Nanda's house fell more and more under zoroastrianism. Despite the disturbance brought by the unrest of western development, we shall argue that the grass root Choladara house of Southeast Asia managed to generate a new order of its own. Adjusting to the New World Order, Vishnu was included as the third divine power of the trinity and Triphuvanaditya became the god-king of the Chola. On the same development, We shall see that Triphuvanesvara became the next god-king of Angkor. According to the Buddhist law of Karma, Po-nokor's cosmic force did not last forever. After the Han dynasty's collapse, the Nandas sprung themselves back to power. In India, after Vikramaditya freed the Vakataka court from the Chams, one of his descendants Kaundinya came to Southeast Asia and formed the Khmer Kingdom at Prey-Nokor after ridding off the Cham king in control of the region. Since then, the Cham leadership once again fell into obscurity. The next time that they rose up to power was during the Chenla uprising and became since absorbed in the Khmer Consortium of the Angkorean Cakravatin Empire. The Dynastic crisis between the Sri Vijaya and the Sailendra however brought back to Zoroastrianism to life. At first, evidences show that the Cholan house had made their best to resist the change. By defeating Vira Pandya and his Simhalese allies, the Cholan house recovered itself after King Sundara Chola or Parantaka II (957-973) recaptured Tondaimandalam. His successor, Rajaraja I, by conquering Vangi, started an aggressive policy up north to take control of the Gangetic India. As we shall see, the event coincides with the fall of the Cholan branch at Angkor during the reign of king Jayavarman V by the surprise attack of the Sri Vijaya. The title "Rajaraja" might have been the same as the Angkorean title "Rajadhiraja" retained by the ousted jayavarman V or his immediate successor from Angkor. We knew from the Mon's source that after the attack by Sri Dharmaraja, he had escaped to Haripangjaya where he reestablished connection with the Chola. The conquest over Manipura (Vanga) by Jayapala was seen next after jayavarman V ascended the throne of Haripangjaya. Supporting our argument, the emergence of Jayapala as a new progenator of the next Pala kings happened to earn the same title as "King of Kings" when he became ruler of Shahis that was located on the north western part of the Gangetic India. From the unfolding events bound together, we are confident that king Jayapala of Shahis was one of the Angkorean monarch Jayavarman V 's close relatives. By claiming the Angkorean title of Rajadhiraja, he went on challenging the new Angkorean court that was formed by the Sri Vijayan court, after Jayavarman V was ousted.
The Conflict Over the Sea Route
Since the formation of the Khmer Cakravatin Empire, we had argued that the Sailendra had hold on to the control of the eastern cardinal state of Angkor. In a good relationship with the Sri Vijaya that was developed since the early stage of the Khmer Empire, the Sailendra must to have some role in the control of the Sea Route. True to the fact that Prey-Nokor was always under their control, At least the eastern part of the sea-trade with China was controlled by them that was re-enforced after they became rulers of Angkor. As we had seen, Angkor became the true Middle Kingdom of the Cakravatin Empire under the reign of Yasovarman I whose origin was from the Sailendra Royal house. After fighting off the Sri Vijayan court of Ligor, the Sailendra was now in position to take full control the sea route. In his records, Chau Ju-Kua indicated that a certain ruler who styled himself as So-tan was actually taking care of the business.
There is among the kings of the country of Ta-Tche he who styled So-tan; every years he debuted men to send in tribute, and, if trouble is apprehended in the country, he orders Ta-Tche to use their military force to keep order. (CJK: Ta-Tsin: P. 103)
Otherwise undefined, So-tan was more likely a reference to Sodhara or Yasodhara house of the Sailendra court of Central Java. The records confirm that Central Java retained full control of Ta-Tche. The next ruler of Sri Vijaya named Chulamanivarmadeva was according to his title, a member of the Chola, but could be actually a Sailendra king. What happened next is a typical attempt of Chulamanivarmadeva to reopen the sea trade between India and China. At first, he would try to initiate the best of relationship with the Sung dynasty of China. As it had always been done in the past, it started with a tribute.
In the year 1003, the king Se-li-chu-la-wu-ni-fu-ma-tiau-hwa (Chulamanivarmadeva), sent two envoys to sent tribute. They told that in their country a Buddhist temple had been built in other to pray for the long life of the emperor and that they wanted a name and bells for it, by which the emperor would show that he appreciated their good intentions. An edict was issued by which the temple got the name of Cheng-tien-wan-shou (ten thousand years of receiving from heaven) and bells were casted to be given to them.
Other embassies were sent to China in 1004, 1008, 1016, 1017, and 1018. His son Maravijayottangavarman was already on the throne of Vijaya in 1008, for in that year he sent tribute to China. At the same time, a similar diplomatic work had also been initiated with the Cholan Court. Around 1005, following the example of his predecessor Balaputra who had built a monastery at Nalanda in Bengal, King Chulamanivarmadeva had built a Buddhist temple bearing his name, the Chulamanivarmanvihara, at Nagipattana. The Cholan king Rajaraja I appeared to honor the donation and offered the revenue of a large village to the temple (Notes: Rajaraja I Chola). An inscription known as the great charter of Leyden, made during the reign of Rajendrachola I in 1014, informs us that the new Chola king composed an edict for the village offered by his father Rajaraja to the Chulamanivarmanvihara. The inscription styles Maravijayottangavarman as the descendant of the Sailendra family, king of Srivijaya and Kataha. According to the Chu-fan-chi, the Chola kept their effort made to make contact with China by sending two embassies to China, the first one in 1015 and the second one in 1077 to work out a solution with the Sung court. The first one was conducted by Rajendrachola I at the start of his reign that marked the conquest over the Sri Vijayan ream. The second expedition was done during the reign of Rajendrachola III. Despise all the efforts, it appears that the Buddhist Court of China did not want any part of the Cholan plan and had already looked for an alternative way to avoid altogether the southern sea route. According to Chao-Ju-Kua, the land route through Yunnan was not only viable but also showed itself more suitable for the circumstance.
Concerning Wang-Chu-Sung tradition says that one that north of Kiau-Chi (Tongkin) one comes to Ta-Li and west of Ta-Li one comes to Wang-chu-Sung with less than thirty days. . . Yet as Ta-Mo came sailing across the sea to Pan-Yu (Quanton) we may fairly ask weather the sea journey is not more expeditious than the long overland one. (CJK: Chu-Lien: P. 97)
The plan allowed the Sri Vijaya to play a big role in controlling the land route, by bypassing algotegher the sea route that was at the time under the Cholan Control. Through the Muslim expedition, the Arab countries had already in control of the northwestern part of the Gangetic India. On the same development, we shall see that the Sri Vijayan court of Angkor had already made their move along side with the Xiang-Mai court, to take control of the Shan country and further north to Yunnan (The Sri Vijaya Connection: The Reorganization of the Siam Country: The Xiang-Mai Connection).
- ISSA: The Indianized States of Southeast Asia, by G. Coedes
- AInd: Ancient India, by R.C. Majumdar
- IH: India A History, by John Keay
- HI: History of Indonesia: Early and Medieval, By B.R. Chatterji
- ARom: Ancient Rome, By Robert Payne
- CJK: Chao Ju-Kua: His Work on the Chinese and Arab Trade in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries, entitled Chu-Fan-Chi, Translated from the Chinese and annotated by Friedrich Hirth and W.W. Rockhill
802-869: reign of Jayavarman II; 846-871: Vijayalaya started the Chola's consortium at Tanjore; 869-877: reign of Jayavarman III; 871-907: The reign of King Aditya I (Chola); 877-889: Reign of Indravarman II; 889-900: reign of Yasovarman; 900-922: The reign of Harshavarman I (at Angkor); 900-925: The reign of Harshadeva; (923-927): The reign of Isanavarman II: 927-947: The reign of Sinduk (Sri Isan at Eastern Java); 928-942: The reign of Jayavarman IV (Koh-Ker); 944-968: The reign of Rajendravarman I; 949: The Rashtrakuta king Krishna III defeated and took control of the Chola; 968-1001: The reign of Jayavarman V; 985-1014: The reign of the King Rajaraja I (Chola); 1014-1044: The reign of Rajendra I (Chola): 1022-: The reign of Airlanga (Java)
- The Mass Migration Theory
Mainly through elaborate mass migration theories, modern scholars formulated the emergence of the Mons and later the Tais as subsequent demographic change of the mainland Indochina. In Malay Peninsula, the new arrival of Austronesians from Southern China would create the Malay communities that promoted the seafaring lifestyle of the Polynesian people. Except for the Cham banis, our finding show that these mass migration that contributed to the different of demographic and political diversity of today happened mostly after the fall of Angkor.
- The Hindu casting system
From the start, Hindu created social casting system and enforced the elevation of the ruling classes that enhanced their powers. Orthodoxy extended the privilege to the high class by promising the status of divinity to the flag holders of the religion. For Buddhism, privilege is earned and not inherited. As its core basis challenges the practical concepts of divinity and emphasizes on the true application of Dharma, the Hinayana concept stripped the ruling classes of their inherited privilege.
- The practicality of Buddhism
As their privilege status was constantly under scrutiny, many rulers found themselves incompatible with Buddhism. It took many lives to waste and a lot of suffering before king Asoka started to realize his mistake and seriously considered the true dharma as the righteous way to conduct the state affair. Following his legacies, both Indian and Khmer Cakravatin Empire adopted Buddhism as its state religion.
- The Conception of a world religion
According to Sumerian cosmology, the last of the living god (Man) of this kappa was Buddha Gautama. In transition from Sivaism, Buddhism is supposed to be the last religion on earth before Metreiya started a new Kappa for himself.
- The transition between Isanavarman II and Jayavarman IV
The inscription of Prasat Andon, of the South pier, appears to provide the cause of transition from Isanavarman II to his uncle Jayavarman IV. In its paragraphs ranging from stanza XVI to the end.
XVII tasy Anujo bhut soda[r]y[ya]----kAntyA cricAnavarmammeti----XVIII- paramparyotsavoddAma dAna dAksin yasangatA sAdhu sAthArana yasya laksmi llileva yajvanAm XIX bhismo yenajito nitva sagunagAndIvan dhanuh brAjisnu karmmayogena jisnuneva YacasvinA XX- tat piyuh---[rA]ja crija[yavarman]ti---
From the description, we know that the passage was concerning a member of the court (Isanavarman II ?), descendant of Bhisma and worshipper of Liliva Laksmi. More information could provide us the answer if the paragraph is not fully unreadable.
- Southeast Asian and South Indian connection
It had been long accepted that Southeast Asia received a cultural transfer from South India. New evidences show in contrary, that South India had received the latest of the Southeast Asian development through the refugee courts of falling Funan Empire. Both the Chalukyan and Pallavas scriptures once thought to be the preceptors of the Khmer scriptures were postdated after the fall of the Funan (Kambojan) Empire. Their resemblance to the Khmer scriptures during the Chenla era was more than any other Indian scriptures. It lead us to believe that they were conceived at the Khmer court and were brought to South India, by both the Chalukya and Pallava courts.
- The Work of Vikramaditya
Modern scholars later identified Chandragupta II (380-414) as Vikramaditya who, according to legendary account, fought off the Saka leadership of Maghadha to start the Gupta Empire. Nevertheless, we shall refute the claim since the exploit of Vikramaditya that was dated 68 AD was long predating the formation of the Gupta court and to the most extend the birth of Chandragupta II. We believe that Vikramaditya was instead a Nanda and was a member Of the Vakataka 's court. His work against the Sakas (Chams) was crucial in reclaiming back the Maghadha Empire for the Vakataka court to stay as a Samvata. On the other hand, evidences show that Chandraditya II received his right over the Vakataka court rather through family affair's politic of manipulation.
In Mesopotamia, the God King of the last Cakravatin Empire of Babylon was Marduk or Meruduk (the Water Meru). This correlation led us to believe that Babylon was subordinated to Egypt under the Ramasura line of kings. The fight between Nebuzadbegar and Egypt however proved otherwise. Conforming to the shallow relationship with Zeus and Hardi, Poseidon broke free from his two brothers and join with the Nandas in the fight against the God Ashora (The Sakadvipa: The Saka of Daya Desa: The ParamKamboja).
- The Epic of Ramayana
- Sinduk as Murdhaka of the Ramayana
As Sin (Jin) is a Babylonian reference to Meru, Sinduk (Sin-duk) is a Javanese reference to Meruduk or Mardhaka (Martakka) of the Javanese Ramayana. The association of Sinduk to Mardhaka conveys his links to the Nanda line of kings.
- The Khmer Princess
She was mentioned as a Khmer princess since the Khmer legacy was dominant in both the Javanese and the Sri Vijaya courts. It was likely that she was born at the Khmer court when the Sailendra kings ascended the Angkorean throne. Evidences however show still that the three courts were retaining their own distinct background. Judging from the next events concerning the conflict, she was actually sent from the Javanesae court of Sinduk to be the consort of the Sri Vijayan king Udayadityavarman.
- The Title Rajakolamontrie
Etymologically Rajakolamontrie (Rajakola-montrie) referred to court members or ministers of Rajakola family. Rajakola was specifically meaning the royal family of both the Sun God Uru and the Moon God Tsin' s family. The fact that the Sumerian court was composed mostly of the Sun God's family members, the western (agriculturist) Nandas were often referred as the ministers of Royal family. From the finding, we believe that the title is closely connected to the Satanic root of western Nanda who, along with the Sakan royal houses, played important role in the development of western Culture.
- The Death of Jayavarman V
According to Mon's tradition, king Ucchitthacakkavatti (Jayavarman V) died three years later after he reigned at Haripangjaya. Considering that he left the Angkorean throne in 1001, his death would be around 1004 AD.