Project: The Sakadvipa
Author: Lem Chuck Moth
Started date: June/01/2003
Last updated: June/30/2016
All right reserved.
Since this paper is still drafted, the readers would be advised to ignore any context errors. The content is not final and subjected to be reviewed.
After the decline of the Meru culture, the western world started to build their own mythology. In the Egyptian pantheons, symbols of godhead started to show in depiction. In Crete where an early faction of the Egyptian court started their venture under the Cain ancestry, a different godhead was born to make-up the Greek mythology. As we shall see, the god Zeus who was a key figure in the early development of Greek and Eastern Europe, was actually a god king of the Sakan World. Historically, the Greek Empire took the lead and extended its military dominance over the rest of the European World. Following the legacy of their ancestors, the Greek monarchs built Central Asia to become the Tai-Yuan country of Daya-Desa (Notes: The kamboja vs the Tai-Yuan identity). We shall argue that this period of Greece's Mycennean civilization was in fact the same as the Shang dynasty's period of China. Nevertheless, scholars agreed that the Greek new history actually started from 800 BC with a new generation of leadership that brought Europe into a new era of progression. It was actually after the collapse of the Shang dynasty that scholars dated around 10o0 BCE that the displaced Shang court, in cooperation with the Tchou dynasty, brought a new wave of eastern civilization into Europe. At Central Asia, the emergence of the Yueh-Shih (Notes: The Yueh-Shih) reflected the changing phase of the Greek cosmogony. Following the footstep of the Kamboja, they moved to take control of Parthia and in the process chased them out from the region. Pursuing them deep into the Indian Continent, the Yueh established their controls along the Gange River. One of their command posts was the previous city named Champavati of Vanga founded by the Harivamsa dynasty (Civilization: Notes: Harivamsa). From that legacy, the new Sakan migrants who were making their way into the mainland Indochina were known also as the Cham. Arriving at Southeast Asia they were often referred by the locals as the Chuangs, in connection to their Central Asian past's legacy shared with the Kamboja as thieves. In the second century, the whole mainland of Indochina appeared on the map of Ptolemy under the Greek name Lestai meaning "thief" that was undoubtedly a reference to Kamboja-Desa (HCamb: Le Funan: P 21-22).
The Meru Legacy
The Siam chronicles are by far the only source of information about the Sakan incursion in the early Meru development of Southeast Asia (ASiam1: Chronicle de Simhanati: Chronicle de Suvann Kahamdeng). The chronicle started with the spread of the Meru culture by four of Meru descendants during the formation of the Meru Cakravatin Empire (Notes: Prya Mu). With their own court retinues and followers, each one of the four Meru Kings went out to establish his own dominion in one of the four cardinal continents of mount Himalayas. By building Egypt into becoming the Middle Kingdom of the whole earth, Sri Kambu (Ku-fu) started the human race through out his own offspring. From the northern Uttaracunda state was born Praya Corani whom we shall identified as the western Kambuja (Notes: Chorani vs Kambu) whose birth had very close connection to the emergence of the Simha kings in the court of Egypt and their offspring Zeus of Crete. As they were all under the same legacy of the Meru culture, we shall identify the other two siblings Hadis and Poseidon as the reminiscence of Pachhimacunda or the Western Meru and Dakkhinacunda or the Southern Meru (Meruduk), respectively. It is said that they were at first in good friendly relationship and were cooperative, but soon rivalry were taking place among them. At a certain time, each one of the four Meru cardinal states started to dispute and their quarrel led to the split of the Meru Cakravatin Empire. The three siblings were more or less connected with the western development that their existence were very well recounted in the Sakan tradition. In the feud, Zeus won the fight. In the Greek Cosmogony, Zeus made himself as the supreme god reigning over both the Earth and Heaven while his two siblings, Hadis and Poseidon, were downcast to take second roles in the next world order that changed along the time. While Hadis was confined to the Underworld, Poseidon spent the rest of his life wondering around the world and made himself known as the Sea Navigator. Their fight for supremacy became the cosmic manifestation that shaped up the next stage of the world politic. The eastern side of mount Himalayas that was the birth place of Meru culture was then still off limit to the western disturbance. Known also as the Kamara world or Nagadvipa, Southeast Asia was still retaining the Meru tradition and constituted the oriental world of the Meru culture.
THE BIRTH OF THE SAKAN NATION
After the formation of the Sumerian Cakravatin Empire, Mesopoatamia became the world trade center controlling the commercial activities of the world. Made possible by the cooperation of the Meru cardinal states, intercontinental trading started to flourish. In the search of high profit margin, Arab merchants were the big players in creating intercontinental highways between the west and the east. It was under these adverse circumstances that the Sakan nation was set to play important roles in the next worldwide development. As we shall see, the land trade route connecting the Mesopotamia and China would change the dynamic in both social and economic setting of Central Asia for good. Their affects would not only be restricted to the steppes but also to its surrounding areas as well.
The Trade Routes
The tradition of the Bahnar Krem tribesmen about the legacies of Yang Bot (King Samantha) spending his last days on the mountaintop trying to bring his eldest son to civilization explained the existence of Central Asian Tian-Shan Civilization (The Man Race: The Himalayan Culture: The Hilltop versus the Valley Civilization). Located on the Tian-Shan range, evidences show that Ta-Tsin exerted its influence over neighboring tribes through raids and invasion (The Man Race: The Himalayan Culture: The Jins of Nagaland). Born in the line of king Samanta, Meru took the lead and continued his ancestor's work in civilizing the human race. After marrying the Queen of the West he settled himself at Middle East and worked on developing the Moon Culture (The Man Culture: The Meru culture: The Aryan Identity). Mesopotamia became then the center of his Cakravatin establishment expanding its control over Middle East and beyond. In the process, the Meru (or Moon) Culture extended itself back into the rest of central Asia and in the Indus Valley. At first, land routes from Kamarakant to both Middle East and the Chinese continent might have been established since the formation of Ta-Tsin. Crossing through torrid regions and deserts, the journeys were obviously tedious. The condition would soon change as more accommodations were brought in to suit the fast growing intercontinental trading. Along the trade route, businessmen built trading posts or satraps as relay stations for their long journey between the two continents. Growing bigger and bigger, the satraps became the cultural centers of the Moon (Yueh in Chinese) Culture brought along by Middle Eastern settlers. Under the Moon Culture, the Sakan communities emerged from the grass root of the nomadic tribes into becoming new powerhouses of Central and Western Asia. The local peoples would find in these market places, better living than their traditional nomadic life-style could offer. As they became members of the new societies, they also adopted their culture. While the Arabs merchants were engaging in trading, the Kamboja were busied building-up infrastructure to safeguard and control the trade route. Located along the way, Parthia already set itself as a middle-agent to regulate the trade. Unfortunately, the success did not come free. As revenue potentially grew, rivalry popped-up that led to serious clashes between the two players. Echoed in Judean tradition as the assassination of Abel by Cain, the event started in the Egyptian court. The usurpation of Seth against his brother Osiris and his ascending the throne of Egypt was seen following the extensive expansion of his Cakravatin Empire. Later evidences show that the Sakan ventures went deep into the new territory that the Meru culture has not set foot before. At least in regard to the cultural or political interchange, European civilization dated since the beginning of the formation of the Egyptian Cakravatin Empire by king Kufu. The European Continent was then brought to civilization through Greece and Rome that were deeply connected to the Sakan world. In its tradition, the Greek's claim of eye-witnessing the Scythians dated much earlier and located their presence, as far-eastern as the Altai mountain range and as far-western as the Anatolia of Middle-eastern continent. These accounts contradict early assertion that the Saka, often confused with the Kamboja, were merely nomad tribesmen roaming the steppe as recent as the Christian era. Among vestiges unearthed of Central Asia, weapons and often enough horses and chariots were commonly found with remains of both man and woman warriors. The finding confirms that they were members of warlike communities ruled by warlords. Despite their apparent barbarous life-style, evidences show that they were highly organized and efficient in the battlefield. The uniformity among their rank was seen consistent along with their ability to work in-group, suggesting that they were more than just band of barbarian warriors. Through their advanced language and scripture, we could detect a high cultural legacy that was shared with Middle Eastern origin (Civilization: The Indus Valley: The legacies of Mesopotamia). It also clear that their presence in the steppe was not merely by coincidence and that their political developments could be seen closely connected to the dynamic of the intercontinental trade of the region that extended itself deep into the east. These finding leads us to believe that the Greek communities that hold many accounts of the Saka, as we shall see, were actually themselves part of the Sakan world. In the core of the Greek cultures, Zeus was conceived at Crete that was a maritime port of the Titan kings of Egypt. The formation of Rajagrha at Parthia confirms the Greek mythology about the Titan King Chronos extending his kingdom to the eastern world, mostly on the expense of his children. The next account about Zeus subduing his own brother Hadis and took the throne of the Heaven for himself, could be attributed to the emergence of the Shang dynasty (1558-1046 BC) of China (known by then as Mithilda) establishing his control at Anyang.
The Sakan Mythology
The next occurrence of human's history is closely connected with the account of the descendants of Adam and Eve in the Christian Bible, book of Genesis. It started with the feud between Cain and Abel and the assassination of the latter by his own brother. The split and the spread of modern men were further aggravated by the usurpation of Seth that drove the Sumerian communities out of Mesopotamia. It is undeniable that the two events changed the dynamic of the world civilization for good. At the same time, Seth extended his control over Central Asia from Middle East to the original ream of the Jin and formed its eastern stronghold of the Skytai warrior tribesmen. In conjunction with the formation of Anyang, the Tartaric development went deep into the Chinese continent and later Southeast Asia. The consecration of Zeus as the god of mount Olympus was hand in hand with the reigning of Lord Indra over both heaven and earth. The transcription of Sakaraja in Sino-Tibetan tongue was Saka-la or Yin-la that became respectively transcribed as Sakkra in Pali and Indra in Sanskrit. The first Indra kings known in modern history were the Chinese monarchs of the Shang dynasty who styled themselves as the Yin Kings. Their ream was Anyang (An-yang) which according to the Sumerian cosmology was meant to be the heaven kingdom (Notes: the Heaven Kingdom). It is thus not surprising that Chinese Emperors (of Anyang) styled themselves as the son of Heaven. Claiming to have the same power over the rain and the cloud, Lord Indra had made his way to defeat the Yang's supremacy in the political arena, in the same way that Greek Mythology proclaimed Zeus of Crete as the supreme God of both Heaven and Earth. After subduing his father Chronos, Zeus went on establishing many European localities, named after his many offspring who were born from his uncontrollable appetite for sex. In the new development, Zeus's sovereignty was not limited to the western world only. Through his offspring, Zeus ruled Europe and made his way to rule over Asia as well. In conjunction to the Shang or Yin dynasty of China, Indra emerged to challenge, not only the Titan Kings, but also the Yang or Kamara's ancestry as well. Of their fight, the Kamaras were overrun and as result, their ranks were reduced to mere Barbarians while the Saka claimed themselves as the civilized folks. Subdued, the defamed and despised Yang kings had to find refuge in Southeast Asia. Confucianism later abstracted the event as the start of the first cycle of the Yin-yang cosmology to be recorded after the great flood, in the Confucian's world. The feud split Central Asia to two political arens. Controlled by the Greek Empire, Parthia became since the seat of the Sakan royal houses that was known at first as Daya-Desa. On the other hand, the Kamarakant court that was the original preceptor of the Moon Culture was actually driven out to take refuge in the Gangetic India. Among the refugees of the Underworld was Osiris with his consort Isis who was ousted from the court of Egypt by Seth. Unfortunately, the Greek mythology ended sooner than it should be and left the impression that Zeus ruled both Heaven and Earth indefinitely. If the story line is allowed to continue, we shall see next the fight for supremacy between Zeus and his two contending brothers becoming more and more bloody. As the rivalry accentuated, the Hindu Cosmology set another high of the Kalayuga (Notes: The Three Phases of the Sakan Development). Their conflict was later becoming worldwide that led to the breakdown of the Meru Cakravatin Empire. The Tchou dynasty would soon emerged to challenge the Shang court and the Yang Kings were back again in control of the world (The Nagadvipa: The Hiong-Wang Kingdom: Lin-Yi or the Jungle Kingdom). After the heaven kingdom (Anyang) was overran by the Tchou, the court of Osiris went back to claim the Middle Eastean Cakaravatin Empire and it was Indra's turn to take refuge in the Underworld. His presence could be checked out by the rich traditions of Indra's intervention in the development of both Gangetic India and Southeast Asia. For instance, Malinda (Mala-Indra) was a reference to a monarch of Greek background and Indrapath, a locality of the Gangetic India (near New-Delhy of today) was itself a reminiscence of Anyang. From this time on, we saw the emergence of the Gacha (Elephant Race) Naga Kings making their presence known in both the Gangetic India and Southeast Asia as a remnant of the fallen Shang Dynasty. Rival in any ways, both Yin-yang cosmic forces have to yield, as we shall see, to the next coming event of the birth of Buddhism. Both the Anga King of the Colavamsa and the Lord Indra of the Mahavamsa, not only stopped their rivalry but also joined their effort to support Buddha Gautama in his quest for enlightenment. Becoming both strong promoter of Buddhism, the Naga king and Indra were mostly present in Buddhist literature and Indrapath became better known in Southeast Asia than in any other part of the world.
The Western Kambuja
Due to their highly nomadic life style, the native people of the steppes were mostly transient. The dynamic of their societies was due very much to extreme natural changes of the desert region. By following the court of Meru, the people of Central Asian stocks established themselves in Middle East during the early stage of Ta-Tsin's expansion. In the development, the natives of African origin joined in to form new Middle Eastern stocks. Their presence could be detected through their darker skin in contrast to the natural yellow color of Central Asian natives. In the reverse course of interbreeding, the "Kalavanna" meaning the dark complexity defined the new stocks of Central Asians of mix blood with the Middle Easterner migrants. At SamaraKanta, they were known as Kalakantas (the dark Kantas) while at the western site of mount Himalayas, they were known as the Kambojan or Pahlava. At that moment, recollection of the race of giant, spreading itself over the eastern world, became a source of the Hindu Folklore of the Yaksas. Of their physical strength, often mentioned as comparable to that of a lion, they were of physical stature taller than the native Asians. As much as their violent temper and cruelty was remembered by the locals, we do not know much about their origin. Besides that they were from the west and that Parthia was their stronghold along with the western Kamboja, the Yaksas left many legacies in ancient folklore to witness their existence in the past. In the epic of Gilgamesh, a strange figure named Enkidu was quoted to become Gilgamesh's servant and friend. In cooperation with Innana, Gilgamesh cut down the huluppu tree and received a gift from her of pikku and mikku, made out from the tree (SumerM: Myth of Origins: P. 33-35). The two objects then fell into the Netherworld and Gilgamesh was not able to retrieve them back. Enkidu volunterred himself to go to the Netherworld to retrieve the lost objects back for his master. Their close association with the Western Kamboja lent support to many accounts of the western world about a number of human races in close affiliation with giantism. In the accounts, they were quoted to be the result of interbreeding between the sons of heaven and the daughters of men. Evidences however proved that being of physical giant is not only of ethnic hereditary, but also of a knowledge of life extension as they were often mentioned to live of a very long life (Kamboja-Desa: The exploit of Funan: Pi kien or the Island of the Kambujas). Their nature and mythology connected them further to the Titan King of the Greek folklore who was himself the ancestor of Zeus. More study of the race of giant in past history conveys that they were actually members of the Western Kambojan warrior tribesmen who, according to the Mahabharata, were fighting for the Kaurauvas in the epic battle of Kuruksetra. The Mahabharata already mesmerized about their bravery in the battlefield. Despite their kinship with Krisna, their devotion to Meru still stayed strong under Balarama. Known also as the Yuans, the Parthian or Kambojan had their origin connected with Mesopotamia. Of their country known as Day-Desa, they were known also as the Tais. They invaded Central Asia and in the process spread the Yuan culture over the Mongoloid tribes. Their motive was to control the trade route and took profit by regulating the trade between the east and the west as middle agent. Their eastern stronghold, known as Tai-Yuan of western China, became the next Tartaric spreading ground of the Tai culture to the Chinese continent and down to Southeast Asia. Despite their apparent frivolous life-style and violent attitude, evidences show that the Kambojan were nevertheless civilized. On the cultural level, they were known to be fond of learning and of their scholarship merit, modern scholars do not hesitate to label them as Indo-Aryan. The Kamboj Brahmans who, according to Indian History, had been displaced along with the Pahlava from Northern India around the first century BC, were of Middle Eastern stocks. Famous for their high scholarship, they were respected and made themselves as the top cast of South Indian societies. It is also suggesting that some of them had ventured out of India and settled in South East Asia (Notes: The Palas). The Tai Tradition had an account about the incursion of the Yueh ruler named Mahadhamma into both the Indian and Indochinese continents that changed the cultural setting of the Lawa World for good.
During that time, the religion of Buddha did not exist, and Mahadhamma, born in the Ho country, conquered all of Jumbudvipa, at the exception of the eight thousands countries considered as extremely powerful.
Normally referring to the Indian continent, Jumbudvipa in the passage extended itself into the mainland Indochina as the conquest of the Kushan did not stop at India. The Ho country, in this case, was Parthia that included the western part of China of the Xia's territory.
THE RACE OF GIANT
Vestiges unearthed from archeology sites at the South of Hanoi allowed scholars to detect another evolution of Southeast Asian Culture. Named after its first site, the Dong-Son Culture was the next wave of civilization implanted on the native societies of Southeast Asia. Applying modern dating technology to the content of Dong-Son graves, archeologists were able to profile the Dong-Son society and date their early sites to be around 1000 BC. Evidence shows that the Dong-Son culture (1000-1BC) enjoyed the benefits of such cultural and technological advances as metallurgy, fine craftsmanship, and a centralized and socialized society. On the other hand, the Dong-Son communities were actually formed by the Sakan leadership on top of native tribesmen of Southeast Asia. Unlike the city of Yue-Xiang, other Yueh communities were founded long after the break down of the Shang Dynasty, and consisting only of Yueh leadership were not mentioned in Chinese texts as Yueh states of Varadhana.
The Dong-Son Culture
The mapping of all Dong-Son archeology sites with those of the Tian reveals the coexistence of the two cultures side by side. Overlapping of sites reveals the interference of the two cultures, especially on the fertile plain of northern Indochina. As the Tian Culture was basically spreading over the plains of the mainland Indochina, the Dong-Son culture was spreading all over the rest of Southeast Asia. At one of the Dong-Son site Co-la, northwest of Hanoi, a walled settlement of nearly 250 acres, a bronze drum was unearthed that weighed 160 pounds, which would have required the smelting of more than a ton of copper ore. This archeology finding about the Dong-Son drum inside a walled settlement of the Tian culture witness the territory loss of the latter to the emergence of the Dong-Son people. Still used among the Mien and other indigenous tribes of the southwestern part of China, the Dong-Son drums are actually gongs. The same ways that gongs are still used by the Khmer-Mon tribes in isolated places, the player uses multiple drums for their metallic sound. Unlike gongs, the Dong-Son drums were highly decorated with geographical patterns of Middle East. Common feature of the decoration consists of 14-pointed star on the tympanum that likely represents the Sun. The detail depiction revealed at great deal about the Dong-Son people who supposedly took hold of Southeast Asia around the first millennium BC. On some of the drums, the craftsmen had decorated the drums densely with scenes from their contemporary life. Model of warriors wearing elaborated feathered headdresses, carrying weapons and shields, reflects the local tradition of Naga societies being absorbed into the Dong-Son world. Some of these warriors were depicted using long shaped boats fitted with cabins and fighting platforms, a depiction that reveals a great deal about the mastering of water communication. In the middle of the first millennium BC, bronze artifacts included bucket-shaped situlae, lamps, dagger hilts, axes, plowshares, and ornaments. Also found were burial grounds in which bodies were accompanied by an assortment of iron implements, and occasionally by a bronze artifact. The Dong-Son culture, with its distinctive drums, was for many decades the best-known example of Southeast Asian civilization in the late first millennium BC. While it appeared to be substantially richer than its neighboring contemporaries, it enjoyed proximity not only to nearby deposits of copper and tin but also to overland trading routes. Clay objects reminiscent of Dong-Son drums prove the connection with Dong-Son culture. On the hills of Thailand's Chao-Phraya plains, archaeologists had found the remains of four Dong-Son style drums on the site of Ongbah Cave. In the few parts of the cave that had remained undisturbed, excavators found two types of burials: some bodies had been buried in boat-shaped wooden coffins and others had been buried without enclosure. The tradition of body burial in boat-shaped wooden coffins is uncommon among the Hoabinhian culture where bodies were buried without enclosures. However it was commonly found in Central Asia where Archeology unearthed mummies completely preserved inside wooden coffins. The skeletons found often project taller stature than the normal high of Southeast Asian natives. Some bodies were also found adorned with glass beads that could have come only from India revealing more of their origin. Richer findings among their graves suggest higher standard of Living of Aristocrat classes. These graves are proofs of foreign aristocrats making their way from Central Asia to take control of Southeast Asia. The finding confirms the account of Dvipavamsa that was later echoed in Mahavamsa, about the race of Giants (Yakhsa) taking hold of Southeast Asia (Langkadvipa) during the Buddha era. The presence of the Western Kambojan created such a stir among the local tribesmen of Southeast Asia. Their well-known immorality and their insatiable drive for sexual sensation became the topic of local legends. In Buddhist folklore, they were referred as MArA and were presented as the negative force against Buddha's quest for enlightenment. The Dvipavamsa moreover contains an elaborated account on the fight between Buddha Gautama with the race of the giant Yakhas. According to the chronicle, it was Buddha Gautama himself who came to Langkadvipa confronting the Yakhas and made an arrangement for hem to move up north to Kiridvipa (DVIPA: Adoration to the Vulnerable, holy, universal Sambhuddha: P. 122)
At that time the ground of Langka was covered with great forests and full of horrors; frightful, cruel, bloodthirsty Yakkhas of various kinds and savage, furious, pernicious Pisacas of various shapes and full of various thoughts, all had assembled together. I (Buddha Gautama) shall go there, in their midst; I shall dispelled the Yakkhas and put away the PiSaka, men shall be masters (of Langka).
By manifesting his supernatural power, Buddha Gautama frightened the Yakhsas and managed to convince them into moving from Langkadvipa to the Kiridvipa (Notes: The Kushan of Kiridvipa). After the Yakhas were driven out, Langkadvipa was back under the control of the Naga Kings.
The Bronze Age
The Bronze Age is a time period characterized by the use of bronze and other early features of urban civilization.
An ancient society is defined to be in the Bronze Age, either by smelting its own copper and alloying with other metals, or by trading for bronze from production areas elsewhere. Geography 's mapping show that the Bronze Culture was spread to the west as far as the Egyptian continent, to the east as far as the eastern tip of Chinese continent and most importantly the whole of Southeast Asia. The earliest bronze use have been found at the east, in the Majiayao culture site (between 3100 and 2700 BC), and from then on it gradually grew into the Bronze Age. The oldest bronze object found in China was a knife found at a Majiayao site in Dongxiang, Gansu, and dated to 2900-2740 BC. Further copper and bronze objects have been found at Machang-period sites in Gansu. Metallurgy spread to the middle and Lower Yellow River region in the late 3rd millennium BC. Bronze metallurgy in China originated in what is referred to as the Erlitou (Wade-Giles: Erh-li-t'ou) period. Some historians place it within the range of dates controlled by the Shang dynasty. Others believe the Erlitou sites belong to the preceding Xia (Wade-Giles: Hsia) dynasty. From these findings, scholars significantly credited the discovery of bronze in Mesopotamia and that bronze technology have been imported in other regions rather than discovered independently. The U.S. National Gallery of Art furthermore defines the Chinese Bronze Age as the "period between about 2000 BC and 771 BC," a period that begins with the Erlitou culture and ends abruptly with the disintegration of Western Tchou rule. Though this provides a concise frame of reference, it overlooks the continued importance of bronze in Chinese metallurgy and culture. On the same setting it also overlooks the use of bronze to cast the Gongs among Khmer-Mon indigenous tribesmen. Unlike the Dong-Son drums, the gongs were made with simpler process and lacked of elaborate decoration. The emergence of the Dong-Son Culture of Southeast Asia that, according to scholars started around 1000 BC and lasted until the Christian era, was actually the outcome of the trade with Middle East. The finding of the bronze use in Southeast Asia drove researchers to look for evidences of bronze casting and use outside of Dong-Son archeology arena. At one site in northern Thailand, bronze was being cast in double molds well before 2300 BC. The finding indicates earlier availability of the bronze casting, possibly earlier than 3000 BC. It was in fact substantially earlier than that of China and of India, even of Near East where scholars thought until now that where bronze-metal work actually began. It confirms that the bronze casting might start at the east independently from Middle East during the late phase of the Meru culture. It is consistent with the facts that metal work was not new to Southeast Asian natives and that the gold and silver had been long their first commodity. Despite of their appearance, the Kun-lun had been cited in Chinese texts as skillful craftsmen of the two precious metals since their recorded history. On the same development, scholars had identified many bronze communities to predate the Shang dynasty. For instances, the archeology sites of Majiayao and later of Erlitou that were actually known as remnant of the Togharian tribesmen were all been associated to the Xia dynasty. The Xia 's legacy was supposed to stay close to the Tian-Shan range. They were formed as a branch of the Nanda who stayed behind while Meru had made its way to Middle East. Unlike the Togharian, they were not current to the Meru development in Middle East and were still worshipping the Sun god. While the Bronze Age's origin is still debating, we know for sure that the Togharian was responsible for exploding the Bronze market to the west. As the Greek God Zeus was the offspring of Kronos (the king of the giant race), the presence of the Togharian in the Shang court could be checked out by score of burial ground where mummies could be unearthed and verified to be of unusual tall stature. It was perhaps for the Bronze market that the Togharian settled in Southeast Asia to look for the early deposit of Copper-tin ores. The statement is supported by the facts that there were no tin bronzes in western Asia before trading in bronze began in the third millennium BC. On the other hand, Copper-tin ores could be found rather easily in Southeast Asia. After the Tchou subdued the Shang dynasty, evidences show that the Togharian took refuge with the Tian and brought up the Dong-Son culture into becoming the start up of a new bronze era.
The Giants and the Magicians
The emergence of the Dong-Son Culture was dated at 1000 BC, approximately after the fall of the Shang dynasty. Coincidentally enough, the culture brought along the race of giant to spread through out Southeast Asia. As indicated in the Tai tradition about the advent of king Mahadhamma making his conquest over all Jambudvipa, the arrival of the Togharian brought to Southeast Asian natives all kind of hardship. Continuing the tradition of the Shang, the Tai aristocrats exploited natural resources of Southeast Asia, including slaves and bronze for the far-away European market. Driven out off Nagadvipa by Buddha Gautama, they formed the Tai-Yuan or Ho communities in the Shan country and continued to interface with Middle East through central Asia. In the Laotian uplands at the place called the plain of Jars, dozens of huge stone containers stand in and on the grounds. The locals believed that they were the work of giants who used them to hold grain and alcohol. The finding of a cremation grotto, filled with quantities of ash and human bones nearby suggests that the giant vases were also used in the cremation process. Burial gifts of glass and carnelian beads, cowry shells, bronze bells and bracelets, iron knives, and spears and arrows had been deposited. Subsequent radiocarbon testing indicated that the site dates between 300 BC and 300 AD.
A little farther south, the Halang Tribesmen still hold the story about the impact of the Tokharian invasion in their homeland.
Long ago the country in the vicinity of Viengtiane in Laos was invaded by giants 14 feet tall. (MGRV:The Halang:Tribal background:Legendary history)
They were the same Yakkhas who, as mentioned in the Dvipavamsa, were driven out by Buddha Gautama from Nagadvipa and settled in the Shan Country. Their presence would clash with the Yueh aristocrats who, as we shall see, were also looking for establishing their ventures among the natives.
Fleeing from the giants, a powerful magician, pha-sai, with his wife and children, journeyed down the Mekong River. Although his wife and children were drowned in a waterfall, the magician miraculously escaped. He continued down the Mekong River and up the Se San River, where he was captured by the tribes-people who lived on the riverbanks.
The magician of the story line was not one of the people of the tribesmen, but a member of the Yueh aristocrats on their migration south to find better living (Notes: The Cham Baseh). His escape from the Kambojan was obviously due to the attack of the latter on the Cham community of Champasaka, located near Viengtiane. Chased out from Langkadvipa, the Yakkha were not there to make friend with the Chams who were already establishing their control over the Lao country. Their first move was to wrest the control from the Cham and established their own authority over the region. Back to our story, the fugitive Cham found himself among the Khmer-Mon tribesmen.
These tribesmen who were united in a single nation and a composite of many tribes (including the Halang), treated the magician as a slave. One day, to show his power, he transformed all the children into fruits; a little later he transformed the fruits into children again.
The nation in the passage was obviously referring to Prey Nokor (or Lin-Yi in Chinese texts). As indicated in the Halang tradition, the indigenous tribes at the east were already part of the Hiong-Wang kingdom. Nevertheless, the fugitive Yueh took no time to trick his way up. Through his magic, he impressed the Village ruler to have himself freed and became a member of the latter's family. As we shall see, the Cham along with the Boloven tribes were forced to move and settled down to Southern Laos. The arrival of more Cham aristocrats enforced their political position at the location that was named later as Champapura where they built a lucrative seaport. At the mean time, Chinese Texts also reveal that Panduranga was once the home city of king Rajagrha and by inference was another conquest of the new Sakan comers. As Pandaranga was once the ancient city of Hiong-Wang, it is implying that the Kamara establishment had been pushed further and further south. We shall see that Prey Nokor, known in Chinese texts as Lin-Yi became their southern refuge (Prey Nokor: The Han expansion: The impact on the Indigenous people). At the western side of the Mainland, evidences show that the fall of Kamara leadership resulted in the creation of petty states under the control of Cham aristocrats who, with the support of the Han dynasty transformed the western part of Lin-Yi into becoming the Cham country. It was under this condition that the Kamara leadership later rose up to free Lin-Yi from both the control of the Cham aristocrats and the Han dynasty (Prey Nokor: The last Legacies of Hiong-Wang: The Chu Lien's Uprising).
THE TAI INCURSION
The Sumerian story of Gilgamesh and Innana to make their trips to the Netherworld, looking for the tree of life, could be interpreted as a close cultural dependency of Middle East. It explains the emergence of both the Western Kambojan and Hiong-Nu power elite in the next development of the Southeast Asia. Their incursion was however not limited through the southern passage but also from the north through Central Asia where they got their identities as Tai. The Siam chronicles are by far the only sources of information about the settlement of the Sakan immigrants in Southeast Asia (ASiam1: Chronicle de Simhanati: Chronicle de Suvann Kahamdeng). Since the earlier accounts were not dated, precaution had to be made in including these accounts along the local development of Southeast Asia.
King Simhanati and the Formation of Xiang-Saen
Due to their geographical locality in approximation to Central Asia, the Northern Siam countries had, in particular, rich Tai incursion's accounts recorded in their ancient tradition. As indicated in the chronicles, the incursion was mostly due to the Tai leadership that should not be confused with mass migration as formulated in the Tai Migration theory by later modern scholars. Mentioned to be from Parthia (known in Tai tradition as Daya-Desa), they came to top themselves over the Lawa communities and in the process established their kingdoms. According to the chronicle, the early Sakan development of Southeast Asia started since the invasion of Southeast Asia by the Ho king, Mahadhamma. The chronicle however recorded little development in northern Siam countries since most Lawa tribesmen were not bent to receive his teaching. The next Tai incursion that made a real impact was not direct from Central Asia, but from the Gangetic India (ASiam1: Chronicle de Simhanati: Chronicle de Simhanati). Unlike the early accounts, the settlement of king Simhanati at Xiang-Saen was fully dated. The event took place at 674 BC during the time that the Kushans had already established themselves at Gangetic India, side by side with the Nandas before the Buddhist era. It was contemporary to the emerging of the Saka-satraps along the Ganges River where the Kingdom of Kusala was found nearby Indrapath. The chronicle credited the expansion of the Saka control over Southeast Asia to the king named Divakara.
In the year Kot Chai 17 of Mahasakaraja, there was a monarch named Divakara, Chief of Daya, reigning in Nagara Tai Tet or Rajagaha Nagara Luang.
According to the chronicles, King Divakara sent his children in all direction to build their own kingdoms. His second son named Simhanatiraja was heading his way eastward to the northern region of Southeast Asia. It is important to note that at the time, his brother named Bimbisara already received (or was going to receive) the throne of Maghadha from King Sodhodhana. Apparently, Simhanatiraja took the opportunity of his brother reigning at Maghadha to carve his own dominion at the homeland of the Kamara (Krom in chronicle). His name Simhanati, says the chronicle, was an attribution to his physical strength comparable to a lion, a common characteristic of the Simha kings of the Saka stock.
Arriving at a location found with large space not far from the river stream of Menam Khalanati, he decided to camp and settled there. The ancient city Suvanna Kom Kaham was at the opposite shore of the river.
With the help of the naga king Bandu, he built his kingdom and named it BanduSimhanati after himself. Also known as the Yunak Country, Xiang-Saen was going to be the seat of more Saka incursion from Daya-Desa that was carried through out the northern region during the decline of the Kamara Culture. As the Sakya was part of the big Sakan family from Daya-Desa, the Sakyan connection of King Simhanati was made through king Minaraja of the Chola dynasty. Another important attribute of king Simhanati's descendant as mentioned in the chronicle, is a tradition that was consistent with the fact that the Sakyas were very conscious of keeping their bloodline pure in the transition of their heirs. The Siam chronicle mentioned clearly that the successors of King Simhanati had no mix blood with the people.
From Praya Sihanatiraja, founder of Vieng Bandhu Simhanati, thirty-five princes succeeded themselves on the throne. No one of them took wives from the people as queens; they were all the same bloodline as themselves.
It is important to note that the people of Xiang-Saen were not of Tai stock (as king Simhanati himself), but were belonging to the indigenous stocks of northern Indochina. The chronicle confirms that the Khmer communities of Suvanna Kom Kaham were formed previously by the Kamara king Suvanna Dvara Mukha who was directly descended from king Samantha through many generation of the Kuruvamsa (Kuru dynasty).
Then, 83602 monarchs, descendants of the first Suvanna Dvara Mukha succeeded him in Suvanna Kom Kaham and the dynasty ended. (ASiam1: Chronicle de Sinhanavati: History of the Origin of the Country of Suvanna Goma, that is of Suvanna Kom Kaham: P. 120)
According to the chronicle, King Simhanati's settlement at Xiang-Sen was challenged by the Kamara people of Umangsila (Xiang-Mai) from the start. Led by a local Krom rulers of the Kom Kaham's court, harassment started. Helped by the southern naga king Bandhu, king Simhanati was able to subdue the Krom ruler and took the Umangsila country as part of his country.
The Birth of the Sri Vijaya
According to Mahavamsa, the line of Sri Vijaya kings started with a princess of Vanga, while growing up, soothsayers prophesied that she would live with a king of the beasts. Leaving her palace on her way to Magadha, she met a lion on the road and instead of moving away she went ahead to greed him herself. They lived as a couple in a cave and she gave birth to a twin, a son named Sihabahu and a daughter named Sihasivali. The Dvipavamsa, on the other hand, provides more factual account by referring the lion beast as a man named Simha who was an outlaw that attack caravan en route to Maghadha (notes: The Dvipavamsa's account of Vijaya). The whole story might be just a fiction, but the Lion or Simha legacy was real and was going to become part of Indian culture in connection to the Kamboja royal houses (Kamboja-Desa: The Kamboj Legacy: The identity of Sri Kambu). The Simha Symbol was well known as an identity to the western Kambujan stock whose original stronghold was Parthis or Ganthara (The Nagadvipa: The Hiong-Wang Kingdom: The Tchou Dynasty). Also known as Daya-Desa and Rajagrha (the Royal Cave), Ganthara was the birthplace of Simha kings of western Kmbujan background. Called themselves Rajaputs, they were among well-established Indian royal houses but hardly received much consideration in Southeast Asia. His coupling with the princess of Vanga gave birth to a new line of Southeast Asian dynasty, the Sri Vijaya kings. Returning back home, one of their offspring named Sihabanu built his own kingdom called Sihapura and had thirty-two sons; the eldest was named Vijaya and the second Sumitta. Vijaya was of evil conduct and intolerable deeds of violence committed by him and his entourage angered the people. Pressured by overwhelming requests, king Sihabahu sent Vijaya and his followers, altogether seven hundred men, into exile. The men, women, and children were sent separately and landed in different locations. Vijaya and the men landed in Ceylon, in the region named Tambapanni while the women landed in Mahiladipaka. On the other hand, the exile Children of Vijaya and his men landed in Nagadvipa (Notes: The To Raja). It was on the Malay Peninsular that the Sri Vijayan communities later grew to become a powerful empire of Southeast Asia. The Dvipavamsa dated the event on the exact day when Buddha Gautama passed into Maha Parinibbana in 543 BC (Notes: The Dvipavamsa's account of Vijaya). According to Mahavamsa, Vijaya then met an indigenous native with whom he had two children. Expecting to receive the daughter of king Pandu of South India as his queen, he chased the mother and her kids away. Ending up living together as a couple at Malaya, the two kids produced a long line of Sri Vijayan descendants. While Vijaya built his empire at Langka with the support of his father-in-law king Pandu, his exiled children were living in Nagadvipa and were being absorbed into the Naga world. His long line of descendants bore their names ending either with Tissa or Naga. The Mahavamsa was however quiet about when the Sri Vijaya was actually initiated to Buddhism. Due to its isolation to the Buddhist center of Magadha, it is unlikely that the conversion of the Sri Vijaya took place before the arrival of the Ashoka's son Mahinda. Nevertheless, their marriage into the southern naga royal houses would transform them as members of the illustrated Kambunaga kings. During the last trip of Buddha Gautama to Nagadvipa, it is said that many of the Kambunaga kings had been converted to Buddhism. The Sri Vijaya was however not present at that time to be ordained by Buddha Gautama. With the delegation of the Maghadha throne to the king Bimbissara, the Nanda along with Buddhism went into decline. According to the Siam chronicle, all the Khmer-Mon communities in northern Siam were absorbed under the Simhanati court of Xiang-Saen. It was at this time that more Cham infiltration at the south started with the arrival of king Ajiraja from Gajarat. It was the high of the Cham establishment in south Asia under the watch of the Cham court of Magadha. After the death of king Bimbissara, his successors did not perform according to Buddha Gautama 's trust. Until the advent of PadmaNanda to rise up and took back the Maghadhan throne from the Bimbissara line of kings, Buddhism took a back seat. The clash between the Skythians and the Yueh-Shih aggravated the Tai incursion in Southeast Asia. To make the history of Central Asia even more complicate, the Hiung-Nu appeared for the first time in history at the end of the third century BC (ES: The first Thrust of the Hiung-Nu and the Migration of the Yueh-Shih). Their activities were seen at the moment that China had achieved unity under the Chin dynasty (221-206 BC). In a development that spread the Tartar Culture eastward, the emergence of the Hiung-Nu was nothing more than the latest occurrence of Central Asian Tartarisation. To safeguard China's western frontier, the emperor Chin Shis Huang-ti ordered his general Meng-Tien to build the Great Wall. The campaign of Meng-tien that drove the invaders out from northern China appears to stop altogether the infiltration of the Hiung-Nu through northern steppes. However it did not stop them from infiltrating through southern countries.
King Suvanna Kahamdeng and the Formation of Nararatha
The apparition of Hiung-Nu to ward off both the Skythians and the Yueh-Shis in Central Asia coincided with the rise of the Han dynasty taking control of Central China. Along with the mass Yueh migrations down south, the Han and went through central China to establish the Han court and at the same time transformed Kiao-Tche (Varadhana) as a Chinese southern province. At the same time, the displaced Wu court regrouped themselves at the west and not before long started on campaigning against the Han dynasty. Discarding out the control of the Yueh-shis at western Kansu, Tu-man (210 -209 BC) and his son Mao-tun (209-174 BC) started to build his empire at the southern part of the Chinese continent. Taking the opportunity of the decline of the Chin dynasty, Mao-tun invaded the Chinese province of Shansi in 201 BC and laid siege to the capital Tai-Yuan. The Han emperor Kao-Ti succeeded to drive them out but was himself trapped in a location at the frontier region of Shansi. He was rescued by the southern barbarian Shan-Yu who after receiving the hand of the Han princess, was allowed only to rule the mountainous region. The reward was by far less than has been promised. This incident was remembered in the Mien tradition of the Dog Pan-Hou taking control of the Western mountainous region as a token of recognition from the Han dynasty (The Tartarization: The Demographic Impact on Yunnan: The Yao or Dog People). We know now that Shan-Yu (Shan-Yueh or the mountainous Yueh) who went to rescue the Han King Kao-Ti was in fact the ruler of the Mien in close connection with Ashoka's third son, Piao-Tsiu-Ti. As to Tu-man, we shall identify him as a member of the Kambojean clan of Ganthara (Day-Desa), named Suvanna Kahamdeng who, through circumstances, became the progenator of the Tai world in northern Siam country. Etymologically the name "Tu-man" could mean in Chinese the "Red-man" that is in turn the reference of the Tai Word "Kahamdeng". His son Mao-tun was, on the other hand, well known in the Shan world as his legacy gave to the ancient state of Vanga, a new reference to its capital as Mong-Maolong (SHAN: Chapter II, Some Earlier Shans: P.18). Around 177 BC, Mao-tun succeed to discard the Yueh-Shih control of western Kansu and his son and successor Lao-Shang (174-161 BC) established the northern Siam countries. Legendary account about their habit of drinking from cups made from the skull of their subdued Yueh-Shih kings reflects the bad blood between them since the get-go of the formation of Mao-rung court. The account of Tu-man's incursion in the Siam countries is found in more detail in the Siam chronicle. It is said that the Lawa tribesmen were among many other indigenous people of Southeast Asia who were still left off from the instruction of Mahadhamma and considered as uncivilized. A decision was made in the court of Indra to choose one of Praya Chorani's sons named Suvanna Kahamdeng to bring the Lawa people to civilization. In an elaborate scheme, a devaput lured the rajaput away from his kingdom into the jungle and Suvanna Kahamdeng ended up settling with the Lawa tribes. After establishing his kingdom on the ground of Lawa tribesmen, Suvanna Kahamdeng taught the eight precepts and the observance of the truth to the Lawa's chief named Ba Muttalang who in turn taught them to his people. Happy to be elevated to the rank of Khun Luang Muttalang, the Lawa's Chief brought four Lawa girls to become the consorts of Suvanna Kahamdeng. Khun Luang Muttalang taught to the Lawa people what he learned about the observance for the truth and the five precepts of god's morale code:
Do not steal, do not lie, do not commit adultery, do not drink alcohol or consume any addicting substances, do not kill and commit murder.
From then on, the leaders of the Lawa tribes were chosen from the descendants of Suvanna Kahamdeng and his four Lawa consorts. It was supposedly how the Tai Culture was implanted in the Siam countries. Under the Kambojan King Praya Corani of Daya-Desa, the Lawa tribesmen became civilized. Calling themselves Tai in the chronicle, the non-Lawa tribesmen were members of the king Suvanna Kahamdeng court who followed him during his southern trip to the Lawa countries. The descendants of King Suvanna Kahamdeng and his Lawa consorts became the ruling class of the first Tai communities formed mostly on the ground of the Lawa tribesmen. It is said that the Lawas were happy under the Tai leadership until the reign of King Praya Khao when a sudden flood in the night wiped out their entire community of Xiang-Mai. The survivors regrouped themselves and founded a new community named as Muang Nararatha. According to the same tradition, Praya Khao was not a direct descendant from king Suvanna Kahamdeng, but was mentioned to be from the house of Prya Minaraja (Notes: Prya Minaraja). It indicates another Tai incursion into the politic of the Siam countries either directly from Central Asia or through the Gangetic India.
THE MAURYAN EXPANSION
The spread of Buddhism in the mainland of Indochina was well documented in many Buddhist chronicles. However the spread into the rest of Varadhana of the Tchou 's court was not. With the lack of documentation, we would assume that the spread of Buddhism into Chinese continent if it was ever existed was very limited. It was because under the leadership of Bimbissara's immediate descendants, Buddhism took a back seat until PadmaNanda wrested back the Maghadhan throne for himself. By then, the Tchou dynasty already lost its suzerainty to the Yueh feudal leadership of Annam. Until Ashoka took over the throne of Maghadha, Varadhana was very much isolated from the Indian Buddhist center. Facing with the rising of the Yueh leadership, the eastern Tchou dynasty was not in a position to exert control of Chinese territory.
The Tchou and the Yueh-Shih
In modern history of China, the founder of the Tchou dynasty came from an obscure and of modest background. Tradition says that he rose to power because of special circumstances that drove the Shang dynasty to decline. Through self-indulgence, the Shang court fell prey to immoral conduct and lost its mandate of heaven. The history of China credited the foundation of the Hiong-Wang kingdom to the works of three Tchou brothers. While the eldest brother took hold of Anyang the second brother ruled over Annam as the Wu dynasty. In addition to the important remark that the language and manners of Wu were the same as those of Yueh, there are strong evidences that the Wu was actually formed by the Tchou topping themselves on lower members of the Shang court. It explains the close connection between the Maurya of which Bimbissara was a member and the Sakyan lineage of King Sodhodhana of Kappilavathu. It proved that under the Tchou, the Wu gradually became the next closest of kin of the Sakyan lineage. After establishing the foundation of his religion in Southeast Asia, Buddha Gautama went back to his birthplace and entered into Nirvana. According to the Mahavamsa, the race of giants did not die down and were thriving at Giridvipa (the Shan country). In connection with their peers, they built Central Asia once again as a homeland of a powerful empire known as the Yueh-Shih. Infiltrated themselves into the lower stratum of the Wu dynasty, they made themselves master of Annamete people. After the reign of Bimbissara, the Sakan kings lost their faith in Buddhism and fell into immoral conduct. Buddhist tradition attributes the Mauryan dynasty to be lined from king SuNaga who was a minister of the king Nagadasaka. As the title Nagadasaka (Naga-Dasakar) means the Servant of the Naga, Nagadasaka was not part of Sakyan lineage. Evidences further implicate that Nagadasaka's lineage was among the Simha kings who were perceived as unjust ksatryas. After a series of patricidal, the people were enough and rose up requesting to replace him with his minister Sunaga. After the latter's death, the throne went to his son, Kalasoka whose reign was cut short by another unexpected event. An obscure figure by the name of Mahapadma Nanda rose-up against him and later founded the Nanda dynasty to take hold of the Magadhan throne (Notes: The Nanda Dynasty). His disdain and campaign against the Sakas induced the Sakabrahmana Junakia to seek revenge and to destroy the Nanda any way he could find. He first hoped that the attack of Alexander the Great would fulfill his wish dashed after the latter abandoned his plan to invade India (Notes: The Gacha Naga and the Greek Empire). After subduing the Persian Empire, the Greek monarch turned his attention on the eastern Nanda. Just as he prepared for the attack, he changed his mind. Many scholars believe that the Nanda's prestige scared off his army who, through exhaustion, refused to take on the attack. The abandonment of his long time planned project was obviously not an easy decision, but Alexander was forced to face the reality that the Nandas were not there for easy conquering. In addition, he knew quite well that his armies were worn out and that his time was also running short. To the disappointment of Junakia, Alexander abandoned his plan and retracted his troupes into Mesopotamia where he died in Babylon. Ashoka who was an apprentice of Junakia decided to carry on the task against the Nanda and lost himself in his own vendetta. He was particularly known of violent temper that displayed itself during the battle with the Nanda. Of his ambitious mind, his campaign went beyond the Gangetic India to the east. The establishment of his capital at Pattalibut might have been part of this out of India eastern campaign. As mentioned in the Yunnan chronicle, Ashoka planned his next move through cleaver maneuvering. Known as the Bambu plantation, the scheme involved with infiltrating members of his family into the target territory and then established their authority over the local indigenous courts. Ashoka's cruelty during wartime was legendary and during his last assault to Kalinga, many lives were shed without restraint. Committed while claiming himself as the beloved son of the god (or gods), Ashoka spread terror along his Gangetic conquest. It turned out that Ashoka's mistake was common of all bad practices of the Abrahmic schools of the west in regard of worshipping the god of the universe (Notes: The Ten Commandments). After recovering himself from the madness, Ashoka was in a deep state of remorse as his conscience came back to hunt him during the rest of his life. After finding some consolation in the Buddhist law of dharma, he devoted himself to undo his mistake and to spread his newly found way of Righteousness. After finding faith in the law of dharma, Ashoka spent the rest of his life committing to the cause of Buddhism. His descendants continued his work in bringing up the Buddhist expansion globally. Through the Buddhist development, evidences show that the Nanda and the Maurya settled their difference and joined forces to promote Buddhism abroad.
The Mauryan and the Spread of Buddhism
In his inscriptions, Ashoka mentioned about the sending of Buddhist missionaries to many parts of the world. Among them, Gandhara stood out because it was actually where the Yueh-Shih of Gangetic India came from. The fact that Kanishaka at Gandhara was a devout Buddhist conveys that he received the faith from the Buddhist delegation sent from the Ashoka court and that the Mauryan clan itself was a scion of the Yueh-Shih. In expanding the Mauryan Empire, Ashoka was known to send his own children in many parts of the world. The Yunnan chronicle provides an account about the settlement of Ashoka's three sons who, through an elaborate maneuvering, had established themselves deep in the Tian country.
At the time of Tchou, the king of Mo-kie-kouo, country of India at the west, A-yu-wang had three sons: Fou-pang the eldest, Hong-to the second and Tche-lo the third.
The story continues with Ahsoka having a horse of golden color that each the three sons all eyed and wanted to have it under his own possession. Ashoka announced that he would release the horse and whoever catches it would be his. In a special favor for his third son, Piao-Tsiu-Ti, Ashoka secretly gave the horse's mate to him. Piao-Tsiu-Ti installed all members of his court at the east at a location later called Kin-ma and waited for the golden horse to come finding the mate. After settling in his new home, Piao-Tsiu-Ti left his legacies in many oriental Buddhist communities in the east. The Piao or the Pyu states, founded on the ground of the northern Mien peoples, owed their legacies and identities to him. According to Burmese tradition, the Piao expansion to the south could be detected along the Irrawadi Valley through Buddhist centers known as Pyuksetra (Ramanadesa: The foundation of Pagan). However, evidences would show that it was his son, Ti-Mang-Tsiu who, by continuing to extend his work farther east deep into the Chinese continent, brough Buddhism to the eastern world. Elaborating on the Nan-Tchao chronicle, the Heou hanTchou includes a passage referring to the establishment of Piao-Tsiu-Ti's descendants to the east.
The king A-yu (Ashoka) of Magadha had his third son Piao-Tsiu-Ti; the latter had with his wife Kien-mong-kouei a son named Ti-mong-tsiu; Ti-mong-tsiu had nine sons who were the ancestors of the Tibetains, the Chineses, the Annamites, the Singhaleses, the Nan-Tchao, the Pa-yi, etc. (BEFEO IV: Deux itineraires de Chine en Inde: Page 166, Paul Pelliot).
It is customary that ancient Chinese records used the word "ancestor" to denote the founder of a race through a cultural spread over a community instead of the biological ancestor of the people. Piao-sui-ti's legacy would make his name "Piao or Pyu" particularly connected with the Mien (Myanmeru) and Narma (Narmeru) communities that gave them their second identity as "the Piao or the Pyu" as remembered by the locals. On the same premises, Mang-Sui-Ti gave the Khmer communities their second identity as "the Mang". His nine sons would spread themselves to rule over Southeast Asia and beyond. Ceylon was also mentioned as another Mauryan establishment that was set to become the Buddhist center of Southeast Asia. Ashoka's ordained son named Mahinda, on the other hand, was also known to make his brilliant career in establishing Buddhism at Ceylon. Together with the Sri Vijaya, they strengthened the naga legacies of Mahadara by forming the Kambunaga ruling houses over Southeast Asian communities until the arrival of Kaundinya in the beginning of the fourth century who would revive back the Khmer legacy in Southeast Asia. The cooperation with the Sri Vijayan lines of kings obviously added more strength to the Buddhist consortium of Southeast Asia. As remnant of the displaced Simha kings, they were originally belonged to the Kambojan race from Middle East. For that reason, scholars connect Ta-Tche to the Arab Country while Arab tradition has not much to say about that. The only comment so far about Ta-Tche in Arab source is that it was the kingdom of the Maharaja where Arab merchants came to trade with the eastern world. It agrees with the fact that Atche was becoming a big commercial seaport with the West, after the settlement at Mataram of King Ajiraja from Gujarat (Sakadvipa: The Champa Saka: The Saka origin of king Ajiraja). The existence of Maha Nokor or Ta-Tche in close connection with Middle Eastern Sea Trade is on the other hand confirmed in Chinese source. A passage of the Chinese text, Song Che Mings, indicates a close connection between the country of Ta-Tche with Pin-Ta-Lo.
The third year, the second month, at the day Jen-siu, the country Ta-che and Pin-tong-long brought together tributes. (PanDur: Textes Chinois sur Panduranga)
The passage indicates that Ta-Tche included the Malay Archipelago and was located in the Bay of Bandong (another short form of Pandaranga).
- ISSA: The Indianized States of Southeast Asia, by G. Coedes
- CKH: The Chronicle of Khmer Heroes, by Sot Eng
- MGRV: Minority groups in the Republic of Vietnam, Department of the army pamphlet
- ASiam1: Annales du Siam, Premier Partie, Translated by Camille Notton
- NTchao: Histoire particuliere du Nan-Tchao, by Yang Chen, Translated by Camille Sainson
- HCamb: Histoire du Cambodge, by Adhemard Leclaire
- Sarma: The SarmaTian, T. Sulimirski
- TSila: A Guide to Taxila, Sir John Marshall
- BChina:The Birth of China, by Herrlee Glessner Creel
- TECA: The Tibetan Empire in Central Asia, by Christopher I. Beckwith
- ES:The Empire of the Steppes/ A history of Central Asia, by Rene Grousset, translated by Naomi Welfort
- HCA: The Heritage of Central Asia From Antiquity to the Turkish Expansion, By Richard N. Frye
- AGr: Ancient Greece A Concise History, by Peter Green
- SumerH: The Sumerian, their history, Culture, and Character, by Samuel Noah Kramer
- SumerM: Sumerian Mythology, by Samuel Noah Kramer
- BA: Bronze Age, Wikipedia
3300-1200 BC: Bronze age; 2300 BC: The Jins left the footsteps of Himalayas toward the plain; 2070-1600 BC: Xia dynasty; 1300-1046 BC: Shang or Yin dynasty; 1200-800 BC: Greek Dark Ages; 1046-771 BC: Western Tchou dynasty; 771-221 BC: Eastern Tchou Dynasty; 1000-1BC: Dong-Son Culture; 543 BC: Buddha passed into Maha Parinibbana; 356- 323 BC: Alexander the Great was a ruler of Grece; 322-185 BC: The Mauryan Empire; 221-207 BC: Quin Dynasty; 206 BC-220: Han Dynasty; 68 BC: MahaSakaraja set by Kanishka.
- The kamboja vs the Tai-Yuan identity
The vast territory controlled by the Xia and later the Shang or Yin Dynasties included both Middle Eastern and the Chinese continents. Even though receiving mostly the same Yueh or Soma Culture, we noticed the split along the line between the Middle Eastern Kambojan stocks and the Asiatic inhabitants of Tai-Yuan who were mostly Mien. The confusion of identity between the two peoples arises when they were referred by the same leadership.
- The Yueh-Shih
According to the Tibet Tradition, the Yueh-Shih split themselves in two groups (TECA: Before the Empire).
What may have been a crucial formative influence on the proto-Tibetans was the migration of the people known in Chinese source as hsiao (or little) Yueh-Shih , a branch of the Ta (Great) Yueh-Shih . Defeated by the Hiung-Nu in the second century BC, the Ta-Shih migrated to Bactria and was identified as the Togharian. Those among who were unable to make the trip moved instead in the Nan-Shan area, were they mixed with the Chiang (Xiang) tribes, and became like them in custom and language.
While the Ta-Yueh-shis was forced to escape west, the Chao-Yueh-Shih moved into the southern Chinese continent and mixed themselves with the Tai tribes and other indigenous of Yunnan. That concludes the Yueh (often mistaken as Tai) Migration theory (Prey Nokor: The Han expansion: The Yueh Migration theory).
- Prya Mu
Prya Mu is wrongly translated as "Sovereign Porc" by Camille Notton. The same as the Chinese, the Thai refers Mu as Meru.
- The Palas
According to some scholars, the Pahlava were pushed southward to become the Pallavas and eastward to become the Palas. Our evidence shows instead that even though in close connection with the Kamboja stock, the Pala kings were in fact rooted from the Nandas. The word "Pala" which is in Sanskrit meaning force, could also be derived from the word "Bala" meaning "protector", a close connection of the Middle Eastern "Baal" of Nanda. On the same premises, it has also a close meaning with the word "varman" meaning "protégée", used in most Southeast Asian Kambojan monarchs. As we shall see, these Southeast Asian monarchs were direct descendants from the Nandas and thus became their protege (Xiang-Mai: The Indra Consortium: Sri Sundarapakrama of Ayudhya).
- The Ascetics of Taxila
Though the Greeks who accompanied Alexander have much to say about India in general, they have little to say about Taxila. It was the first great city where a western foreign was stirred by the sight of ascetics practicing their austerities beneath the burning Indian Sun.
they mention two ascetics (Brahmans) in particular, one with a shaven head, one with long hair. Both were followed by a group of disciples and both were accustomed to give advice to all and sundry in the market-place, where they enjoyed the privilege of taking anything they wanted without payment((TSila: Historical: Notice of Taxila derived from contemporary Greek Writers: Strabo Xv, c. 714-15)
The type of Brahmans with shaven head might have been Buddhist monks, already teaching Buddhist doctrine in Taxila. Right after Ashoka converted himself to Buddhist, he sent Buddhist missionaries to Parthia for extending Buddhism to the West. The Kushan who were Buddhists stationing at Parthia were first though as of Central Asian making their ways to drive out the Kambojan out of Parthia. Evidences also show that they might have been the same Kambojan of Partia who had been converted to Buddhism by the Ashoka's missionary delegation.
- The Birth of Zeus
According to Greek mythology, Zeus was hidden from his father Chronos and was raised at Crete. Chronos was quoted of Titanic background, a close connection to Seth of the Simha dynasty who in turns had been identified as the Kambuja ruler-ship of Daya-Desa. After subduing his father Chronos, Zeus ruled the world along with his other two brothers Hades and Poseidon.
- The three Phases of the Sakan Development
Scholars distinguish three phases of Sakan development with each one corresponding to a warrior tribe of the steppes: the Parthian, the Mongolians and the Huns. The Tai tradition, in addition, identifies three Sakan leaderships that seemingly ruling over each one of the Sakan tribes: the Kambojan Khek, the Tartaric Khan, and the Cham of Po Vamsa (Xiang-Mai: The Nan-Tchao Connection: The Tai and Lao cosmology).
- the Heaven Kingdom
Extracted from the Sumerian tablets, the story of Separation of heaven from the earth might reveals the start of political separation between the East and the West. While the earth God Enki stayed still in Egypt, we see the Heaven God An and his kingdom were drifting to the East. At the end, Anyang settled itself in the eastern tip of the Chinese continent that made China becoming the heaven kingdom. Indra or the king of Heaven was no other than the Chinese rulers of the Shang dynasty.
- Chorani vs Kambu
The word "Chorani" could be the Pali equivalence of the Sanskrit "Kambu", meaning thief or burglar. The people under Praya Chorini of the northern Meru countries were then known as the Chuangs (Chon in Tai Language). As Kamboja was a close derivative of the word Kambu, it is most likely that Praya Chorani was himself a descendant of the Rsi Kambu mentioned in the Khmer inscription as the forefront ancestor of all Kamboja monarchs (Kamboja: The Kamboj dynasty: King Hun-Tien and his queen Ye-Lieou).
- Prya Minaraja
The Siam tradition does not elaborate on the identity of the king Minaraja, however his connection with the Kaeo Kings of Yunnan suggests that he was from the same family of Cham Kings, remnant of the court of Osiris taking refuge in the Underworld. His name Minaraja seams to be close related to the King Mino of Crete, and to some extend the King Menes, the unifier of Egypt (Civilization: The Indus Valley: The decline of the Meru culture).
- The Heaven on Earth
Heaven on Earth was one of religious theme of western religion that reward believers for their faithfulness. It was not by any mean, compatible with the Meru cosmology that the earth is just a transient place for the soul to cleanse itself for the transition into other spiritual world (heaven).
- The Tais of Mien-Ta-Tok
According to the Siam Chronicles, the ruling of Jethapuri came down to a king who sent his third brother named Praya Mien-Ta-Tok to continue his education at muang Rammahien. The Praya Rammahien gave him his daughter name Udumbhakaya for consort and sent him back to his kingdom amid a crisis that took the life of his two brothers. Praya Mien-Ta-Tok went into a campaign against demons of Phi Ta Yun (Yunnan) who killed his two brothers and was himself killed during the fight. According to the story line, Jethapuri must to locate close by Yunnan where lived the demons who killed the three brothers. From there on, the Tais of Mien-Ta-Tok (Tokharians) were referring to the Tais who followed Praya Mien-Ta-Tok in the fight against the demons. Staying behind after the dead of their leader, they formed a ruling class of Yunnan until modern days.
- The Visit of Buddha Gautama
It is important to note that the settlement of king Simhanati was during the conflict between the Coladhara and the Mahidhara clans of Southeast Asia (Nagadvipa: The link with Aryavata: The visit of Buddha Gautama). The Siam chronicle dedicates a big part of its content to illustrate in detail the visit of Buddha Gautama at BandhuSimhanati Nagara. <\li>
- Piao-Tsiu-Ti in the East
With the help of the horse's mate, Piao-Tsiu-Ti managed to catch the golden horse. According to the Yunnan chronicle, Ashoka later had make an attempt to call his three sons back, but found out that they all made their way deep into the new countries already. Piao-Tsiu-Ti was quoted later in the Glass Palace Chronicle to become the progenator of the Burmese Empire.
- Indochina before the formation of Nokor Khmer
Evidences show that the mainland Indochina of the time did not include Cambodia of today. Still submerged, Cambodia then, was formed by a groups of islands inside a bay (Nokor Khmer: The Khmerization of Kamboja: The work of the Naga King).
- The Kushan of Kiridvipa
Buddha Gautama proposed to the Yahhas to move into Kiridvipa.
Ye Rakkhasa and Ye wicked hosts of Yakkhas, I give unto you this island which is not far from Langka, the whole old island of Giri; may they all inhabit it and multiply undisturbed. (DVIPA: Adoration to the Vunerable, holy, universal Sambhuddha: P. 122)
It explains the archeology's site of Dong-Son showing a foreign Culture laying on top of the Tian and why the Shan tradition had a rich Tai culture implanting among them through more contact with Day-Desa. It is also important to note that Langka was not the same as Sri Langka or Ceylon of today. As it was mentioned to be close to Kiridvipa (Mountain continent) and at the mouth of the Kalyani river, Langka was more likely the same as Langkasuka or Dvaravati (Dvaravati: Langkasuka as the seat of Sri Dharmaraja: Langkasuka). As Kiridvipa was according was meant to be the Shan country, the western Kanbuja would get from their new country the identity of Kushan.
- The Cham Baseh
The pha-sai was a member of Cham Brahmanist priesthood known in generic term as the Baseh or Basaih (BEFEO 7: Notes sur les Cham: Les baseh, by E.M. Durand). In China, the Baseh represented the learned class of the Chinese communities. The Chin-seh is still renown as a Chinese traditional medicine man. The less prestigious pha-sai, on the other hand were well known for their magic's tricks and made their living like bohemian.
- The Gacha Naga and the Greek Empire
There is indication that the Greek court knew about theirs ancestry from the Gacha Naga house of South Asia. A silver tetrachm from Egypt minted c. 305 BC by Ptolemy I shows Alexander the Great wearing elephant scalp and the Ram's horns of Zeus Ammon (AGr: The Reversion to Authroritarianism 404-323 BC: p. 5).