Project: The Nagadvipa
Author: Lem Chuck Moth
Started date: October/01/2005
Last updated: June/30/2016
All right reserved.
Since this paper is still drafted, the readers would be advised to ignore any context errors. The content is not final and subjected to be reviewed.
After Meru established his cakravatin empire in the west, it is fair to say that the naga symbol was the most revered religious icon in the ancient world. Mostly known as the dragon, its image became a symbol of cosmic force that changed its tune from one society to another. In Middle East and later the western world, the snake symbolized (and still does) the rejuvenation which is consistent with the Siva's reverence as the god of creation and destruction. After the emergence of the Simha Kings, his legacy started to degenerate and became flurry. The only things left were shadowy figures made of him and his Bull Nanda as idols for faithful believers to worship. While the Sphynx were majestically erected through out the Egyptian territory, the dragon king lost his supremacy when score of other idols were worshipped through out the country. The dragon king got another blow when the descendants of Osriris were back in Egypt. By launching the god Ahura as the sole god of the universe, the next wave of Cultural Revolution brought the bird god Annanuki as the god of the universe in the Egyptian pantheon. Portrayed as the opposite force of the supreme god Ashura, the dragon king or the Aryaman finally was reduced by its opponent as the force of Evil. At the same time, the Simha legacy took its turn to degenerate and joined with the naga king at the underworld. This western revolution could be checked out historically by many battles between the old schools of Meru culture and the new faith of Zoroastrianism. The feud however was not shared by the eastern part of the world. After exiting Middle East, the Meru culture had already made its transition into Sivaism and later Buddhism. Through the book of life, circumstances (of time and space) are well understood to play critical roles in religious believes of both the Hindu and Buddhist cosmology. The portraying of Siva to bear a cobra, Lord Vishnu to sleep under the hood of a Naga, and Buddha Gautama to meditate under the hood of the naga king Muchilinda, was one way or another an acknowledgment of the naga' s role on the birth of all human civilizations. One might ask what could make such contrast between the western and the eastern systems of belief? The answer is clear that the two worlds differentiated through the development of the Meru culture. While the western Tree of Knowledge "of God or Evil" puts more emphasis on the fighting for supremacy between God and Evil to be one (Notes: The knowledge of God and Evil), the eastern "Tree of Life" is based on synthesizing the spectrum of the seven energies into one (Notes: The Tree of Knowledge Vs the Tree of Life). The Trinity conception would be completed at best by the remaining faithful school of Meru Culture when it finally moved into the Gangetic India (The Indianization: The Indianization of the Gangetic India: The Cultural Evolution).
The Naga's Legacy
At the time that the Kala Yuga ruled the world, the god Ashura started on his odyssey to eclipse the Moon God Tsin. In a close connection with the Meru Culture, the Naga Legacy started on declining. As a result, western naga' s identity and legacy were fading and remained elusive after the emergence of Zoroastrianism. In Mahabharata, Anga was already mentioned as a kingdom of the east (Notes: Karna as a prince of Anga). It suggests that the naga' s legacy was retracting back to its original base where traces of early agriculturist societies could be found through archeology. Once ruling over the world, the naga king lost his supremacy and his ordeal was far to be over. the naga legacy experienced its first setback after the Dynastic Crisis that resulted in the decline of the Meru culture and the emergence of the Simha Kings, descendants of Seth, on the throne of Egypt. Taking the opportunities, Lord Indra took away a big chunk of the Naga's ream and drove the naga king further into the deep-south. In India, kings having their names ending with "Naga", "Datta" or "Mittra", known from coins and inscriptions, were identified as belonging to the naga families. Among ancient cities, identified in early centuries of the Christian era by the Puranas, that could have been the kingdoms of these Naga kings were Vidisa (Bhila), Kantapuri, Mathura and Padmavati (AIndia: The Indegenous state of North India: Naga: P. 128). In addition, many Indian kings such as the Pallava of Southern India claimed themselves to be lined from the naga king or to be the offspring of a nagi princess. We shall argue that these legacies were not Indian and were actually reintroduced back later in time from Southeast Asia during another crisis (The Chenla Empire: The Chenla Brotherhood: The Leader of the Chenla' s Pact). At the mean time, India would become the spreading ground of Zoroastrianism that displaced the naga culture farther east to Southeast Asia. As the Meru era was over, the return of Osiris to Egypt did not revive back the snake culture. Following the Hyksos rulers, the next Pharoahs were worshipping the Sun God Ra or Horus who was actually the offspring of Osiris and Isis. Conceived during their escape to the Underworld, Horus did not carry on the Moon legacy of his father Osiris. The resuscitation of the Sun culture added more strains to the misfortune of the Naga. Instead he adopted the Sun culture of his mother Isis and ended the practice of the snake culture in the Egyptian court for good. To make the matter worst, the Sun god Ra added budu practices into the mainstream of the Phoenician world. Granted to be Lord Vishnu's mount, the bird Garuda (an eastern representation of Horus) preyed on the Naga (The early civilization: The Indus Valley: The Legacies of Mesopotamia).
THE NAGA' S MYTHOLOGY
Dated back since the Great Flood, the naga conception started with the association to the sea creature Makara (Prehistory: The flood culture: The fish Makara). Moving up the slope of mount Himalayas some groups of the flood survivors experienced more hardship due to the specific regional environment. Living closed to the source of rivers, the settlers had intensive experiences with violent storms, threatening thunders and deadly lightning. The phenomenon was then believed to be the manifestation of the dragon, a sky's spirit that has close association with the rain and water. The tradition holds still among people on the southeastern slope of Himalayas where legacies of the naga culture subsist more than any other part of the world. The Meru development would need a more sophisticated divine creature to take hold of humanity' s new order.
The Bhujanga Mythology *
In the flood survivor 's societies, the naga kings were well like for their contribution of agriculture to the world civilization. Their powers to control storm, flood, and water streams were enough to command respect from the peasants that need stable water sources to grow their crops. This development was not however restricted to the Mansoon affected footstep of mount Himalayas only as a different kind of dragon's culture sprung up also at the other side of the slope. Born on the line of fire and known as the Earth Dragon, the new dragon's specie breathed fire and as they lived underground, their movement created earthquake and volcanoes. Together, they contributed to the draconic culture to be spread along the path of the Meru civilization. It was believed that the Sky Dragon was male and the Earth Dragon was female. When the two dragon species intermingled, the birth of an hybrid dragonic offspring became the topic of the eastern world civilization. It was actually the coupling of the Middle Eastern Meru Culture with the Southeast Asian Naga Tradition that gave birth the new Draconian specy of Bhujanga. The identity was conceived later after the Arianization of the Gangetic India when the Sanskrit word "Naga" meaning snake or cobra was used to replace the Makara identity. Etymologically, Bhujanga (Bhuja-anga) means the Snake king and represented the next generation of the Yang (Ang) kings. The first Bhujanga could be identified as no other than Meru himself. Deitfied as Lord Siva, Meru imposed the Cobra regalia on top of Egyptian phaoroah head dressing. As a Cakravatin Monarch ruling over both the east and the west, Meru established his reign through the development of a new state-of-the-art Aryan law or civilization. At each stop, a culture was developed along with each civilized society. The Hindu folklore represented this development by the Bhujanga' s seven heads. Each one of the heads represented a civilized society along the path of the naga culture in adaptation to the spectrum of seven energies. While the Meru culture was itself represented by the middle head of the Naga, other heads represent a lineage formed by immediate descendants of his. In Egypt where Meru started his empire on the Nile River, the crocodile represented the very first Draconian symbol of the Meru culture conceived by the first dynasty of Egypt. The next two heads represented each one of his two creatures, the bull Nanda and the lion king of the Kambujan dynasty. Another creature of the Moon God Tsin was represented by the Kala head of the naga. To complete its long list of membership, the GuchaNaga (Gucha-Naga) was a branch that represented itself with the symbol of an elephant and was the naga society conceived right at the start of the Kala Yuga. The Sanskrit GuchaNaga (Gucha-Naga) is a reference to the naga of Gachasa (elephant)'s race, attributing to the ethnicity of the Kambunaga or ParamKambojan stock. It is likely that this symbolization has a deep connection with Ganesha, the son of Shiva, the Hindu god represented by an elephant head on human body. The Buddhist tradition later classified the naga family lines into two distinct groups. The Coladara that represented the small family of King Samanta' s direct descendant during the start up of the Meru culture was formed from the primitive family members of king Samantha, consisting of the divine cow Nanda and the mountain goat Xiang of leadership. Their dominion was Jambudvipa, which following the same tradition of Bharata included the naga ream of Southeast Asia and extended itself to the west until the Kasi mountain range and to the east included the southern seashore of the Chinese continents. During the late stage of the Meru culture, they were not current with the Middle Eastern development and according to their tradtion, practiced the cult of their ancestors. Other nagaheads were conceived out of Southeast Asia and was classified to be of the Mahadara lineage. The Lion King that represented the western Kambujan clan received its significant nagahead as the warrior tribesmen of Central Asia. Last and not least, the Phoenician clan with their Bird Phoenix for symbol was conceived late in the naga development. Unlike their predecessors, the eagle was not quite compatible with the naga culture. On their own western development, they became iconic of the Kala Yuga and a Meru's main antagonistic creature. Becoming the carrier of Vishnuite, the Garuda or the Annanuki challenged Meru for the ruling of the world. In the worst scenario, the Annanuki preys on the Naga and was referred as MArA (anti-Meru) in the Sumerian cosmogony. In the new western tradition, the Dragon became the symbol of an antagonist force to the god (of Ra) and often mistook as the devil himself. On the other hand, the Draconian symbol to represent the Satanic force was often portrayed as the bull. This was because Satan was once a high member of the Meru's court that was formed by the Nanda. This misconception was due very much to the effect of the God Ashura. Taking hold of the Sun culture, the god horus brough the western world into its the dard effect of the eclipse god adhura.
The God King Sri Paramesvara *
Like other pre-Hindu developments, the naga legacy was found mostly in early Hindu folklore. One such epic was the Mahabharata in which Khrisna was mentioned to be a kinsman of the naga people and to live in the naga world. A country known as Dvaravati is identified as a place where Khrisna spent the last days of his life with his friend, the naga king Balarama. Since the epic was compiled in India, scholars had concluded that Dvaravati must to be also in India and Gucharat had been suggested as its actual site (Notes: The Dvaravati of Gujarat). Evidences show however that two other places as having no less of Dvaravati' s legacy have to be considered also. First, Mesopotamia that was known to be the residence of the naga king Maraduk could be as well the same as Dvaravati of the Mahabharata (Notes: The Dvaravati of Bharata). Etymologically, Balarama was a title that means "Bala the son of Ra". It is a close connection to the Semetic word "Babylon" which means the gate of gods that is itself an equivalent to the Sanskrit word "Dvaravati", meaning the abode of the gates (of gods). The Dvaravati of the Menam Valley where concrete evidences prove that it was actually the residence of the Naga King Bhagadatta, could have also been the ancestral hometown of Balarama (Notes: The Dvaravati of the Menam Valley). Continuing on the Mahabharata epic, the ParamKambojans were mentioned to take part in the Kuru's war on the side of the Kauruvas. Other Southeast Asian naga subsidies, like Anga, were also mentioned to be fighting on the same side along with the western Kambojans. If the claim is correct, the founding of the ParamKambojan country by the naga king Bhagadatta, must to predate the foundation of the western Kambuja Kingdom of Daya Desa or Parthia (Notes: The Kambojas of Parthia). It is consistent with the fact that the last Simha kings of Middle Eastern would look for support from their eastern Kambojan peers to fight against the Assyrian. The Siam tradition of Khun Borom along with his court spreading civilization among the flood survivors, indicates further that the legacy of Paramesvara dated back earlier after the Great Flood (Xiang-mai: The Nan-tchao connection: The Tai and Lao cosmology). In fact, our findings indicate that the mystic Sri Kambu who generated the race of Kamboja, was an ascetic figure of Malay-Polynesian stock (Kamboja: The Kamboj Desa: The identity of Sri Kambu). His close relationship with the court of Egypt trough his consort Meram, was the catalyst to the formation of the western Kambuja Empire. During the emergence of the Simha court of Seth, evidences show that the Simha legacy was spreading over the western ream of the Meru culture. These Simha Kings were well known of their physical strength, often mentioned to be comparable to a lion. Their strength was a typical trait of the western Kambojan stocks, often portrayed as belonging to the race of giants. Back to the epic battle of Kuruksetra, the Mahabharata indicates that Bhagadatta was killed by Arjuna in the battle. Perhaps because of his death that the western Kambojan leadership moved to take control of his court of Northern Meru countries and went down further to take over Southeast Asia. As we shall see, they were purged out from Southeast Asia and the legacy of Bhagadatta was seen restored back in the mainland Indochina. According to the Mahavamsa chronicle, it was Buddha Gautama himself who orchestrated the purging. The concrete evidence of Bhagadatta lineage resurfacing itself back as an Southeast Asian Naga king could be find in a Khmer inscription, found at the site of Ayudhya at the Menam Valley.
In the Bhuja (Naga) world, the first king of Guchanagapura was Sri Bhuja Bhagadatta. (JSS: Une nouvelle d'inscription d'Ayuthya, George Coedes)
It identifies the ruler of Guchanagapura as the naga king Bhagadatta, and through him the naga legacy was implanted in the Menam Valley. It is important to note that Bhagadatta was not a name but a title of the ParamKambojan King. In Chinese Texts that were recorded during the Tang dynasty, Paramesvara was mentioned in close connection with Bhagadatta.
Kolo was also called Kolo-fu-sha-lo. The name of the king is Shih-li-po-lo, his personal name is Mi-Shih-po-lo. The walls of the city are built of stones and the houses are covered with palm leaves. There is 24 chou. (KL: Appendix II Ko-lo-Fou-cha-la)
The word "Kolo-fu-sha-lo" is the transcription of the Sanskrit word Kolagujala, meaning the Elephant Race. The text mentions that the name of the king was "Shih-li-po-lo" and his personal name was "Mi-Shih-po-lo". Scholars agreed that the two names should be combined to be "Shih-li-po-lo-Mi-Shih-po-lo" which is a Chinese transcription of "Sri Paramesvara".
The Naga Land *
Found in northern Nagaland and overlooking Manipura, the naga tribesmen are ethnically close to the Jins, but differ from the latter by a different set of life-style and tradition. It is important to note that the Naga' s identification was conceived according to Hindu classification of cultural basis. The naga tribesmen might not know of their identity imposed on them by the Hindu Culture. Like their compatriote Jins, they were among the survivors who stayed at the footstep of Himalayas after the flood and stayed faithful to their civilization as Naga tribesmen. Their attire and weapons match the naga depiction of both the Don-son drums and the wall of Angkor Wat (Nokor Wat: Maha Nokor: The Siam Kuti). The depiction proves the existence of the Naga culture to subsist as late as the twelfth century when the temple was built. Even though the Mainland Indochina was already converted to the Khmer culture, pockets of Naga communities still subsisted under the cakravatin empire of Angkor. Unlike their KaJin compatriot who had been underchanged along side the Meru culture, the naga tribesmen appeared to be less inclined for materialistic progression and stayed as a remnant of the Naga culture. Their warlike tradition, including the head hunting practices, seam to have common cultural ancestry with the Iban or other austronesian tribesmen of Malaysia who, like them were on the wrong track of the Meru culture. To some extends, their tradition resembled to the far-reached Indian tribesmen of South America. It confirms to us that during the early expansion of the Meru culture, the naga cultural development was worldwide and that the expansion of the Kambojan culture of Daya Desa became a big part of it (Sakadvipa: The Saka of Daya Desa: King Suvanna Khamdeng and the formation of Nararatha). Unfortunately, we have practically no information of the western Kambojan past and recollections from neighboring states such as Greece had not gone further than their stronghold at Parthia. For that reason, it is impossible to postulate any connection that was made between Middle East and the American continent that was once assumed to be discovered by the European Christopher Columbus (Notes: Civilization of South America). In contrast, we have plenty of information about their eastern compatriot, the Kambunaga people in Southeast Asia. As part of the big family of the Paramkambojas who were subject of the naga king Bhagadatta (Notes: The Paramkambojas in the Mahabharata), they were well known as the master of the sea and their ream extended itself over the whole globe. Subsisting in remote places, the naga tribesmen of Southeast Asia was actually the remnant of an extinct culture, close enough to the South American Indian's culture (Kamboja Desa: The Exploit of Funan: Pi kien or the Island of the Kambuja). It confirms that during the lifetime of Buddha Gautama, all inhabitants of Southeast Asia and to the least extend India, had undergone through the same Naga culture. The use of feathers in their attire and other common features for both cultures appeared at least to the eye of Christopher Columbus that they were the same Indians of Asia. These findings suggest that it was the KambuNaga who made the long journeys around the world to spread the Draconian mythology. In close relationship with the western Kamboja, they invaded Egypt in many occasions and were known as the Sea People. on the depiction of the temple of Ramesses III (1213-1156 BC), they were portrayed distinctly with their characteristic plumed headdress. Coincidentlty enough, the event happended during the early formation of the Hiong-Wang kingdom of which we shall argue that the Coladara' s clan of the Naga originated. Following the rising of the Nanda at Gangetic India, the fight for the control of Mesopoatamia restarted. After stripping off the control of the Assyrian from Ur, Nabopolassar and son Nebuchadnezzar (624-581 BC) took control of Mesopotamia. From Middle-eastern sources, Nebuchadnezzar then went on waging his campaign to expand his father's kingdom. He came back to Ur after his father's death and built Mesopotamia into becoming the middle kingdom of Babylon. From Middle-Eastern sources we know little about his origin, but the fact that he revived back the legacy of "Babylon" suggests his close relationship with Balarama, the ancient legendary Naga King of Dvaravati. It is also known that his title "Nebuchadnezzar" was a reference to Nebu, a Babylonian god of wisdom and agriculture. On the other hand, the Buddhist claim of Buddha Gautama's father, king Sodhonana, to be a cakravatin monarch, strongly implicates that he was a descendant of the Babylonian king Nebuchadnezzar (Note: Taxila and Babylon). It is said that Buddha Gautama, in his youth, had attended the university of Taxila that was well known, at the time, as a cultural center of Babylon. It is important to note that the word "Ba-bel" that is supposedly the short-form of Babylon could also be interpreted as Master Bel (Ba Baal), which is a divinity associated to the Bull Nanda. More evidences also confirms that he was also a member of the Xiang clan of Southeast Asia. All these attributes lead us to believe that, prior to his conquest of Babylon, Nebuchadnezzar and his father Nabopolassar were members of the Coladara Naga King, ruling over China as the Tchou dynasty.
THE HIONG WANG KINGDOM
The archeology' s site of Hoabinh yielded different layers of cultural settlements that prove the Southeast Asian connection with the development of the world civilization. On the same archeology site, scholars uncovered another layer of civilization of which they named as the Tian. This culture that prospered in the fertile Lake Tian basin was found wide spread at Indochinese peninsular and had been infiltrating deep in the Southern part of China. From the unearthed vestiges of various sites, scholars were amazed to see little connection with Indian or Chinese contemporary culture, but instead presented itself to be the progression of its ancestral culture of Hoabinhian. Geographical mapping furthermore allowed us to identify the country that the culture was originated from. Excluding its northern part where Chinese legacies stayed as remnant of the Shang Dynasty, we could identify that the Hiong-wang kingdom was actually the spreading ground of the Tian culture.
The Tian Culture *
The graves of the Tian archeology's site seldom yield human remains but pottery, suggesting that jar cremation burial was the common tradition of the Tian culture. Pottery and other materials found on the grave sites could be dated to be roughly between 1000-500 BC. On the finding, we shall argue that the Tian Culture was actually the progenator of both the Sivaite cult and Buddhist tradition of which cremation was known to be standard practices. Similar finding was found at the archeology site of Sa-huynh locating at the eastern coast of Indochina. The vestige at the site reveals a sophisticated Bronze and Iron Age culture and is best known for its unusual custom of jar cremation burials in the coastal dunes. Destruction of the pots and funerary items were found to be part of the ritual. Other examples include Niah caves in Sarawak of Borneo (from the second millennium) and even Luzon in the Phillipines revealing the last migration path of the Tians. Their settlement among the Hoabinhian tribes who were themselves flood survivors undoubtedly was responsible for the boost of the Hoabinhian Culture and set the mainland Indochina to be the future spreading ground of Hinduism and Buddhism. We had seen that this southern spread had been dated since 2300 BC and contineously carried on until late the 12th century. Consistent with the Meru Culture of cremating their dead bodies, we shall argue that the Tian was actually the remnant of the early Meru communities formed on the Tian Shan range. As its name implied, the culture claims itself to be of divine origin. Meaning celestial, the word Tian get itself into the Khmer-mon tradition because of their Yang Kings who were direct descendants of King Samantha. Located at the Tian Shan range, it was among the first country to be built by the great flood survivors. Its reference as Hiong-wang, meaning the brave Kingdom in ancient Chinese texts, was another enforcement of its devine connection. As the word "brave" is translated into the Sanskrit word "Vara" having very close in etymology to another Sanskrit word "Varah" meaning god or divinity, there must to be a correlation between bravery or heroism with the sign of God. On the other hand, the Sanskrit word "Varah" meaning God appears to have essentially more devine basis than the word "Yang", even though it was intended to have the same meaning. Often used to predicate the reference of a great human being, such as the king or a religious figure, the Yang spirit was often perceived as a heroic figure. Perhaps because of their bravery, they were identified with divine manifestation of a living god or a god king. The title "Vara-man" later associated with Khmer King was one among many legacies of the Yang King and was a derivative from the title "Varadhana" found in the Cholan house originated from Preynokor. It is proved that the Khmer-mon culture, as part of Brahmanism, already believed in supernatural world of spirits and had already clear distinction between the physical and the spiritual world. The life of a living organism, human-being included, requires both physical and spiritual well being and could not be sustained indefinitely. After death, the soul would leave the body and could choose to stay in one of the heavens depended upon of their merit. At the contrary, bad souls had no such choices available to them and always ended-up with the lowest stratum of the spiritual worlds known in many religions as hell. The cremation was seen by both Sivaism and Buddhism as a way to help release the soul from its death body and makes its immediate journey for their destination. The spirits of the Yang, for instance, were particularly of high merit to be later deified as divinity. The Great Manu must also been deified as Varah Manu, meaning God Manu, which was to become Varahman or Brahman (Note: Tian in Chinese pictograph). His descendants were also called Brahmans, meaning the god-related people. Along with Brahma, Meru and Buddha Gautama stood up as living-gods to be part of the trinity that was considered to be the highest of God 's manifestation in the physical world. Their mission was to take care of humanity as a father figure until all souls are salvaged. From then on, there is no turning back, as their societies grew more and more sophisticated, humanity needs religious belief to be an important part of their life. Beside the laws of the land that secure order in their societies of the real world, religion defined ethical values that anchored deep in their unconscious mind. This arrangement had suited them well and propelled their societies into another level of civilization. Either of celestial or of earthly origin, the Tian culture had created wonders to the Komera societies.
Lin-Yi or the Jungle Kingdom *
Under the Sakan incursion, the northern Jin countries stayed divided and became more and more tartaric under the courts of the Ts'in, Tsin and Tsi Dynasties. During that time, the southern Jin countries regrouped themselves under the Tchou dynasty (1046-221 BC). After subduing the Shang rulers, the Tchou unified the Wu State of Central China and the new formed Tsu State of the south into becoming the southern Jin country (Jinnan). Because of its landscape, composing of swamps and forest, the new Tsu's kingdom received the nickname of the Jungle or Forest Country (Lin-yi in Chinese, Prey Nokor in Khmer). Politically, it was just the reminiscence of the ancient Nokor Phnom (the Mountain Kingdom) the legacy of the ancient court of Ta-gaung or Srasvati, exerting its control against the ancient southern Jin dynasty. By building Jinnan as their Middle Kingdom along the Yanzse and the Red Rivers Valleys, the Tchou established their own cakravatin empire. Built primary on cultivable lands that became available after many centuries of submersion, Varadhana (Hiong-wang in Chinese) was peopulated generally by non-Chinese natives (AChina: The Southern Power: P.22). In fact, we shall argue that the Tsu State was founded on the ground of the migrant Kun-lun tribesmen. Evidence of the Moi Forts shows that the Jin tribesmen had left the footstep of mount Himalayas toward the plain of Indochina. Carbon dating would set the exodus of the Kun-lun from the Tian Shan range around 2300 BC. The Stieng 's account suggests that this Southern Jin displacement came with their own Xiang leadership and resulted in the formation of Southern part of China into a new kingdom known as Lin-Yi in Chinese tradition. They were the agriculturist people who took the opportunities of the flood subsiding to move in the valleys and formed their agriculturist societies the same way that they had done in the mainland Indochina. Conforming to the cakravatin system of governing, Hiong-wang was divided in fifteen districts or autonomous states, among them was the district of Yue-chang, which scholars identified as a community located in Southeast Asia. Etymolgically, Yue-chang is a corruption of Yue-Xiang meaning a city of the Moon or Soma culture. Another country known in Chinese sources to be connected with the same background was Yue-tche that was a Chinese reference to Parthia. Unlike Parthia, Yue-chang has been always considered to be located in Indochina and had sent ambassadors to Tchou court at the XII century BC. The mentioning of Yue-chang as a district of Hiong-wang indicates that members of the Soma dynasty of Parthia did already settled in Southeast Asia. It confirms the Sumerian mythology of Gilgamesh and Ishta to have been consecutively venturing back to the Netherland in the search of the Tree of Life. Politically, they were at Southeast Asia to regroup themselves and went back to take control of Middle East. The first to come was Gilgamesh whose journey in Southeast Asia left the long Kambu legacy of the mainland Indochina. The next to come was Ishta whose story of her trip to the Netherland was complementing the usurpation of Osiris by his brother Seth. Her venturing in Southeast Asia was actually the start of the Cham aristocrat settlement in Southeast Asia. In any case, it was the Yue or Soma communities of the south that formed the country Yue-chang of Indochina. The history or the legend of its ambassador to China was recorded in ancient Chinese texts.
At the beginning of our era, it is admitted that ambassadors of the country Yue-chang came to rend homage in the XII century BC at Tcheng-wang of the Tcheou during the regency of the Tchou-kong: it was for them that Tcheou-kong had invented the compass.
As mentioned, the Chinese 's Compass was invented at the time for the Yue-chang 's ambassadors to the Chinese court who needed it in finding the way back to their southern country. From the fact that it was founded in the mainland Indochina since its prehistorical time, Yue-Chang (Yue-Xiang) could be identified as Arakkan where Chinese sources mentioned about many Ho families took place and learned Brahmanism from the local. They later spreat themselves over the Tian territory where the Dong-son culture was later unearthed. Their presence deep inside the mainland of Indochina suggests that they extended their control far into the western side of Burma that got its name of Pukam because of its concentration of the western Kambojan (Notes: The Beginning of the Race of Giant). Nevertheless, we are more inclined to identify Yue-Chang as Chandapuri of which the name matches exactly the Chinese reference of Yue-tchang. Located at the southwestern part of Kampoat today, Chandapuri was by then a seaborne contact point with the west. Another country that was mentioned also as a district of Hiong-wang was Sou-Chen that we shall identify later as Nokor Kauk-Tloak.
The Tien-Tchou Dynasty*
Formed as a cakravatin empire, Hiong-wang was ruled by the Tchou Dynasty (1046-221 BC) of which the traditional Chinese of draconian culture was originated from. Included as its subdivisions were the Wu and the Tsu respectively ruling over Annam and Lin-Yi. Started as two brotherly royal houses of the Tchou, the two courts later were in conflict with each other. While the Tchou and the Tsu shared a common ancestry, scholars already distinguish a separate Annamite culture that would play important role in the next formation of the ethnic Chinese under the Wu leadership (Notes: The Annamite People). Their tradition and life-style moreover, conveys little or no trace at all of the Great Flood. As dictated by their own tradition, the rise of the Tchou and the fall of the Shang dynasty was according to the Confucianism, the change between Yin and Yang cosmic forces (Notes: Confucianism in the History of China). After subjugating Anyang, the Tchou topped themselve over the Shang court leaving most of its substructure intack. The Wu court was as expected retaining most of the Shang's elements and functioned as vassal to the Tchou's court. This was because northern China was not affected by the Great Flood and was subjected to the early Meru development of the Xia dynasty until it was subjugated by the Shang. In contrast, the southern coast of China where the situation conveys much more devastation incurred during the great flood, the Stieng's account confirms that it was populated by the Kunlun people during the repatriation of the flood societies from the Tian Shan Range. The account implicates that the Stiengs, along with other Austroasiatic people of the Kamara stocks were moving into the mainland Indochina and to the most extend, the Southern part of China. Also known as Lin-yi, Hiong-wang became the country of the Kun-lun people and was ruled by the Tsu dynasty until it was taken over by the Han. In their own accounts, the Tchou and the Tsu confirms of having the same ancestry (AChina: The Southern Power: P 21) from the Xiang royal house of Southeast Asia. A critical event apparently forced the Tchou to split themselves into two factions along their line of descendants. The western Tchou (1046-771 BC) appeared to leave the Tian Shan range in 771 BC and moved into the Gangetic India to form the Sakyan royal house of Nepal (The Civilization: The Indus Valley: The Development of the Gangetic India). Chinese sources still referred them as Tiean-Chou in commemoration of their past connection with their Tian country. One group found its venture on the footstep of Himalayas in the region known as Nepal of today and established their Sakyan dominion at Kappilavatthu. In correlation with Middle Eastern development, the move was actually part of the Moon God Tsin' s plan to exit Middle East and brought his culture into the land of the Nagas (The End Time: The Ezykiel's Prophecy: The final Exodus from Middle East). After destroying Jerusalem, the Tiean-Tchou were themselves forced to escape Babylon during the attack of the Elamese. The fact that the Nandas emerged in the Trangangetic India tell us one way or another where Nebuchadnezzar's court escaped to after loosing the war to the Elamese. Their settlement at Gangetic India would clash head-on with the Sakas who had established their satraps along side the Gange River' s valley (The Western Civilization: The Indus Valley: The Arrival of the Aryans). Immigrated from Parthia, the Sakas founded their dominion (satraps) along the Gangetic India and extended their empire on the ground of the naga tribesmen of Southeast Asia. By then, they were already embraced Zoroastrianism through past connection with Middle Eastern and central Asian development. Their initial encounter that coincides with the emergence of the legendary King Vikramaditya setting up his Maghadhan empire by warding off the control of the Sakas was not by all mean in friendly term. His exploit against the Sakas became the prelude for the next unsettlement of the Nanda clan in their constant fighting with the Saka. Nevertheless, a consortium had been formed that allowed the two antagonist houses to merge before the birth of Buddha Gautama. When the prince sidharta decided to leave the palace and seeked enlightment, king Sodhodhana' s hope of having his son succeeded him as a cakravatin monarch dashed. With no heir to succeed him, he had to delegate the throne of Maghadha to Bimbisara who was probably the next closest kin in the line. Before entering into Nirvana, the Buddhist tradition commemorated the active intervention of Buddha Gautama in preparing Southeast Asia as the center of Buddhist expansion to the east. In his own prophecy, he predicted that Buddhism was going to complete its first half of Yuga to come but not without serious setbacks (Notes: Buddha Gautama's half Time Prophecy). At first, the transformation of Hiong-wang into becoming the center of a Buddhist cakravatin empire had been challenged by the Mahadara house of the Naga King. Their feud became so intense that required the intervention of Buddha Gautama to make many trips into Southeast Asia to resolve the conflict.
THE VISIT OF BUDDHA GAUTAMA
According to Buddhist source, the Magadhan Empire was formed and ruled by the descendants of King Jayasena whose exploit against the Sakas in Gangetic India matched that of the legendary King Vikramaditya. Under Sivaism, they ruled as Cakravatin monarchs with more or less cooperation with the Sakya. It was not by all means a Meru Universal Establishment to cover up the whole earth, but a new beginning of the Indian cakravatin empire that was going to expand itsel globally through Southeast Asia. Nevertheless, the King Vikramaditya and all the Nanda development had not been cited properpely in Indian history' s book and ramained mostly in myth. This omission was consistent with the fact that the Nanda as well as Magadha was more politically connected to Manipura' s Meru heritage than to any other Indian royal houses. On the other hand, we shall see a closer connection of this Tian-Tchou royal house with Nagadvipa that many accounts of Buddha Gautama's trips to Southeast Asia that were actually recorded in many Buddhist chronicles, were about to solve the internal conflict of the Naga royal houses.
The Split of the Naga world*
The Buddhist tradition conveys that King Bimbissara was the ruler of Magadha during Buddha's lifetime and that he was a childhood friend of Buddha Gautama. His father was mentioned as a friend of King Sodhodhana and was more likely also a close relative of his. After Buddha Gautama refused to succeed his father, Bimbissara was then the only qualified candidate for the vacant throne of Maghadha. During Buddha's visit to his palace, it is said that Bimbissara had offered back the throne to him but was immediately turned down. Buddha thanked him for the graceful offer but replied to his friend that he had no reason to accept it since he had refused his own father the inheritance of the same throne. As tough campaign was awaiting him during the establishment of Buddhism at Southeast Asia, evidences show that he had spent the rest of his active life more in Nagadvipa than in Gangetic India. His first task was to drive the Yakkhas out from Southeast Asia and allowed the naga Societies to be more susceptible for receiving his own teaching. The Mon tradition in particular ha a strong recollection of the visit of Buddha Gamtama at their country of Suvannabhumi that was at the time a reference to Sudharmavati. The Mon 's account agrees with the Khmer tradition of Buddha Gautama and his brother Ananda stopping by the island of Kauk Tloak for a peaful rest and met the Naga king of Angkorpuri to whom he gave a good preaching. On the other hand, the Siam tradition also commemorated the visit of Buddha Gamtama to the northern Siam country where a brother of King Bimbissara named king Simhanati reigned at Xiang Saen. There, Buddha Gautama had made his mark by leaving relics behind and gave prediction of the regional future spread of Buddhism. According to Mahavamsa, Buddha Gautama have made two more trips to Nagadvipa. The first visit, says the chronicle, was to resolve the conflict and prevent the war between two Naga kings, Mahadara and his nephew Culodara from happening.
Now the most compassionate teacher, the conqueror, rejoiced in the salvation of the whole world. When dwelling at Jetavana in the fifth year of his Buddhahood, he saw that a war, caused by a gem-set throne, was like to come to pass between the Naga Mahadara and Culodara, uncle and nephew, and their followers. (MHVS: The Visit of the Tathagata)
The passage mentioned Mahadara as the king of a Naga kingdom in the ocean and Culodara was on the other hand, the son of Mahadara's sister with the Naga-king of the Kannavadhamana Mountain. The war was the earliest proof that geographical landscape had played important role in the dynastic feud of Southeast Asian history. The mainland of Indochina that was at the time, composing mostly of mountainous landscape, was known as Nokor Phnom (Mountain kingdom) and was the kingdom of the naga king Culodara. On the other hand, the coastal regions that composed mainly of lower lands and islands formed the kingdom of the ocean Naga king Mahadara known as Nokor Tuk (Water Kingdom). The visit of Buddha Gautama, as we shall see, proves that the Nagadvipa as a whole was part of his father, King Sudhodhana's cakravatin empire. The sources mentioned that travel to this remote place was not particularly safe, but Buddha was confident of his merit. Both the Coladara and the Mahadara clans must to be closely related and dear to him for he risked his life trying to save them from the ravaging war caused by internal conflict.
The Sambudha, on the uposathaday of the dark half of the month Citta, in the early morning, took his sacred alms-bowl and his robes, and from compassion for the Naga, sought the Nagadvipa. That same Naga Mahadara was then king, gifted with miraculous power, in a Naga-kingdom in the ocean, that covered half a thousand yoganas. His younger sister had been given (in marriage) to the Naga-king on the Kannavadhamana Mountain; her son was Culodara. His mother's father had given to his mother a splendid throne of jewels, then the naga had died and therefore this war of nephew and uncle was threatening; and also the naga of the mountain were armed with miraculous power. (MHVS: The Visit of the Tathagata)
We could identify that the Ocean Naga king Mahadara was no other than Bhagadatta who rules Mahodara under the godship of Meruduk and the Mountain Naga King was no other than the Nanda King Nebuchadnezza under the godship of Baal. It is important to note that their conflict was not limited to Southeast Asia only, but to the worldwide rivalry between two divisions of the naga culture. Historically, we could relate the conflict to the formation of the Chou Dynasty who went out to subdue the Shang court of China. In a close connection with both the Kamboja of Day Desa and the Paramkamboja of the Malay archipelago, the Yin or Shang Dynasty belonged to the same big family of the Mahadara royal house (Sakadvipa: The Saka Nation: Indra versus the Yang kings). Back in Mesopotamia, we shall see that the fight of the Elamese against the Babylonian Nebuchadnezzar could also be related to the final exodu of the Meru culture from Judea to the Gangetic India (The Decline of western Civilization: Tartarisation).
The Country of Pandaranga *
According to the Mahavamsa, the mountain Naga king Coladara built his kingdom on top of the Kannavadhamana Mountain. Pandaranga, an ancient city of the Tian Shan Range, could be its capital or at least one of its major cities. Its antiquity is attested in many Chinese texts at least since the the Buddha's lifetime. Etymologically it is a short form of Puran-dhara-Anga, meaning the ancient reahm of the naga King. It was here that the legendary Hiong-Wang kingdom or Varadhana was centered. The Xiang Symbol of the Babylonian King Nebuchadnezzar confirms that Varadhana became part of the Gangetic Indian cakravatin empire under the Nanda and that Nebuchadnezzar was himself a member of the Coladara Naga house. A small excerpt in the Chinese source provides proof that Pandaranga was one of the sites visited by Buddha Gautama, during his trips to Nagadvipa.
The country of Panduranga is at the border of Champa. When people say that Tathagata goes to the kingdom of Srasvati to beg for his meal, it was that country that people meant.
The mentioning of Pandaranga at the border of Champa was referring to its last location at the eastern coast of the mainland. In correlation with Srasvati, it was a backtracking legacy of the ancient Pandaranga of the Tian Shan range. The Srasvati kingdom was however located at the upper stream of all the Himalayas springs where it received the name from the abundance of lagoons or ponds. We had identified later that it was Ta-li of the Yunnan province (The Man Race: Nokor Phnom: The Srasvati River). In support of the Chinese source, the Siam tradition confirms that Buddha Gautama went to Angaratha to beg for his meal.
He (Buddha Gautama) went to beg of meal in the country of Angaratha Sri Chom Tong. He ate his meal in a garden, in the shade of a (Yang) tree. When Buddha finished his meal, the praya Angaratha requested his preaching.
(ASiam: Chronique du Mahathera Fa Bot: Histoire du Praya Angaratha: P. 36)
Other close connection with Buddhism was mentioned in Chinese text more than any other regions. Another excerpt in Chinese texts also mentions the presence of Mahamaugalyana' s house at Pandaranga.
A certain tradition that repeated on all Chinese notices, identified Pandaranga either with RAfagrha or Srasvati: the texts opiniated for either one of the two illustrated cities, but all said that the foundation of the house of Maha-Maugalyana could be seen there. (BEFEO t. 3: Notes d' epigraphy: Pandaranga: The Chinese Withnessing: P. 632, By M. L. Finot)
Mahamaugalyana was a prominent Buddhist monk, disciple of Buddha Gautama, who was actively involving with the expansion of Buddhism. His house at Panduranga suggests the foundation of Buddhist center at the northern part of Indochina well before the Christian era. After Buddha Gautama entered into Nirvana, the Magadhan Empire was going to suffer its own decline. After the reign of King Bimbissara, the Indian empire started it downfall under the reign of King Ajatasatu and his descendants. Recovered back by the Nanda, Magadha remained for most of its existence the Middle Kingdom of the Indian cakravatin empire. Except during the invasion of king Ashoka, Maghadha stood strong as the Buddhist center of the Gangetic India. Evidences show that under the influence of Buddhism, Magadhan rulers were more tolerant to diverse religious practices. Diverse religious believes were practiced as long they did not compromise the unity of the new established cakravatin empire and more importantly yield to bad practices. This successful concept allowed the Indian cakravatin empire to thrive on the ground of Indian diverse religious practices and later extended its expansion eastward into Southeast Asia (Notes: The Link with Aryavata). Local Southeast Asian tradition soon made its claim that the Sakya were among the elite migrants, moving into the mainland Indochina in great numbers. Ancient chronicles, especially of Burmese source, contain also accounts of the Sakya migration into Southeast Asia since the early time that continued long after the Buddha's era. Unfortunately, there are not much Indian sources to support the claim and western scholars had interpreted the discrepancy as an attempt to gain credibility over Buddhism by early Indochinese monks authoring the chronicles. In addition to its ancient Srasvati legacy, Pandaranga was also known in Chinese text as Rajagrha, a reference to a capital or a major city of the Mauyan Empire. Our finding show that it was once ruled by Mang-sui-ti, a grand-son of Ashoka, and was once a Mahayana Buddhist Center of Southeast Asia (The Sakadvipa: The Saka of Daya Desa: The Yueh-shish and the Mauryan Empire). It was the Han's incursion that drove Srasavati to its current location of Prey Nokor, at the eastern coast of the mainland Indochina.
Sudharmavati or the Abode of Buddhist Dharma *
There is still contradictory claim on where to locate Sudharmavati at the time. The Mon and Burmese Tradition claims that Sudharmavati was always at Tathon, however archeological findings do not support the claim. As the Sanskrit name of an ancient city or state was transient and often changed due to the political development of the region, Tathon becoming Sudharmavati happened much at later time. At the same time, evidence shows that Sri Dharmaraja was instead the forefront of the Khmer-mon civilization of the Valley at least until Pegu or Hangsavati was formed at the early part of the ninth century. Guchanagapura was then the stronghold of the naga culture before the next wave of Buddhist expansion under the leadership of king Ashoka changed the region into the Buddhist stronghold of Sudharmavati, meaning the abode of Dharma. Continuing the Chinese records of the Tang Dynasty concerning the culture of the Kola, the next passage describes army recruits of GuchaNaga (Nokor Wat: Maha Nokor: The Siam Kut).
Soldiers used bows and arrows, spears and javelins. They decorated themselves with peacock feathers. At war one hundred elephants constitute one company, with a hundred men for each elephant. The transport cabin mounted on top of the elephant resembles a cage, with four men inside, carrying bows and spears.
From the description, the GuchaNaga recruits resembled very much the army troops depicted on the wall of Angkor Wat under the label of Siam Kuti who were in fact Ligor's warriors. They were remnants of the naga culture, left over during the Khmerization of Kamboja.
The taxes are two shu of silver. There is no silk and cannabis, but only cotton. They raised a lot of cattle and a few horses. Only the officials had the right to raise horses. When a man take a wife, he should give present of batel nuts, sometime to 200 pots. After the wedding the wife follows the husband family. The music instruments are the pipa (guitare) and the heng li(flute), the cymbal in Bronze, an iron drum and calabas. The dead are burnt, the aches preserved, kept in golden urn, and threw in the sea. Their cultures are the same as Chih-tu and Toholo.
One important characteristic of the culture is the cremation of the dead and the ashes are preserved in urn that is consistent with the Kamara culture. As to the people, they were Austroasiatic stock speaking Mon-Khmer Language and their culture is very much the same as the northern Siam and the rest of Dvaravati of the time (Notes: Siam's people). The Mahavamsa also mentioned a second visit of Buddha Gautama to Nagadvipa. After the dynastic feud between his nephew and brother had been resolved, The Naga-king Maniakkhika of Kalyani invited Buddha Gautama to visit his country.
The Naga-king Maniakkhika of Kalyani, mother's brother to the naga Mahadara, who had come thither to take part in the battle and who, a foretime, at the first Buddha coming, had heard the true doctrine preached. He had become established in the refuges and in the moral duties, prayed now to the Tathagata: "Great is the compassion that thou hast shown us here. O Master! Hads thou not appeared we had all been consumed to ashes. May thy compassion yet light also especially on me. O thou who art in loving-kindness, in that thou shall come yet again hither to my dwelling-country, O thou peerless one". (MHVS: The Visit of the Tathagata)
Foreseeing that Southeast Asia would become the future holding ground of his religion, Buddha Gautama accepted the invitation and his trip was the very first ground breaking of Buddhism in the region. The trip agrees with the Mon tradition as the very first attempt by Buddha Gautama to spread Buddhism at Suvannaphumi. Accompanied by most of his eminent disciples, Buddha Gautama first opened the naga societies of king Maniakkhika as the center of Buddhist expansion. Kalyani was the ancient capital or a city of Vanga at East Bengal where Buddhist tradition had been retained since until late eleventh century. According to local traditions the trip then continued on to the northern part of Nagadvipa where Buddha Gautama ordained many of the first Indochinese monks. Siam tradition (The Chieng-mai Chronicle:The Buddha and the Lawa, Wyatt) claims that during the visit, Buddha Gautama ordained four Lava monks at Chiang Mai which retained since then its name as Sangharatha, the cities of the monks. The Mahavamsa moreover adds that Buddha Gautama had done three trips to Langka. As we had argued, it was not the same as Sri Langka of today but was Langkasuka or Sudhammavati of the Menam valley that rich memory of Buddha Gautama's visits was retained in many local legends and tradition. The same way that the Mon development at Tathon was actually inherited from Sri Dharmaraja (The Ramandesa: The Mon countries: The Mon of Hamsavati), we shall see that Sri Langka of today was also a later development of Langkasuka brought by the displacement of the Sri Vijaya court down south.
NOKOR TUK (THE WATER KINGDOM) AND THE Mahadara
As he was mentioned in the Mahavamsa to be the king of the ocean Naga-kingdom, king Mahadara must to rule over the Bay of Bengal from Manipura. His kingdom was also mentioned to cover half a thousand yoganas, vast enough to reach the Malay Peninsular. Locating the kingdom of king Mahadara at Manipura agrees with the fact that it was drifted later to the Menam Valley where evidence shows that it became the actual site of later date (Notes: Mahadara as the Ream of the ocean Naga King). Chinese texts then witness the existence of the kingdom of Tian-sun to be part of the Kambojan Empire after the Christian era. Covered very much the western shore of the mainland Indochina, Tian-sun reached to the southern tip of the Malay Peninsular. As its name implied, it was the country of the Tian descendants (Kamboja: The conquest of Funan: Tien Souen or the country of the Brahmans).
Tukkola and the Island of Kauk Tloak *
Tukkola was among the first cities mentioned on the Neddesa and was also cited in another Buddhist text, the Milindapanha. The word "Tuk-kola" is the concatenation of the Khmer word "Tuk" meaning water and the Sanskrit word "kola" meaning family. Contrary to Takkasila that was referring to the Mountain Kingdom of Coladara, Tuk-kola was referring to Nokor Tuk (the Water or sea Kingdom) of king Mahadara. A place of the Menam Valley is still retaining its name as Pang-tuk that was undoubtedly another version of Tuk-kola. As the word "Pang" is a Khmer derivative of the Sanskrit word "Vamsa" meaning dynasty and the Khmer word "Tuk" meaning water, Tuk-kola was the place of the Water (Sea) Dynasty. A Khmer inscription, found at the site of Ayudhya, witnesses the existence of a clan of the naga families, the GuchaNaga, thriving in the southern part of the Menam Valleye until the seventh century. Describing the culture of the people, a Chinese text recorded the tradition of jar or urn cremation that is consistent with the Kamara legacy of the Kun-lun culture. It verifies that Tuk-kola was indeed an ancient city of the Tian culture known in Chinese text as Hiong-wang kingdom. Local tradition claims that some inhabitants took shelter in the caves that were hidden under water during the high tide but were exposed during the low tide. It confirms the fact that until the fifth century, the lower part of the delta regions of all the rivers of the mainland Indochina were submerged (Prey Nokor: The Cradle of Nokor Khmer: The Great lake). This particular habitat could become later the object of the Underworld' s mystification in the Sumerian folk tales and the under-water world of the Naga in the Hindu folklore. Nevertheless, evidence show that a new generation of civilized societies were later formed on the dried lands of the many islands in the shallow bays. The Khmer Tradition had a specific account of the visit of Buddha Gautama with the company of his brother and disciple Ananda, to the island of Kauk Tloak during his peacemaking trip to the region.
Then Prah Boromtriloka (Buddha Gautama), before going into Nirvana, made a trip around Jumbudvipa along the coastal shore with Ananda (his brother and disciple), and arrived at a big island where a Tloak tree grew tall at the middle. A hole in the big tree provided shelter to a lizard. The land was flat like the surface of a drum. The naga king and his entourage often came to amuse themselves there. Then the Sastacariyavamsa invited Prah Simhanad, along with Ananda to take shelter under the shade of the Tloak tree. (RPNK: the Tloak tree)
In a beautiful natural setting, the island was often mentioned as an amusement place for the Naga. Understandably, after his peacemaking mission was accomplished, Buddha Gautama would want to spend a quiet time with his brother Ananda for on the island for a good rest. It was there, continues the Khmer Tradition, that Buddha Gautama confined to his brother the future emergence of Nokor Khmer right out of the surrounding submerged land. It took more than a half millennium later for the prophecy to realize itself. A prince from India, named Prah Thong, came with his court and built the Khmer Empire with the support of his father in law, the naga King. It is said that the latter was the descendant of the same Naga King who, with his entourage, came to request Buddha's preaching at the island. It was also at the same island that Prah Thong met the naga King's daughter, the Nagi princess, and proposed to her. With the consent of the naga King, their wedding was taken place also on the same island (Nokor Khmer: The Khmerization of Kamboja: The start of the Khmer Empire). Until then Tukkola was the site of many Sakan incursion from the north that affected the stability of the region until modern time. At first, the advent of king Vijaya who was exiled from Vanga due to his bad rulership might also taken place around the same time that Buddha Gautama visited the place. It is said that he and his family members were all exiled to the south, however they were sent separately, which kept apart and spreat them out to settle across Lagkasuka and the Malay archipelago (Sakadvipa: The Tai Incursion: The Sri Vijaya). After the formation of Nokor Khmer, Sudhammavati became the Buddhist center of South Asian sea under the rulership of the Sri Vijaya. Another event that contributed to the strenghtening of the Buddhist tradition of Sudhammavati was the actual spreading of Buddhism by king Ashoka and his sons to Southeast Asia. Last and not least, evidences show that the arrival of the Khmer King Kaundinya (Prah Tong) was actually marked the shift of epicenter of Hinayana Buddhism practice from Magadha to Southeast Asia. Evidences also prove that the famous Buddhagosha who was credited in Buddhist source to be the progenator of Hinayana sect of Buddhism in Southeast Asia was also well connected with the Kaundinya court (The Indianization: The Gupta's legacy: The Introduction of Theravada Buddhism).
- ISSA: The Indianized States of Southeast Asia, by G. Coedes
- MHVS: The Mahavamsa: The Great Chronicle of Lanka from 6th Century BC to 4th Century AD, translated by Wilheim Geiger
- DVVS: The Dvipavamsa: An Ancient Buddhist Historical Record, translated by Hermann Oldenberg
ASiam: Annales du Siam, Traduction de Camille Notton)
- Shans: Shans at Home, Milne and Cochrane
- AIndia: Ancient India, R.C. Majuumdar)
- KL: JA1919: Le Kouen-Louen, Gabriel Ferrand
- DICI: BEFEO IV: Deux itinaraires de Chine in Inde I: A la fin du VII Siecle, By Paul Pelliot
- PanDur: BEFEO t.3: Textes Chinois sur Panduranga, Paul Pelliot
- SuHist: The Sumerians, their history, culture, and Character, by Samuel Noah Kramer
- SuMyth: Sumerian Mythology, by Samuel Noah Kramer
- BChina:The Birth of China, by Herrlee Glessner Creel
- AChina:Ancient China Simplified, by Edward Harper Parker
- Sila: A Guide to Taxila, Sir John Marshall
3300-1200 BC: Bronze age; 2070-1600 BC: Xia Dynasty; 1300-1046 BC: Shang or Yin Dynasty; 1046-771 BC: Western TChou Dynasty; 771-221 BC: Eastern TChou Dynasty; 322-185 BC: The Mauryan Empire; 221-207 BC: Quin Dynasty; 206 BC-220: Han Dynasty;
- The knowledge of God and Evil
To accommodate the fresh start of Ashura, Hindu scholars created the concept of Tri-divinity to include Lord Brahman as the god of creation, Lord Siva (in commemoration of Meru) as the god of both creation and destruction, and Lord Vishnu as the god of preservation. Beside their rivalry, the three siblings were all recognized and were revered for their crucial contribution to the world civilization of today.
- The Tree of Knowledge vs the Tree of Life
When the new Adam and Eve broke God' s trust by eating the fruit from the Tree of Knowledge, they were chased out from the Garden of Eden. God then prevent them from eating the fruit from the Tree of Life. As no description is given, there are conflicting interpretations on what the two fruit trees are. Some say that the Tree of Knowledge was an apple tree, which was not by any mean a tropical tree of Southeast Asia. That explains why the eastern world knows nothing about the Tree of Knowledge (of God and Evil). On the other hand, the eastern concept of seven spectrums was not known or ignored to the western Zoroastrianism.
- Karna as a prince of Anga
In a clash with Arjuna, Duryodhana titled Karna as a prince of Anga, a symbolic move that qualified Karna to fight with Arjuna. It was doubtfully that Karna became the ruler over Anga by the arrangement, since Duryodhana who gave out the title was then just a prince himself. Karna however was originated from the Sun God and the connection of the naga kingdom of the east with the Sun Dynasty was traditionally strong.
- Dvaravati at Gujarat
Gujarat as part of the Indus Valley, might have connection with both the naga king of the Mahabharata and later the Indo-Aryan speakers Rajputs more than any other part of India. There is still speculation that a big chunk of ancient Gujarat was under the water and constituted the kingdom of the naga king. Gujurat might receive the name as Dvaravati, as an important sea port and maritime gate to both the West and the East. To reflect back, the connection between Gujarat and the Southeast Asian Dvaravati dated from the arrival of the Sakas by both land and sea route.
- The Dvaravati of Mahabharata
In the epic "Mahabharata", Dvaravati was specified as the naga country ruled by the naga king Balarama. The title Balarama (Bala_Ra_ma) was, in other hand, in reference to the son of the Balaraja, a close connection to Babylon.
- The Dvaravati of the Menam Valley
As the naga culture was expanded through out the world, it is expected that Dvaravati could be any part of it. The specification that Dvaravati was under water however limits our search to Southeast Asia. The Mahadara of the Bay of Bandon matches exactly the description. It could be that Dvaravati, like Takkola, was the ream of the ancient Hiong-wang Empire and a reminiscence of the ancient Mahadara.
- Taxila and Babylon
In Buddhist literature, particularly in the Jatakas, Taxila is often referred to as a seat of learning and the home of world famous teachers. Archeology findings, however, suggests that the actual site of Taxila of today is much more recent than that.
The truth disclosed by the hard facts of excavation is much more sober. The earliest of the remains uncovered on the site go back no further than the sixth century BC or thereabouts. (Sila: Historical: No Structural remains of prehistoric date of Taxila).
The fact that Taxila was mostly in Buddhist scripture agree with the fact that like Babylon, Taxila was closely connected to the Nanda. Taxila at the West was obviously founded when the Nanda Empire extended itself to Middle East. In pre-Buddhist era, Takkasila was meant to be the stronghold of the Brahmans that started since the early formation of Ta-tsin and was originally located in Southeast Asia (The Man Race: Nokor Phnom: Takkasila).
- The Kambojas of Parthia
From the fact that the ParamKambojans were participating in the Kuru's war along side with the Kambuja of Gandhara around the fifteenth century BC, their existence was earlier than the Kuru's war itself and can be associated to the ascension of Seth to the Egyptian throne.
- Tian in Chinese pictograph
The origin of Heaven as a deity among the Chou people is very difficult to trace. The Chinese word is Tian; its form in early Chou times was (a depiction of a man), which is the figure of a man (BChina:Religion: P. 342).
- The Paramkamboja in the Mahabharata
In their own account, their tradition is more connected to Babylon of Mesopotamia than the Tian of the Kamara culture and scholars speculate that they were the Param-Kambojan tribesmen of Kiaratha to fight alongside the Pandavas in the Kuru's war of the Mahabharata epic story.
- The Beginning of the Race of Giant
Instead of finding the Tree of Life, they instead learned the Knowledge of God and Evil that included Giantism from the local Lawa Shamans. Driven out by Buddha Gautama, they were settlings first at upper Laos and further north at Yunnan where residue of Ho leadership remained as withnesses to the Dong-son culture until modern days. To further east, their settlement on the Red River basin yielded the archeology site of Dien Bien Phu that became an indicator of Southeast Asia cultural underchange under the Sakan interference.
- The Annamite People
As its reference implicates, Annamite people (later known as Vietnamese) were supposed to be originated at the south of Anyang. Sinologue often mistook Japanese as kinsmen of the Vietnamese of Central China that makes themboth as kinsmen of the Han Chinese. However, the association of the Wu dynasty with Japan might have been more plausible. It might happen when the Wu court was subjugated by the Quin dynasty that some of its members took refuge in Japan. On the other hand, the Japanese people was more connected (at least geographically) with Mancuria where the Manchou later ruled. At the mean time, the Annamite was referring to both the Han and the Kinh people of Central China who under the Han establishment, were considered as the true Chinese people.
- Civilization of South America
There are still hot debates on how South American civilization was taking place before the arrival of Christopher Columbus. One side argues for the locality of the indigenous culture, the other argues for foreign incursion including African and Polynesian interference. The array of difference in South American customs appears to support the latter claim. The similarity of South American development, in parallel to that of Southeast Asia and Middle East leads us to believe that earlier cultural exchanges between the three continents, and other part of the world, existed before and after the Great Flood.
- Confucianism in the History of China
Confucianism was often listed as a world religion. As compared to Buddhism, it was classified as a philosophical culture that brought systematic approach to the pragmatic conduct of individual as well as the state affair. Both cultures aimed in promoting happiness for the practioners, but unlike western schools of beliefs had based their practices on self-development through rigorus disciplines, instead of worshipping. Theirs conception were both based on the Tree of Life conception of the universe. However the similiarity stopped right there. Confucianist religious core which was based on the Yin and Yang energies, was actually based on historical events that happening mostly during the Kala Yuga. Buddhism on the other hand based its conception on timelessness.
- Buddha Gautama's half Time Prophecy
By refusing to become a Cakravatin Monarch, Buddha Gautama renounced his legitimate right to become the world' s ruler. Instead of committing himself to the chaos world of politic, he spent the rest of his life concentrating on perfecting the untainted world of Dharma. Unlike other religions, Hinayana Buddhism was believed to be solely based on Buddha's teaching. Its primary goal was to guide humanity into attaining the ultimate salvation, which was to lead human souls into the ream of god (Nirvana). His teaching brought rationalism to another level that helped humanity in coping with the rest of the Kalayuga to come. When asked about what happened next to his religion, Budhha replied to his disciples that they should not worry about. In the first half of the yuga to come, his Dharma would stay to guide humanity through Buddhism.
- The Link with Aryavata
The connection between the Gangetic India and Central Asia had been established since and possibly earlier than its Aryanization. On the other hand Chinese text had recorded that a land trade between Indochina with Central Asia, had been established already around the second century BC.
Tchang Kien, arriving at Bactriane, had found bamboo and cloths from the actual province of Yunnan and Sseu-tchouang. People told him that they received them from a rich country named Chen-tou. It was then that Tchang Kien, thinking about difficulties of the northern route often cut by the nomad people of Central Asia, conceived the project of opening for China a way to the west by the countries of the south.
As Chen-tou was referring to India, a land route from the south of China to Central Asia through India was established before the second century BC.
- Mahadara as the Ream of the ocean Naga King
In the Han-Chey inscription, a passage references Mahadara as a political center of the Kambojan (Funan) court that was subjugated by the Chenla king Bhavavarman I. It agrees with the fact that Mahadara was always a stronghold of the Kambojan line of kings (Chenla: The Chenla Dynasty: Bhavavarman I). The Chronicle of Khmer heroes specifies the naga king, father in law of Kaundinya, as the KambojNagaraja. The use of the Sanskrit word KambojNagaraja (Kamboj-Naga-raja), the naga king of Kam nationality, indicates the Kamboj's presence with the naga communities of the time.
- The To Raja
Among the tribesmen of the Malay Archipelago, the Toraj presented themselves as outsider of the Indonesian Islands. Their exotic culture had a long recollection that they were not natives of the islands and that their ancestors came by ships. That matches the account of Mahavamsa of the ships carrying the exiled children of the Vijaya King that landed in Malaya. On the other hand, the identity "Toraj" appears to be of the Sanskrit word "To-raja" meaning the Lion King.
- The Dvipavamsa's Account of Vijaya
The author of Dipavamsa has, however, tried to be more factual in referring to the husband of the princess as a man named Sinha who was an outlaw that attack caravan en route. In the meantime, Sinha-bahu and Sinhavali, as king and queen of the Kingdom of Lala, "gave birth to twin sons, sixteen times." The eldest was Vijaya and the second was Simitta. As Vijaya was of cruel and unseemly conduct, the enraged people requested the king to kill his son. But the king caused him and his seven hundreds followers to leave the kingdom, and they landed in Sri Lanka, at a place called Tamba-panni, on the exact day when the Buddha passed into Maha Parinibbana in 543 BC.
(MHVS: A Comparative study: Dissimilarities)
- The Siam Legacy of Khun Borom
It is understandable that Paramesvara, referring as Khun Borom in the Siam tradition, had hold on to his legacy of Mahadara as the father of Khun Inh who ruled over Sri Ayudhya and Lavo after the fall of the Chenla Empire. Eventually Paramesvara became the god King of the Angkorean court, descendants of Kaundinya and the Nagi Princess, and continued to be part of the Angkorean legacy until the end of the cakravatin empire.
- The Nanda Dynasty
Kalasoka, the son of SisuNaga, was assassinated by a man of low origin-barber according to some accounts-named Mahapadma Nanda, who succeeds to the throne, and founded a new dynasty known as the Nanda. Mahapadma seems to have been a great military genius. He defeated and destroyed the far-famed Kshatriya families.
(India: Chapter I: Nanda Dynasty)
- Ceylan vs Sri Langka
Ceylan is perhaps a derivative from Sri Langka. By the time that Ashoka sent his son Mahinda to Southeast Asia, Ceylan might not have been yet formed as a kingdom. AS we have argued, Langadvipa of the time was still located in Southeast Asia.