The End of the Meru Culture

Project: The End of the Meru Culture
Author: Lem Chuck Moth

Started date: September/01/2011
Last updated: June/01/2014
All right reserved.
Since this paper is still drafted, the readers would be advised to ignore any context errors. The content is not final and subjected to be reviewed.

Along side with the Aryaman or Meru, Mithra and Varuna were two other divinities that were revered not much less in the western world. After the decline of the Sumerian Empire, the two siblings took on their own course to eclipse the Meru Culture. During their next development, they were undergone into many transformations. Right after the exodus of Meru from Mesopotamia, Mithraism was invigorated by the prophet Zoroaster and became known as Zoroastrianism. Under the demonic God Ashura, the new culture extended its course toward the East by the Silk Road. Through the conquest of the Archeamenic Empire, Mithraism had made its ways into China. Its incursion into Southeast Asia was done through the Han Dynasty and the Yueh migration into Southern China. Known as the Tartarization, the next Westernization was completed by Kublai Khan who invaded China to form the Yuan Dynasty. We also argued that the final incursion into Southeast Asia resulted in the fall of the Angkorean Empire and in the rise of Ayudhya and Dai-Viet. Set to challenge the suzerainty of the late Angkorean era, the two contenders started dismantling the Meru Culture (Champapura: The Last of the Indianized Southeast Asia: The Bull's Contests). Even though Buddhism was adopted by Ayudhya, Vishnuite influence had brought in Mithraism to replace the Sivaite core of Hinayana Canon. On the other side, Dai-Viet brought along with its Southern Nam-Tian progression Confucianism to the last stronghold of Meru legacy in Cochinchina. Because they were originated in Central Asia, scholars hardly saw these past developments as the effect of Westernization but instead of Cinicization. The last Tartarization actually started when European countries took on the audacity to colonize the whole world. During its early phase, evidences show that most of the Meru legacy stayed still in Cambodia and in many other parts of Southeast Asia. From the start, the colonists knew quite well that conflicts are unavoidable when the colonies had theirs own strong cultural background. In the next development, colonization was set to challenge head-on the Meru heritage of Southeast Asia to prevent it from interfering into their colonial drive. To ward off resistance, they saw only one solution and that the legacies of the Meru Culture had to go. In the name of civilization, western culture was implanted to replace the Meru Tradition. The same way that Angkor fell under the Mongolian incursion, we shall argue that the Meru culture finally took it last stand by succumbing under the colonial rule.
The Historical Sources *
Before the colonization started, we had argued that Cambodia and Burma still retained their existence and most of all their past heritage. Since the fall of Angkor, Cambodia was immediately targeted for the take-over by Siam and Dai-viet. However Cambodia managed to survive both its two aggressive neighbors while Burma still hold on to its supremacy. We shall argue that this survival credential was not up to chances but was mainly due to resources in sustaining their statehood. Many of the resources were culturally based on the legacy of the Khmer Cakravatin Empire inherited after the fall of Angkor. While Hinduism was fading, Buddhist institution stepped up to fill the gap of the Angkorean educational system. Pagodas became the sole source of education for both the youth and the general population. Even though disturbed by Siam and Dai-viet' s control, the Khmer literature managed not only to survive but was particularly thriving. The best works of the Khmer literature so far remaining until today were mostly composed during this trouble time. Mostly authored by monks, fictions and historical records alike stayed to witness the Meru past legacies until today. During the earlier colonial rule, the Meru Culture was losing its credibility. The attempt to launch Christianity by the European missionaries started with the defamation of the Buddhist institution. Public schools were soon built to take away the credential from the Buddhist temples for Cambodian to cope with the modern world. No longer needed for higher education, Buddhist pagodas were then perceived as a place of worshipping where old generation Cambodian people went to search for their lost soul. New history's books about Cambodia, mostly written by western scholars, became the sole source of information about Cambodian past taught in public schools. During the late stage of colonization however, conscientious efforts had been done by the French Government to restore back the history of its colonies. In 1900, the French institution "The Etude Francaise de l' Extreme Orient" (EFEO) was open in Hanoi to start on researching Indochinese past. Its annual bulletin published extensive research, mostly done by French scholars, on topic relating to the French Indochina and its deep past history. The institutional works concerning Angkor did not only resuscitate back the Khmer' s past glory but also rejected false historical data presented by later Cambodia's new aggressive neighbors. Documentation about later period however was mostly left out until the formation of "The Buddhist Institution of the Khmer Intellectual". In the effort to restore back Cambodian past heritage, the institution had called for the scarce remaining Khmer Intellectuals to join in the work. After a good start, the association however lost its objective when some members used it as a launching ground for the freedom fight against France (The Impact of the World War II: The Japanese Invasion: The French Indochinese Dilemma). Fund as well as support for the institution dried up and to crack down further on the uprising, any local attempts to compile historical records were closely monitored. Missing information, as we shall argue had made the last occurrence of the Khmer Empire so far in the dark. Following the western standard, the new generation of Cambodian power elite was deprived of alternate sources and was seen mostly adhering to western books to form their judgment. Discrepancies, as we shall argue, became the causes among modern Khmer leaders of bad practices and the outcome, as we had seen, had led to more suffering that Cambodia had to incur ever since (The Indochinese Communist Party: The Fight against the Imperialist America: A new Communist star on the Rise).
To most westerners, the Angkorean legacies are portrayed as outdated or backward compatible to the modern civilization. We shall argue instead that the Meru Culture was a complete package that was proved to work not only during the auspicious time to build the Meru' s past glory of the Angkrean Empire, but also to maintain the Khmer integrity in the bad time as well. Our study shall focus on the last abolition of the Meru heritage during the colonial rule and its subsequent affect to Cambodia's surviving chance under the modern days' New World Order. It is not by all means an attempt to recover back the Meru' s past glory but to provide more insight of what really was the Meru Culture itself. Only then that the history of the Khmer Empire could be considered as complete.
The Feudal System *
One of the Meru's legacies that were the least understood by the western world is the decentralization of its organization. To the western world, feudality was often perceived as an oppressive system mostly connected with warlordship. The perception is true according to current situation that the Meru Culture is about to be wiped out from the surface of the globe. Through bad practices, the feudality is becoming victim of its own dark side. Warlord kings took advantage of the absence of higher authority to exercise their own audacity and adopted dictatorship for their own sake. Back in the old days, the feudal system had proved itself to suit the sophisticated organization of the Cakravatin Empire. From a single family' s cell to a village up to the global establishment of the empire, the system incorporated feasible interconnection for the central government to oversee the whole system. Vital resources were allocated in a systematic manner to avoid direct competition. Through self-sufficiency, both security and economy were conducted from bottom up to sustain the need of the whole empire. Most problems of food and resource distribution had been taken care by lower channels. Social problems are also solved at their early stage from smaller cluster to bigger community. In the Meru administration, individual initiative was as much important as of the governmental policy itself (Notes: The Christian belief of the free will). As a result, the top governmental role could be drastically reduced, in the best case scenario, to the leadership role only. While rule and regulation was carried from the top of governmental leadership down to people, the free initiative allowed each community to make the best of their environment. History had proved that under the Khmer Cakravatin Empire, Angkor thrives through its feudal rulers who took on their own initiative to build and to defend their own communities. The system had provided sound structural base for Angkor, not only to progress during the auspicious time but also for self protection during its down time as well (Notes: The modular ship design). After the fall of Angkor, the situation had put Cambodia in a fighting mode for its own survival. It had proved itself worth in keeping Cambodia from completely taking over by both Siam and Dai-Viet. Even though the Khmer throne and its court fell repeatedly under sway of Bangkok and Hue, many provincial authorities managed to keep themselves out from direct control of both countries. As they were still faithful to the Khmer legacy and were willing to fight for it, the central court could quickly reformed itself by regrouping back their supports (The birth of Vietnam: The Nam-Tien or the Vietnamization down south: The Vietnamization of Prey-Nokor). On the other hand, evidences also show that the lost of the land was mostly due to political manipulation. Hue and Bangkok took on the burden to raise the Khmer court in a tight control and channeled their influence to gain back unwanted favors. The same argument also held true for Burma as remnants of ancient feudal organization had been sustaining themselves from the antiquity and still stands strong in representing the oldest legacy of the world civilization. Colonization on the other hand brought new concepts of nationality that undermined the feudal self-conservation system. Immediately after taking control of Cambodia, French colonists started on dismantling the Khmer administrative system. What made them successful in their campaign was partly due to the colonial propaganda. The introduction of the new concept of centralized governmental system was made to believe that it was part of the modernization of the world. Confusion settled in as states and nations were formed to benefit from the western culture. To join in the western world, each nation had to relegate all its past and followed the dynamic of political flow carried through by modern time fallacies. In a short period of time, Khmer feudal system had been dismantled and replaced by a westernized system tightly controlled by the colonists and collaborators (The Kingdom of Cambodia: The French protectorate: The reign of King Sisovath). From then on, the Khmer societies were no longer self sustained and depended on the central government to function. Even though most of the countryside was still left under the old system, feudal communities found themselves more and more isolated and were prevented from regrouping themselves. To further curbing potential uprising, a close network of colonial administration had been implemented through out the country. This successful maneuver allowed the French colonist to take full control of Cambodia and extended their controls over Laos as well. In Burma, the British India had also developed the same policy in regard to its new colony. Besides dismantling down Burmese royal houses, ethnic feudal system was also targeted. However, the vastness of the country and its diversity complicated the situation and despite the effort, the centralization of the whole Burma was never been achieved. Of this unsettlement, British India's had never realized its ambitious project about the land communication with China through Yunnan. At the same time, its planned control of Thailand had also been postponed by cautionary measure exerted by the French interference. Of their own ambition, French Colonists also had their own secret agenda about Yunnan and had already start its interference into the Siam court. Saved by the World War II, Thailand suzerainty was a matter of luck.
The Governmental Infrastructure *
Before it was changed under the late French protectorate, the Khmer Kingdom was a down-scaling of the Khmer Cakravatin Empire. Often mistaken by western scholars as a republic, the Cakaravatin establishment allowed each member to have its own autonomy. Having all the necessary mean to conduct their state affairs, each feudal province was able to function as an independent entity. Even after the fall of the empire, evidences show that each dependent state managed to survive on their own. The Middle Kingdom on the other hand concentrated on global policy and depended on the cooperation of each subordinated state to carry on commonwealth projects. Unlike centralized kingdom or state where all powers are in the hand of the ruler or the ruling party, the Cakravatin monarch exerted his power according to circumstantial requirement. In the time of peace, he had just a small army for the court protection while the Obraja who was also the governor of a major cardinal state usually hold more military power in the assigned duty of safeguarding the whole Empire. With little troops enough for his personal protection, the Cakaravatin monarch ruled through his clairvoyance. His Guru and advisor along with all his close associates were Brahmans and scholars rather than military commanders. In the time of war, the Cakravatin monarch became the supreme leader and topped himself over the obraja to lead the army against the enemy. In any circumstances, his real power does depend on his own personal military strength but instead on his credential and his leadership to unify the whole empire. As we had argued, Angkor attained its apogee during the reign of Jayavarman VII and extended itself virtually over all the ream of Nagadvipa. Burma became then its western cardinal state and the title "Narathipati" of its ruler was actually an Angkorean title. Acting as a Cakravatin obraja, Narathipati led the Angkorean coalition army against the Great Khan's settlement at Yunnan but was defeated by a smaller but more experienced Mongol's army. After the breakdown of Angkor, each one of its cardinal states went on their separate way to become independent. They soon fell prey to the take-over by new nations emerging from the Gog' s legacy of Central Asia (Notes: The Gog legacies of Southeast Asia). While Sokhodaya, Sri Dharmaraja and Xiang-mai lost their status as a kingdom and were absorbed into the Siam Gog country, Champapura was on the other hand absorbed along with Prey-Nokor into the Annam Gog or Dai-Viet. Cambodia and Burma still subsisted as a state because they had retained and stayed connected with the Cakravatin establishment from the past. Being respectively the Middle Kingdom and its military center, both countries still adopted the Cakravatin organization of decentralization. This loose-end organization had proved itself to preserve the identity of both countries, as they were able to regroup themselves many times after crises. During the colonial era, the French colonist decided to keep King Norodom in power despite the latter' s apparent insubordination to their colonial rule. They later blamed themselves of catering to him for any political turmoil in Cambodia happening under his reign (The Kingdom of Cambodia: The French Colonial policy: The early uprisings). It was just a typical scapegoating policy of the western culture of off-load their responsibility of their failure. Evidences show that the resistance did not originate from the palace but were instead organized by independent minds of the countryside. Unlike the British India, the French colonists knew that they were not strong enough to command a full-blown colony out of Cambodia. As we had argued, it was mainly due to the decentralization of the current Khmer governmental feudal system. Nevertheless, they learnt by observing Siam and Hue that by manipulating the central court, Cambodia would submit to them. Apparently the new measures worked as the next Khmer King Sisowath had cooperated fully with France and at the meantime worked on modernizing Cambodia. When the French came back to claim their colonies after the World War II, the westernization already changed the politic of Cambodia along with the rest of Southeast Asia. They also found that the natives were in their nature far friendlier to them than their Cinicized subjects and stood mostly on their side against the fascist regime of Japan. Through the royal palaces, France started to recognize the two countries as its best allies ever in the history of its colonialization in Southeast Asia. After the Geneva convention, the Khmer and the Lao royal houses secured the French colonists not only of a good exit but still held a good relationship with France ever since (Notes: King Sihanook and General De Gaulle). In contrast, Burmese royal houses had been wiped out completely and Burma was made as a province of India. After the Japanese invasion, the situation had been changed drastically for the British colonists. A new wave of Burmese resistance, formed from westernized power-elite, joined the Japanese army to fight against the British rule. After the loss of Japan and the end of the World War II, they were strong enough to fight on their own account against their exhausted master. Britain then allowed Burma to form a union of states to be independent from India and promised that each indigenous state could request their own suzerainty when the time comes. As part of the British Union, Burma was still very much retaining its political structure as a union of states. However, the new generation of its leaders, having not much recollection about the country's past, transformed Burma as a centralized Mien nation.
The Defense System *
Another aspect of western fallacies was concerning about the centralized military built-up. It was based on the rationale that a bigger army means bigger security for the country. The scheme that started by western military industries and subsidiaries promoted the contest in military strength as a measure of a nation's suzerainty. To maintain a defense system that protects the centralized government, military spending takes now a big part of the national budget. While strong nations that benefited the most from the cold war started to find themselves in shaky ground, smaller nations were still locked into the arm race. With limited resources, they were forced to cater to bigger nations either to procure themselves with up-to date armament or lean on them for total protection. Many nations, with little or no resources, were left to die or suffered all kinds of abuse. Nevertheless the race still continued even it became clear that it was the cause of many worldly problems of today. Based on this model, there was a general misconception among scholars that Angkor was once a military power. To build up its extensive empire, they argue that Angkor must to possess a big army and throught its military prowess harassed its neighbors into subordinating under its centralized rule (The Sri Vijaya Connection: Introduction: The Mon's Account of the dynastic Crisis). For modern Khmer leaders, the western misconception manifested itself into further bad practices. By trying to achieve the same success story of Angkor, they looked for ways to build up national defense despite the apparent lack of both human resource and armament (Notes: In building the Angkorean might). Our findings show instead that Angkor was a religious city and as the Middle Kingdom of the Buddhist Cakravatin Empire, Angkor was not built to command military dominance. At the contrary, its strength lied in the cultural providence of its religious institution. On the other hand, we had argued that Angkor' s military strength lied mostly on its feudal system. Lavo and later Pagan where the abundance of human resource could be converted quickly through local administration into a strong army, became the main military commanding post. We shall also argue that concerning the Cakravatin establishment, the Middle Kingdom was formed to lead and not to conquer. Under the arrangement, Angkor was not militarily strong as previously thought and at the contrary was as vulnerable as its neighboring states. Angkor sustained its existence mostly because its neighbors were cooperating with the same code of conduct that protected each member from the aggression of the other. Under the Buddhist Sung dynasty, China had been a very good neighbor to Angkor. As the Buddhist discipline prevented the Chinese court from being overly agressive toward its neighboring states, the Sung Dynasty downgraded its military capability. It was in the worst moment that the Mongols built themselves up to become a regional power and started to carry on their worldy conquest. Fallen under the Yuan Dynasty, China became the big threat to Angkor. After the Mongols taking over Pagan (Burma), the Angkorean court was no longer in a position to stand against the Great Khan's aggression anymore and soon fell under his ambitious southern drive (The Fall of Nokor Thom: The Southern Escape: The Mongol's last Interference). During its long existence, Angkor was very much vulnerable as all its subordinated state. Facing with foreign incursion, Angkor could not stand on its own and depended on its cardinal states for protection. The secession of some key cardinal states and its internal crisis during the Mongol's incursion, as we had argued, destroyed Angkor' s defense system and was basically the cause of its final down-fall. After the collapse of the Cakravatin infrastructure, Angkor was virtually defenseless. During Siamese attacks, troops were mobilized from the country sites and were released soon after. They were peasants who went back to join their families and worked on their rice fields to salvage both their families and their country' s economy. By taking control of its western states, Ayudhya was extending right at the doorstep of Angkor. As time to mobilize troops from the country site always fell short, the Khmer King Ponha Yat had to abandon Angkor and to move his court down south for better protection. The problem aggravated when Dai-Viet decided to take hold of Champapura and extended its frontier further south at the expense of the collapsing Khmer Empire. With no accurate protection the Khmer court had to submit to both Siam and Dai-viet maneuvers. For rational minds, it is clear now that Angkor could not survive on it own, let alone thrive under current situation. It appears that the military deficiency, often blamed by westerners to Buddhism, was an organization' s flaw that caused the fall of the Khmer Empire to accelerate. Angkor's fall could be seen as conforming to the ancient code of leadership's conduct. The ancient tradition dictated that the captain of the boat should lead by example and when the boat sinks, he dies along with the boat. In any circumstances, Buddhism was not to be blamed for the decline of Angkor. Since we also argued that Angkor attained its highest achievements under Buddhism, the setback was occasionally due to bad circumstances. As peace was always been Cambodia's best investment, it is not in the interest of Cambodia to change course. Just because of its bad return, finding alternate investment to fit the warlike environment is like giving war more chances to thrive. At the contrary, Cambodia should continue to promote peace in the hope that one day its investment would pay off big time again.
Formed after the concept of a Cakravatin Empire, Cambodia and Burma had diverse demographic, political and social backgrounds. Standing alone, it was an example of a successful unification through the pacification of Buddhism. Under colonization, the government of both countries were drastically altered by the dismissal of the monarchy and the application of western administrative system. While Britain still remained as a kingdom, Burmese royal houses were exterminated and the remaining were expatriated to India. On the other hand Cambodian royal house was still preserved, but its political prowess had been reduced drastically to barely administrating the royal palace . For the sake of modernization, new colonial administration was set to replace both countries' s traditional style of government and in the process transformed both countries to depend on the colonial rule.
The Colonial Governmental System *
Before he left Cambodia, Jean Moura revealed the last of what he had learned from the Khmer Court. One of his remarks was about the role of the Khmer king in the state decision making. According to his observation, King Norodom was so much isolated from his people and even from his ministers that during his last days he was mostly relying on palace women for advice. His remarks supplemented Other French observers that the Khmer Kingdom was then just a shadow of its glorious past and to make the matter worst, still holding on to its dear memory. Other remarks even blamed the Khmer societies of being too much cozy with the past and by resisting, instead of cooperating with the colonization, Cambodians failed to cope with the modern world. Their remarks were accurate according to the current situation where Cambodia had been through many centuries of foreign incursion and internal crisis. By the time that the French colonists forced king Norodom to accept the French protectorate, Hue and bangkok took turn to joggle the Khmer Court while they nurtured the Khmer King confortable within his close entourage. Nevertheless, we had argued that lower court channels still worked according to the decentralized governmental concepts. Moreover we shall argue that holding-on to the past is not one of Cambodian choices and was not always a drawback. Through many centuries of religious practices, Buddhist morality had been anchored deep into Cambodian subconscious mind. The notion of right and wrong prevented them to become proactive during the colonial era when rule and regulation came directly from the colonists themselves. More often perceived as pessimistic, they were nonetheless uncooperative and, to their worst extend, rebellious. It was in the best interest of the colonial powers to bring up new leadership that suited their agenda. The separation of religion and state, on the other hand, gave the colonists reason to destroy traditional governmental system that was so far the main source of colonial resistance. It started with the educational system that promoted the western ways of life. More often, Schools, books and even teachers were provided. Among the graduated, only a handful of high society members, mostly of foreign background, could make use of their knowledge. In Cambodia, a new generation of Chinese and Vietnamese colonial workers took most of the positions of the French protectorate government to take orders from the colonists themselves. Western education would make their societies becoming a new power-elite of their adopted countries while the Khmer natives were left to their own past and stayed behind during the whole process. Under the initiative of the Khmer royal houses, the western education was made more available to the general Khmer population. During the last stage of the French Union, financial support were given allowing poor capable Khmer students to continue their study after finishing elementary schools. In other countries were the Meru legacies of the Angkorean era was completely wiped out, the westernization changed completely the politic of the countries. In Siam and in Burma, the new power elite was totally formed from the stratum of the immigrants. By forming their own societies, modeled according to the western blueprint, the new elite transformed themselves as westerners. For the sake of catching up to the progression of the western world, they became ardent advocate of western life-style and openly critical of the traditional way. Mostly on the ground of migrant people, they were the favorite of the colonists and were recruited as the next generation of colonial administrators. They were committing themselves on imitating the western world as it was seen to be a good assurance to sustain their successful image. Surrounded by escort and guard, the image enhanced their personal power that was crucial in quieting down local resistance more than the real protection. To further strengthen their position, military built-up protected themselves from any uprising that may occur. Needless to say, their jobs were created and were cohered by the colonists. Without having to go through extensive understanding of their adopted country, they proceeded to cut and past or in the worst case copy what colonial system presented to them. With the help of some western scholars they built their legitimacy through modern time migration theory. New identities were then launched to support political drive in the quest to build up personal or party' s support from the population. As states and nations were formed to benefit from the western Culture, confusion settled in during the formation of its statehood. To join in the western world, each nation had to relegate all its past and followed the dynamic of political flow carried through by modern time fallacies. In the most extend of their drive, each nation wrote its own history regardless of the past to fit its own interest. To make the matter worst, man-made revolution suppressed the past to promote new imported ideas or ideologies that were often irrelevant to the reality of their country.
The Immigration *
One particular aspect of Westernization that had a big impact on the Meru Culture was concerning the centralized concept of a nation. Facing with strong native resistance, the colonists needed migrants to take on the active role of colonial supporters. The impact was immediate as they worked their way up the colonial ladder to become efficient functionaries of the colonies. When the Europeans first make contact with the South China Sea, India was already commercially colonized. Since then, the Indian colony was made to suit the British India for theirs next campaigns into Southeast Asia. Indian coolies and functionaries alike became big asset for the European Colonialization. They constituted the people resources of cheap labor that the British companies needed to carry on their ground works. They were reliable as they had no ambition of their own and mostly stayed at the background during and after the British colonial rule. On the other hand, immigrants of other background were encouraged to join in the colonial development. Recruited among their Tibetan subjects, the Miens were often perceived as less honest than the Indians and thus were suitable to help in the economy of the British colonization. Moreover, they were also well known for their bravery that perfectly suited for the colonial army. As had been noted in the past, the Miens were also fond of learning and, as expected, excelled in western public school institution more than their Barman peers. After British control was over, they were left to become the new power-elite of the country. Their military background also suited them well in establishing Burma as a new liberated nation. Having full control of the Burmese army, their insubordination prevented the British colonists to take back control of Burma. In the Siam country, the Miens also played similar role in the economy and military built up of Bangkok during the colonization. With the absent of European colonist, Bangkok grew up to become an Indochinese powerhouse taking hold of the Siam country. Nevertheless, some Mien aristocrats still went after the opportunities however made available by the colonial rule. They went deep into the countryside and mixed themselves with the locals to form the new power elite of their adopted countries. Their contact with western culture made their families and descendants becoming the most westernized in the country. Their high education secured them with government jobs that stayed after the colonial era. As new nationalities were formed to suit their new governmental structure, Identity' s confusion took place during the declassification of native societies. As we had argued, the Mien identity stayed strong to become the new official name of Burma. In the northern Siam countries, we shall also see that the Tai nationality became next the post-colonial legacy that took over the indigenous Siam and Lao identity (The Southeast Asia Treaty Organization: Thailand: Phibun Sangrama and the Tai nationality). When France took over Laos, French scholars had identified a specific administration system commun to all northern Lao indigenous communities. Comparing notes with their British peers who were working on the northern Shan countries, they found out that commun heritage existed between the two regions. Their finding appears to support, in correlation to the linguistic origin of the Tai Language, the Tai migration theory of the Tai speaking people from the Tai-yuan country. The Mandala style organization was then attributed to all Tai speaking communities that extended itself farther south to Bangkok. The Lao tradition of Khun Borom was also made universal as the origin of all Tai Tribesmen. We had argued that the story of Khun Borom was actually the historical fact of the formation of Angkor by the God King Paramesvara (Xiang-Mai: Introduction). As a consequence, the Mandala organization that was still found in both the Lao and Shan communities was actually the remnant of the feudal system inherited from Angkor. While Burma and Cambodia lost most of the heritage under the colonial rule, the legacies stayed on in the remote site of northern part of Indochina where westernization could only reached during the late colonial era. On the other side of the colonial spectrum, France found their people resources to form the new political power elite through different channels. Chinese migrants, who already populated along the seacoast of South China Sea, found in French colonization opportunities to build their own ventures. Of different ethnic and cultural background they came mostly from the southern provinces of China and shared the same Confucianist philosophy. Tightly networked, they found in the colonization a good opportunity to extend their ventures down south. Among them were the Yuehs whose migratory habit had landed them in southern China since the Han Dynasty. Their success was mainly due to their political skill of playing one power against the other and their ability to evade direct control from both local authorities and European colonist partly on bribery. With the support of the colonists, their businesses were mostly conducted at the expense of the locals. Bangkok and Singapore were two of such high concentration of Chinese migrants taking on the monopoly of the South China sea-trade.
The Elimination of Traditional Power-elite
For Cambodia, the replacement of traditional government with the French administration was immediate. Having been under Bangkok and Hue's protectorat for a long while, Cambodian royal palace had been used to function under the guidance of both courts. For the French colonist, the task was nothing more than to transfer the control from Bangkok to the Hanoi based French goverment of Indochina. With or without the consent of Nangkok, Vietnamese and Chinese functionaries were moved into Cambodia to replace many centuries old administrators who were forced to resign theirs post simply due to lack of western schooling. For Burma, the situation complicated with the royal palace still in full capability to resist the colonial rule on its own term. Like Cambodia, Burmese royal houses had deep background from its Varadhana's ancestry but along the way had adopted more of external legacies from abroad. Due to its geographic connection with India, Lower Burma received many centuries of Indian legacies through the control of the Cholan Empire. The formation of Ramandesa was by all means coupled with the Vishnuite development of South India. On the other hand, we had argued that the join campaign of Sri Langka and Angkor had resulted in Pagan becoming a dependent of Angkor. Upper Burma was then formed by resuscitating back the Barman legacy with Buddhism playing the role of the facilitator. Each of the religious believes served as the validation of its royal house in taking turn to rule the country. By subduing of the Mon royal court at Pegu, Ava ended of the Vishnuite practices in Southern Mon countries and the promotion of Paganism in upper Burma. On the other hand, the demise of Ava' s royal house by the colonial rule ended all Brahmanist practice of the whole Burmese state. Local Brahmans were tossed away from the government and were replaced by western graduated scholars from public institution. While in England, Christianity was still in full force behind British policy making, Burmese court members of traditional religious background were discarded in making way for colonial politicians to run the country. The disruption from the past created opportunity for new immigrants to move up the governmental promotional ladder. Through the complete elimination of the Ava royal house, a new power-elite was formed on the ground of the new graduates of western schooling. They were the offsprings of migrants who did not hesitate to comply with the colonial rule to move themselves up the colonial governmental ladder. As the colonial obtrusion would set the new Burmese government to depend on British India for its own survival, Burma was exploited openly as a full blown British colony.Like their French counterparts, the British Colonists found in the replacement of Burmese royal government members as a task rather made easy through immigration. After the Mongol's incursion, Burma already received influx of Mien Migrants from the North. They were at first absorbed for the vast controlled territory of the Burmese Empire and were placed under the control of the locals (Notes: The Mien' s Dominance). The reverse role happened when they were employed in the high colonial offices and received enough status the replace the old political setting of the new nation. Rangoon became the capital of the British Burma for the sole rationale that it was convenient to the British India the intercourse with the rest of Southeast Asia. Due to the plentiful workforce made available by the migrants, Rangoon set Burma to become part of the British network of the South China sea' trade. On the reverse side of the spectrum, the natives lost most of their suzerainty and left to survive in theirs shringking habitat. Because of the lack of central leadership, some ethnic tribes stayed isolated the best they could by moving away from the cities while others tried to cope with the colonial rule. Used to be master of their land and environments, they were stripped of their mean of living through land encroachment by new settlers. Surrounded by aggressive new neighbors, they became the poorer among the poor of the new environment and the only things they could do were protesting. Although British-Burmese wars ended after only a couple of weeks, resistance continued on until 1890. To resolve the crisis, the British colonists had to resort to a systematic destruction targeting the feudal organization and replaced it with new governmental officials of foreign background. The measures appeared to work and guerrilla warfare soon stopped under the British rule. Along the way, the westernized conception of race and nation had been implanted on the newly formed population. To ease their tension, Christian churches moved in to give them some spiritual support. This arrangement lasted until 1937 when Burma began to be administered separately by the Barman Office and the Secretary of State for India. Burma achieved its independence from British rule on 4 January 1948, but many of the colonial legacies still remained. Under the leadership of the Takhin Party, the new nation was formed inheriting colonial oppressive system and all its problems until modern days. In 1989, the military government changed the official name of the country from the "Union of Burma" to the "Republic of the Union of Myanmar". As a result, constant fighting in safeguarding indigenous identity against the establishment of Mien homogenous nationality that changed overtime continued. Burma had been since the worst ethnic battleground of Southeast Asia.
With the progress of science and technology, atheism is on the rise. Among many theories that set scientific institution apart from religious school, the Darwin's theory of evolution challenged the ancient religious claim of God creation (Notes: Darwin' Theory of Evolution). According to the theory, men and other living organism was the product of natural evolution and the survival of any species lies on how they adapt to the surrounding resources. In the competition that the stronger species always win, it is believed that the less fortunate ones with religious background have only themselves to blame. The finding would have a big impact on the modern ideologies that were formed after World War II. For the free world, Darwin's theory of natural selection meant the freedom to compete for the world resource, not just for living but for self indulgence. For communism that was based totally on scientific rationalism, the theory provided a strong support for Karl Marx' s own class struggle.
Capitalism and the new World Order *
Through scientific rationality, modern men had developed different view about their own existence and stopped relying on religion to provide the answers. On the cultural arena, atheist started to exert claim that natural selection process and not God was the real cause of both human' s existence and morality. Despite the lack of comprehensive proof so far presented, the theory was well accepted by scientific community and, through a deep impact on politic, resulted in the separation between the state and religion. Replacing religious creationism, Darwin's theory of evolution had led to deeper split between scientific and religious institution. Coincidentally enough, the theory emerged at the same time that Capitalism became the driving force of the New World Order. Being seen as the propeller of prosperity, Capitalism took the best of humanity in the name of progress. It represented a new trend that, in the drive to promote the free will among the aristocracy, humanity had distanced itself more and more from the core of religious code of conduct. To communist doctrine, religion is a poison for the believers resulting in the lost of opportunity in the fight for survival. Since then, the statement is being accepted and echoed more and more in the atheist communities of the Free World as well. On its own evolution, humanity started to look for alternative ways to free themselves from religious constraints. In the early Meru environment, members of the human species used natural resources as much as they needed to sustain life and when they died they left everything back to the earth for recycling. Greed was then totally banned along side with other sins. As part of the Tree of Life, knowledge had been created along the path of humanity's progression for humanity to cope with the natural environment. The alchemy of which scholars believes that science and technology had been derived from, provided humanity with mean of self procurement that was yet under tight control of religious morality. To theism, capitalism was at the contrary a result of bad practices during the rise of European enterprise. To atheism, capitalism was a typical example of humanity successful drive for survival. Nevertheless, both camps could not agree more on its evolutionist nature since among God' s creation, capitalism is never been claimed as one of them (The westernisation: The Roman legacy: The Corporation and the Colonization). According to the natural selection process, capitalism is a new marvel of human invention to replace God intervention in the surviving of mankind. During the renaissance, European countries found themselves at odd with the control of the church and started experimenting self-reliance. Thank to capitalism, industrialization was picking up in a fast pace that changed Europe into becoming the wealthiest part of the world. The problem is that after its invention, capitalism took hold of the whole world under its spell. Bad practices were quite common, especially on the economic development of the new Free World. Resources were collected from all around the globe for the need of European high societies. Slavery was then openly commercialized to suit the need of the European aristocracy. From then on, the Meru's prescription for happiness was inadequate and outdated. The concept of colonization was then invented to help propelling the European drive for prosperity. Like many more of the Third World Countries, Cambodia and Laos became two typical victims of the modern world' s bad practices. Needless to say, the colonization continued to have its impact on the rest of the world until it was put to stop by the two world wars (The End time: The Apocalypse). Saddened by the destruction, European countries started to see the necessity of restraining themselves from past mistakes. Under the New World Order, colonialism had been outlawed and the fascist regime was banned. Nevertheless, many of their mayor bad practices still stayed to become the core policy of the next World Order. Not only that humanity failed to identify capitalism as the root cause of both colonialist and fascist regimes but at the contrary promoted the bad practices to its utmost strength. America and Russia took on the lead to restore back the world economy by adopting the same greedy algorithm of both the colonist and the Nazi fascist regimes. In a short time the world recovered itself and rejoiced of the new found happiness while the memory of the two world wars was gradually fading. Religious conception of immorality or sin was tossed aside to be replaced by new atheist's view of the free to act 's right under the natural selection process. The slogan "Greed is not that bad" or to some extend "Greed is good" became in vogue to glorify the successful story of capitalism. Under the guidance of the new optimistic view, resources are again exploited and military campaigns are justified to secure the conducting of business as usual. Under the new development, science and technology had made their progression along side of humanity' s drive for success and started to deviate from their original form (The early civilization: Introduction). A new kind of science known as "Junk science" emerged to defend corporate bad practices and research were conducted not for the progress of science or for the good of humanity, but mainly for corporate profit. In the course of event, religious institutions are known to receive donation from the capitalist world in the attempts to expand their own ambitious drive.
The Communism *
After the World War I (1914-1918), Karl Max published his first manifesto of communism that became the basic consolidating factor of the communist doctrine. The birth of the Soviet Union as the world' s first communist state was conceived under the leadership of Lenin in 1922. After forming the Communist International Party (Commintern), Russia became then the leader of the Communist communities. It was just a few events that shaped up the emergence of the communist world. Like the Free World capitalism, communist doctrine shares the same Darwinist view about the importance of capitalism for the surviving chance of the human species. The difference is about ownership of which between the people and the aristocrats should possess the collection of wealth through capitalism (Notes: The Communist vs the Free World). Unlike the free world that openly maintained the aristocratic life style through conservatism, communist school fought against the aristocracy to win the natural selection process. Instead of letting the evolution taking its own course, they reversed the process in such way that the old aristocracy class would lose. Their rationale was that with no natural counter-evolution, the aristocracy would always win while the peasant and the worker classes were set to be exploited. The same way that the Free World promoted selfishness and greed as a mean to achieve their drive, the communists promoted anger as a mean to fight off the aristocracy. To represent the hot revolutionary spirit, red became their color of choice. By winning the class's struggle, the communists are optimistic that their new scientific way would solve once for all humanity survival crises. History however had proved a totally different outcome from their original expectation. Like the free world, they started to find out that the same devilish temptation took hold of the communist power elite themselves. While the mass work feverishly empty handed, the power elite enjoyed the state' s collective wealth that was secured under their disposition by the Red army. Out of the crack of humanity' s bad practices, a new form of aristocratic societies emerged from the core of the communist leadership circle. The finding forced the ideologist to review the hard line of communism and split contemporary communist view into a divergence of progressive and revisionist camps. For progressive communism, natural evolution had to be counterbalanced by constant revolution. In his late years, Mao-Tse-Tong spent his last days launching the last campaign of his lifetime. The Chinese Cultural Revolution was then regarded as a must do to keep Chinese officials on track. After Mao's death, the hard-core of his followers had launched revolution upon revolution in the attempt to attain the desired result. Nevertheless, the hard measures had been proved to be ineffective and in the worse case scenario were seen as counter revolutionary. While corrupted officials were on the rise, the welfare of the mass population was still depressed and many independent souls were along the way suppressed. On the other side, the revisionists took a hard look just to find out that extended Maoism did not work and reversed their course back to the free enterprise. The policy of "one country, two systems" is adopted since by the communist party of China and allowed the free world in taking part into the new Chinese economy. In a close look, it was a return back to the old concept of Confucianism all over again. For the Khmer communist organization, the setback did not deter their strong conviction. On his personal quest to become the first communist leader in achieving the best of the progressive communism, Pol Pot continued exercising his radical belief and established a reputation of not much less sinister than that of Hitler. His communist organization, better known as the "Khmer rouge" (The Red Khmer) became one of the most radical organizations known to the world. The result was catastrophic and Pol Pot later died along with his Khmer rouge organization, locked up in a house arrest by his own people. During the last interview, he admitted that mistakes were made during his short rule from 1975 to 1979. It was about his lack of experiences through shortsighted political drive in the ultimate attempt to achieve the same Angkorean glory with the mean of communism. Relative to current World view, he could be instead hailed by the communist world as one of the top leaders of today if he did not fail in the attempt (The Indochinese Communist Party: The Impact of the Chinese Interference: The Republic Democratic of Kamboja). In a similar fate, we shall see that the Soviet Union also failed. After the presidency of Leonid Brezhnev (1964-1982) who took on the critical role of helping Hanoi to form the Indochinese communist states ended, it was itself destined to be collapsed. Internal conflicts that were in their early stage suppressed by the central Red Army, finally broke the communist tie and set smaller communist blocs free on their own course. The anger that was at first promoted to fight off the aristocracy had turned against themselves.
Of Religion and modern Ideologies *
In the natural selection process, it is clear that the human specy is winning the battle and set itself on top of its weaker competitors. As a result, wild animals are on the bring of extinction. Due to the lost of their habitats, vital resources that were once plentiful to sustain their lives are now deprived through the aggressive nature of humanity. Some still manage to survive through isolation but many need protection to subsist in the new highly competitive environment. Their surviving chances are currently improved, not by luck, but by conscientious minds that went out of their ways to protect them against human aggressiveness (Notes: The Notion of Luck). Nevertheless, atheist also claims that this act of kindness is as natural as a human body being formed from the star-dust. Trough trial and error, human specy found its own way to survive and it is the natural selection that teaches humanity how to behave. A higher authority is not only inadequate to induce morality but also irrelevant in preventing catastrophic event to be caused by humanity from happening (Notes: The Religious Morality). Theists on the other hand have different view when it comes to deal with human immorality. To them, natural selection alone is not all that secure the survival of the remaining species of today. According to religious teaching, sin or immorality was induced from bad practices or Karma into becoming the recipe for self-destruction. When sins took hold of the world, evidences show that humanity' s main concern was their own survival and prosperity. With no focus on common welfare, conflicts erupted and humanity locked itself into the spell of war-torn destruction. By destroying each other out of the competition, only the strongest was expected to survive the natural selection. As it comes to the internal struggle, capitalism provides to both the free and the communist blocs leverage of building their wealth and fighting off competitors. Complication aggravates as both blocs were equally strong and witty while religious morality is tossed aside. As we shall argue, the three cardinal sins of the Buddhist disciplines were to be exploited openly by modern ideologists of both camps. Clearly, the Darwinist school of natural selection had no clue of the spiritual morality that is plaguing modern world of today (Notes: Greed, Anger and Irrationality). In the fight for the world's resources, the natural process of survival had manifested itself into many hot destructive wars. As had been proved during the two world wars, human lives destruction were improving exponentially through the progress of technology. With the development of mass destruction weaponary, the next fight for the world resources could in the worst case, drive the human specy into extinction. Of the destruction force exerted by the Nazi Germany, a general wisdom hold that to prevent man-made catastrophic crises from happening, a bad governmental system should not be condoned. Nevertheless, there is still no solution in sight to prevent such failed government system from inducing its harmful effect. International communities had been formed to solve collective problems but at its current stage, most observers agree that it is not up to the task of preventing the world war III from happening. In fact, there is not yet concrete plan to take on serious preventive measures as most of the achievements were so far on fire-fighting rather than on preventing future crisis. For small conflict, superpowers were willing to take on the policing role but when it comes to their own crimes, there is no solution readily in place to curb the bad practices. With the fact that capitalism now ruled the world and small nations had to yield to the misconduct of the superpowers, the preventive measures are still up in the air. Superstitious as it may be, theism is pessimistic that natural selection alone could achieve that mission. For anyone who had acquainted with the Meru Culture, a higher authority is very much in need to keep humanity in check. As its name implied, the Meru Culture was conceived by Meru himself to suit humanity in the long run. Evolved from Brahmanism, the discipline started with the feudal system that split humanity into different communities or tribes according to their background and personalities. Each community might had their own rule but overall had to be conformed to the same reality. Under the Meru' s own law of evolution, capitalism virtually did not exist. Of their daily life, men lived on natural resources enforced by morality. They were taught that material objects, including their own physical bodies, were created by God and belonged to the Mother Nature and by all mean were not belonged to anyone. With no capital on hand, clashes between tribes yielded less destruction and competition was furthermore curbed through feudal micromanagement. Many of man-made catastrophic events could then be prevented through God' s enforced morality and to some extend God's interference (Notes: The 10 commandements). As a God of Destruction, Meru's intervention enforces the natural selection process to make sure that not the "strong" alone but the "just" would have its share of survival (Notes: The Noah Flood). Another Meru' s mission is to destroy corrupted leadership in power and let new generation to grow free (Notes: God's Mandate).

  1. FPCC: The French Presence in Cochinchina and Cambodia, By Miltone E. Osborne
  2. FINCH: French Indochina, by Verginia Thompson
  3. HSEA: A history of Southeast Asia, by D.G.E. Hall
  4. KK: Kamboja Krom: The Power without the Khmer Krom's people, By Trang Chat But.
  5. BMAR:History of Burma: From the Earliest Times to 10 march 1824 The Beginning of the English Conquest, G. E. Harvey
  6. BMAR2:Burma, D. G. E. Hall
  7. SHAN:The Shan State and the British Annexation, by Sao Saimong Mangrai
  8. THAI: Thailand: A short History, by David K Wyatt
  9. WWA: At War with Asia: Essays on Indochina, by Noam Chomsky
  1. Chronology
    1838-1858: Darwin developped the concept of "natural selection" based on the theory of evolution; 1863: King Norodom signed the Franco-Cambodian treaty; 1914-1918: World War I; 1818-1881: karl Max formed the concept of Communism; 1922: The birth of the Soviet Union under the leadership of Lenin; 1939-1945: World War II; 1940: Harry Truman (Democrat) became president of USA; 1941: The Coronation Of King Norodom Sihanouk; 1943: Mao Tset Tung became the chairman of of the Communist Party of China; 1948: Dwight D. Eisenhower (Republican) became president of USA; 1949: The People's republic of China was established; 1949: The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) was formed; 1954: The Geneva accord was signed; 1955: The Warsaw Pactwas signed;
  2. The Christian belief of the free will
    In the Christian Bible, man was created in the image of God. Since God is spiritual, the image might mean in spirituality instead of physical form. In the free world of today, the freedom of speech is protected under the constitution. In preserving the freedom of speech, the government goes far to protect the preach of hate and the promotion of sin. At the same time, one man' s initiative was often curbed according to a majority decision by democracy. In the communist world, both individual initiative and the freedom of speech are simply prohibited as it is seen to be antagonist to communism. In the Meru world, the initiative is considered as one man' s free will that should be allowed under proper ethical morality.
  3. The Modular Ship Design
    It is considered that the Modular ship design, consisting of dividing the the whole ship into smaller compartments, prevents the whole ship from sinking when one or some of the compartments are flooded.
  4. The Gog legacies of Southeast Asia
    Evidences show that Southeast Asia had been home of the Gog leadership since the antiquity. They were in fact identified as the western Kambujas whose presence in Siam gave way to the Siam Gog (Siam GoK in the inscription of Angkorwat) legacy and in Annam to the Annam Gog (Dai Viet) legacy. As remembered in the Khmer tradition, it happened after the Han Dynasty of China was formed.
  5. King Sihanook and General De Gaulle
    It is clear that the relationship between King Sihanook and General De Gaulle went beyond political scope of both Cambodia and France. There are evidences that both political leaders shared a mutual admiration of each other personal friendship. It supports the misconception of his political opponents that King Sihanook still valued the French dependency.
  6. Darwin's Theory of Evolution
    Darwin explained the diversity of animals and plants from a common ancestry as the manifestation of natural laws applied to all types of living thing. Darwin had developed his theory of "natural selection" from 1838 onwards until 1858 when Alfred Russel Wallace sent him a similar theory and proof from his own observation. Both men presented their papers separately to the Linnean Society of London. At the end of 1859, Darwin's publication of the Origin of Species explained natural selection in detail and in a way that led to an increasingly wide acceptance of Darwinian evolution. Thomas Henry Huxley applied Darwin's ideas to humans, using paleontology and comparative anatomy to provide strong evidence that humans and apes shared a common ancestry. Some were disturbed by this since it implied that humans did not have a special place in the universe.
  7. In building the Angkorean might
    To make-up for the lack of adequate people resource and armament, both Lon-nol and Pol Pot had their own way to solve the problem. A simple math told the Khmer leaders that a Khmer soldier (from a 6 millions inhabitants) needs to accomplish the killing ration of 1:10, meaning that he had to kill at least ten of the Vietnamese soldiers (of 50 millions people) to win over Vietnam. It is said that Lon Nol used widespread supernatural empowering scheme to bring the Khmer army up to fight in the Vietnam war. On the other hand, the Khmer rouge used the communist indoctrination to bring up the efficiency of the Khmer rouge army. To win over the big army of the Vietminh, Pol Pot set the killing ratio to 1:30 since he anticipated that only 2 millions could be recruited into the army and the rest had to be kept for production. For that his soldier needed to be 30 times revolutionary redder than a Vietcong or a Vietminh. Both Lon Nol and Pol Pot would find out that while their rationality was promising, the actual result was far below their expected target.
  8. The Mien 's Dominance
    The Mongol's incursion, as we had argued, failed to conquer Southeast Asia as a whole but nonetheless created serious impacts on the politic and demography of the region. The apparent concentration of the Mien people and the Yueh Culture on both Yunnan and Upper Burma was one of the modern dilemmas. In its demographic records, the Yunnan Chronicle already listed the majority of the communities of Yunnan under Mien dominance. Upper Burma was the next of Mien's subjugation while northern Siam countries were receiving gradual but of no less Mien's infiltration.
  9. The Communist vs the Free World
    There are misconceptions about the difference between the two worlds. Thought as opposite of each other, the two political views are generally seen as having nothing in common while in reality they shared many features. Capitalism that is seen as the trademark of the free enterprise is also an important feature of communism.
  10. The North Atlantic Treaty Organization
    The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) was signed on 4 April 1949. The organization of 28 member states constitutes a system of collective defense in response to an attack by any external party. NATO's headquarters are in Brussels, Belgium.
  11. The Warsaw Pact
    The Warsaw Pact was a mutual defense treaty between 8 communist States of Central and Eastern Europe in existence during the Cold War. The founding treaty was established under the initiative of the Soviet Union and signed on 14 May 1955, in Warsaw. It was in the reaction to the integration of West Germany into NATO in 1955.
  12. The Khmer Serei activity against King Sihanouk
    Stationed in the Thai provinces bordering Cambodia, the Khmer Serei were then set to bring down Sihanouk. By joining Dap Choun to secede out from Cambodia, the Khmer Serei could then declared itself as a legal organization at the expense of the neutral Cambodia. The scheme failed because Son Ngoc Thanh was from the beginning reluctant to take part of it. According to the Khmer source, his politic drive was not against Sihanouk and the recruit of Sam Sary by the CIA to join the movement did not help. Sam Sary' s politic against King Sihanouk was too much personal and the CIA had to eliminate him to stop the Khmer Serei internal conflict from detoriating.
  13. The Free Will vs the Free World
    It is not to be mistaken that the Free World is a promotion of the Free Will. In a form of Pyramid scheme, both civilian and military discipline was highly hirearachal according to a tight bureaucracy organization. Social classes were highly networked to procure themselves the free access to capitalism and to keep virtually non-member out from the free natural selection.
  14. The Notion of Luck
    To the scientific world, luck is associated to the void. To the Buddhist rationality, luck is (the same as other unpredictable events) the effect of either unseen, or hidden, or unknown (to the current comprehensiveness of humanity) causes. Mathematical rationality confirms through probability that the complexity of the contributing factors or causes of such event is often high.
  15. The Religious Morality
    Most atheists mistook the act of kindness of the dominant monkey sharing the banana with his female entourage to be the same as a religious morality. It could be the same if the male monkey is capable of spiritual understanding that his kindness should not be rewarded for his own physical or natural need. According to Buddhist teaching, animals also have the same spiritual connection and need as human do. In any case, there is a difference between morality gained through experience (of a natural process) and religious morality gained through unconscious mind.
  16. Greed, Anger and Irrationality
    According to the Sumerian discipline, the three cardinal sins were the dark effects of the three cardinal colors. For instance, Greed is the dark side of the blue energy, Anger (Aggressivity) is the dark side of the Red Energy and Irrationality is the dark side of the yellow energy. As other color derives from the mixture of the three cardinal colors, other sins are also believed to be the mixture of the three cardinal sins. For instance, the arrogance (pride) that was typical of Satan according to Christian belief was actually the effect of the three cardinal sins combined.
  17. The 10 Commandments
    At the critical moment that the Ten Commandments were grossly ignored, both Christians and atheists alike asked when God is coming to save the world. Even though the question induces different meaning relatively to each camp' s view on God' s existence, the answer is that the Ten Commandments were always been there. While Jesus Christ had been known to sacrify his life to restore God's morale code in the Jewish community, Christianity used the cruscification as an escape route to ignore the 10 Commandment. For them, the Morale Code belonged to the Old Testament and should be outdated. It is one of common mistakes among God' s worshippers to emphasize on his grace more than his morale code. Unlike God's promise that expired after it is fulfilled, God's moral code is timeless and stays to prove his existence.
  18. The Noah Flood
    The Noah Flood is a typical example of God' s interference to make sure that the "Just" survived the natural selection. Even it meant that only a single family was left to survive the flood, God could not leave humanity to the mercy of natural evolution.
  19. God's Mandate
    Bad government with no mandate from God would have to fail. In a saner environment, decent humanity would then have more chance to succeed. Of its fine-tuning mission, Buddhism would keep humanity in the right track according to God's rule or Dharma. It is through the interference of a living God of the Trinity that God plays his part against the deterministic rule of natural evolution. It is conforming to this cyclic cosmogony that each humanity was created and maintained since the birth of the Meru Universe.