The Indianization

Project: The Indianization
Author: Lem Chuck Moth

Started date: June/01/2003
Last updated: November/30/2016
All right reserved.
Since this paper is still drafted, the readers would be advised to ignore any context errors. The content is not final and subjected to be reviewed.

Scholars consented that the Aryan culture was found first in Gangetic india before it was transferred to Southeast Asia. They used the word Indianization to denote the cultural transfer that was taking place after the arrival of Kaundinya to the mainland Indochina. As the word Indianization suggests a single Indian source of Southeast Asian civilization, it could mislead to view it as Indian invasion and worst of all to Indian colonization. Some scholars went further to nickname Southeast Asia as farther or greater India and others went further to refer it as an Indian colony. It is important to note that the Arianized world of the time did not even have the word colonization in their vocabulary. To conquer a country and reduced it to a colony of another more powerful country was fairly a new concept of the Western world. Invasion was on the other-hand conducted as a subjugation of one royal court by a rival court rather than a subjugation of a country. In regard to the Indian invasion, there were indeed infiltration and military raids between the two continents, but they were initiated from both sides and none resulted in giving control to India. As the choice of the word might lead to confusion, it would be wise to clarify first what the word Indianization should mean.
Indianization must be understood essentially as the expansion of an organized culture that was founded upon the Indian conception of royalty, was characterized by Hinduist or Buddhist cults, the mythology of the Puranas, and the observance of the Dharmasastras, and expressed itself in the Sanskrit language. It is for this reason that we sometimes speak of "Sanskritization" instead of "Indianization". (ISSA: Indianization: Definition of Indianization)
Since the Sanskritization was for a long while perceived by scholars as the Arianization of the Indian Continent, there are no evidences that the first wave reached the south of India all at once. As a matter of fact, scholars had settled the geographical limitation of Aryavata just to the Gangetic India while the south was still retaining its ancient culture. New evidences show that Southeast Asia received the Arianized culture, about the same time if not earlier than the southern part of the Indian continent.
The Cultural Transfer
There was a common mistake among scholars to identify King Hun Tien as Kaundinya (Notes: Kandanya vs Kaundinya). The misidentification led to the wrong assemption that the arrival of Kaundinya and king Hun Tien was the same event that brought the Indian culture to be implanted in Southeast Asia. As we shall see, the two historical accounts that were based on similar stories about an abroad Brahman or prince marrying a local queen or princess, were actually compiled from two different events that took place four centuries apart. Marking two different phases of Indianization, both accounts reveal the important fact that foreign cultures were implanted into local societies through marriage of the high court. The first event concerning the arrival of king Hun Tien that led to the formation of Funan was dated around the first century when the local people were still perceived as savage to the critical eye of Chinese travelers. Oral tradition identifies him as a Kandanya Bhrahmana of Kambojan stock who was making his way to subdue a local queen of Kauk Tloak and married her. On the other hand, the second event that consists of the arrival of Kaundinya from India whose settlement in Southeast Asia that led to the formation of Nokor Khmer, happened much later around the end of the fourth century. In Khmer tradition, he was an exile Indian prince named Prah Thong who after marrying the local Nagi Princess, received from his father-in-law half of the Naga Kingdom as wedding' s present. According to Chinese sources, the arrival of Kaundinya would bring a new wave of civilization from the Gangetic India that characterized what scholars called the Indianization of Southeast Asia.
Ignoring completely local tradition, scholars first wrote the history of Southeast Asia as based on known facts available in Indian and Chinese history books. Most started with the wrong premises that civilization had never been taking hold between the Indian and the Chinese continents in prehistorical time. Based on the fact that Southeast Asia was once practicing Hindu and Buddhism, the Indianization was then the only explanation of the presence of the Southeast Asian civilization of today. The theory was particularly accepted from the start and had received widespread support in such way that new finding, from independent researchers, had hard time to overrule. From a different perspective, we shall argue that the Indianization of Southeast Asia was not of Indian initiative, but instead was a part of the over-all Meru development in its late journey into Southeast Asia.
The Early Indian Connection *
In formulating the Indianization theory, scholars postulated many hypotheses about how Indian civilization was transferred to the new-world of uncivilized tribesmen. Among all, the hypotheses of Indian merchants' role in colonizing the local people was by far the most popular one. In this colonial view, the merchants came by ships and looking to do business with the locals, ended-up settling among them. In the long run, more Indians of different background also moved in and brought the Indian culture to spread among the natives and in the process, brought them to civilization (ISSA: Indianization: How the first Indian Establishments were formed: P. 21-22). It was the same model that was used to postulate the civilization of the Javanese societies that contradicts head-on with accounts that were found in Chinese sources. From the tales of sea navigation, there were well publicized hostilities of the southern indigenous tribes toward merchant chips (Kamboja: The exploit of Funan: The country of Pi kien). From the head hunting habit to the piracy business, it is hard to imagine that early merchants had the nerve to make business with them, let alone to settle among them. Records show that these high-spirited sea merchants looking for high profit venture to the East, were mostly Arabs. One thing clear about them that applies to other modern merchants as well is that gut and good intention had never been parts of their business (Notes: The role of Business in Modern Society). Even though there were knowledge of rich natural resources among the untapped islands of the South China Sea, they tried to avoid hostilities with the indigenous tribesmen at all cost. They rather contended to do safe business with the already civilized communities along the northern coast of the mainland and obviously along the western coast of the Malay Archipelago. Evidences show that these communities were to become major ports of Southeast Asia where trading activities had transformed later into international market places under the Meru development of Ta Tsin. We had argued that the Malay-Polynesians had colonized the Pacific Ocean and there are no reasons that they did not also venture out into the Indian Ocean and further west. The people of Mahidhara were already sea-master since the great flood and that Sampan woods were also locally abundant for shipbuilding. After the settlement of Meru Culture at Middle East, indications point-out that cultural, political and commercial activities between the two continents also started. Nevertheless, evidence points out that during the last millennium before Christ, it was the Arab merchants who monopolized the sea-trade. During the expansion of the Han Chinese, it was the Arab merchants who recorded the decline and the fall of the eastern Ta-tsin that led to the Kamara's mass migration down south and further into Madagaska (Champapura: The Cham Countries: The fall of Ta-tsin). On the same premises, we shall also refute another theory about Indian mass migration as possible cause of Indianization. It postulated that during the unrest of the northern Indian continent, Indian migrants as far as the Indus River and the western side of Himalayas moved to take refuge in Indochina. As land routes had been proved to exist between the Indian and the Southeast Asian continents, the new theory of Indian migration had been so far unchallenged. However, new studies show that foreign invasions, as in the case of the Scythians and the Kushans, over the Gangetic India were not about land or cultural expansion. Their attacks were mostly done by displaced courts targeting the local ruling classes in the process of establishing themselves on top of the local communities. Either in their own drives or driven out by the attack of others, the invaders needed the local people to support their new ventures. In most situations, only the privileges needed to escape the prosecution while the general population needed only to adapt to the new rulers. Evidence show that the invaders came only with a core of army recruits and built their own court on top of the previous fallen one. They made use of anything that they could lay their hand on and not to say the least, whoever want to joint them were openly welcome in their societies. The only event that induces high casualty to the mass of people was during the retaliation's campaigns of the Mauryan. In a rage of finding out the unrestricted support given to the displaced Nanda by Orissa, King Ashoka unleashed a series of punitive campaigns against its people. The first time recorded in Indian history, Ashoka wiped out a great numbers of people. Still there was no record of a mass migration triggered by the event. Indian societies were particularly stable due mostly to the strict casting system of the Hindu culture. People of the low cast were long time settlers and were well attached to their homeland. Even though there were abuse exerted by local powerhouses and constant warfare between them, they did not have any mean to migrate out of their homelands. Due to the limiting factor of both the land and the sea route, travel from India to Southeast Asia at the early time was simply not open for everyone. Furthermore they have no motivation to do so as emigration was tabooed even for members of the high Brahman Class.
The Indian Rajas *
In concluding the Indianization of Southeast Asia, many scholars agreed that mass migration was not the case. It was actually the cultivated elements of the top two casts who, through their understanding, became the spreader of Indian culture in farther India (ISSA: Indianization: P.23). Cited as proof of their argument was the presence of the ethnic Chou Indian in the court of Funan as mentioned in Chinese source. One of them was recorded in Chinese source as the king of Funan named Tien-chou Chanda sending his embassy in 357 to China, bringing along two tamed white elephants as tribute to the Tsi court. There was no other source to confirm that they were actually belonged to any Indian royal house nor to any Indian court. Considered as non-Aryan stock, they were looking for a fresh opportunity to elevate themselves as members of the high cast, after having been rejected in their native country. The conclusion was that the high spirited Chou Indians saw Southeast Asia as possible ground for colonization in a similar way that colonies had been formed in modern time. What scholars did not know was that these Tchou Indians were in fact members of the Aryan clan no less than other Indian Ksattyas or rajas and were not even Indian. Our study proves furthermore that they were actually members of the Coladhara naga house who were no other than the displaced Tchou royal house of China. After the attack of the Han Chinese, they took refuge in the courts of Funan and Prey Nokor. Their southern presence, as we shall see, was the main contributing factor to the formation of the next Southeast Asian royal houses as well as the Gupta court of the Gangetic India. These Tchou rajas had their background from the Meru lineage and were more or less connected with the Hiong-wang kingdom. Their status were confirmed by Khmer inscriptions of referencing them using the word "Kola" or "Rajakola" that meant to be the royal family. Through an inheritance that they carried through from their very first ancestor king Manu, the Rajakola established themselves as the race of rajas in Southeast Asia. As the seat of the grass root Kun-lun people, Southeast Asia offered safe heaven and provided them with the opportunity to rebuild their next ventures. On the other hand, the real migrants from India were mostly found to be members of the rajas or Ksatryas who were all from Sakan roots. The Kambojan King of Sri Vijaya, the Mauyan Prince Simhanati, the Cham King Ajiraja were from the west. They came with their complete court and entourage so the could established themselves quickly into the new land. Either conscious of their origin or not, they brought new materialism along with barbarism into the region. After their settlement, Clashes between themselves and the native naga houses were noticed through the next history of Southeast Asia. Nevertheless, serious effort had been seen to pacify the region and to stand against foreign interference. Through Buddhism, a new consortium was under way. We knew from Chinese sources that the last Indian king Tien-chou Chanda already emerged himself as a king of Funan. We had identified him as the "Kamara Tam Canda" who according to the inscription of Vo-Canh sent tamed elephants to the court of China. As indicated in the inscription of Vo Canh, he was a member of the Raja Kola family of Meruraja. As we shall see, his presence would consort all Southeast Asian royal houses into becoming a Cakravatin Empire that consists of grouping small kingdoms into a bigger state while states were again joined into an Empire. While each one of the kingdoms had their own king, the universal ruler of the Middle Kingdom received the title of rajadhiraja, the king of kings. It is important to note that the concept of a Cakravatin Empire was not new to South Asia. The Buddhist tradition claims that king Sudhodhana, Buddha Gautama' s father, was a Cakravatin monarch and that Buddha Gautama would be the next if he had not chosen a different path from his father. Khmer inscriptions refer the title "Kamara Tam" meaning the elected Kamara, and another title "Kamara Tem" meaning the Kamara appointee were both used as the title of Khmer monarchs. Another word "Kantanya" meaning "I the Kanta" was also found in Khmer reference to the identity of religious figures of the Brahmin cast becoming members of the Ksatryas through intermarriage; most Kambojan monarchs were members of this cast. Both legacies indicate that the new generation of Khmer monarchs (Mararaja) and Brahmans were from Kamarakanta, country of the Tian Shan range. Moving into the Gangetic India they were known as the Sakya. As part of their tradition, they were proud of their identity and tried to retain their royal status at all cost through conservation of bloodline. The Sakyas, for instance, were so conservative that for the preserving of their race, incest was not one of their concerns and marriage between siblings and close relative was quite acceptable in their tradition. Reflecting the membership of Southeast Asia with the Magadhan empire, Prah Thong who was the founder of the Khmer Empire, was known in Khmer tradition as a SaKya and a Kumeruraja (Notes: Kumeruraja).
The Aryan Identity *
Due to the fact that the Aryans were the compilers of the Rig-Veda, scholars made mistake of attributing anything in the Veda as Aryan. Through its many verses, the Veda conveys battles and wars that misled scholars that think that it was actually the Aryan way of life (Notes: The Aswa or the Iswin of the Rig-Veda). They were carried trough by horse-drawn chariots that proved to become the state-of-the-art war newest commodity. To scholars, it confirms the supreme military advance of the Aryan that made them dominant through out the ancient world. To explain the Aryan culture in Gangetic India, the Aryan Invasion Theory was by far the most accepted explanation of the probable cause of the Aryan settlement in Gangetic India. In a closer look, the Rig-Veda attributed most of these battles not to the god Aryaman but to the god-king Aswin or Aswa. In most of the accounts of war and battles, the Aswin troupes crushed their enemies by driving the horse chariots over them and took the easy victory through their military superiority. They were not Aryan and theirs warlike attitude led us to believe that they were instead of Sakan origin. Based on the fact that Aswa (or Aswin) of the Rig-Veda was actually the god-king of the Kambujas, we shall identify that Aswataman was actually a title of a Kambojan king. Through the clay tablets we know that the Sumerians were the first to use the horse-drawn chariots (The Man Race: The Shan Mythology: The Aryan Identity), but it was the Kambujas who were mastering the new technology to the perfection. In Indian history, the identity of the Aryans is not very clear. Initiated by western scholars, the Aryan invasion theory was the most accepted version of the Aryan identity and their presence inside of Gangetic India. According to the theory, the Aryans were of fair complexion, speaking Aryan language and came from the north-west, across the Hindu Kush mountains, and entered India through Afghanistan (AInd: The Aryans: The Origins of the Aryans: P. 30). They belonged to a very ancient stock of the human race, and lived for a long period with the forefathers of the Greek, the Roman and other European royal houses. The description was more accurately describing the Sakan aristocrats that were making up the majority of Indian high societies at the time. On their own term, the Aryans did not presented themselves in the Rig-Veda to be of fair complexion that was a known trait of the European race. Of modest background, they were often been eclipsed by the flamboyant life-style of their Sakan compatriots, the Kambojas, the Yueh-shih and the Hiong-nu royal houses. As we had argued, the Gangetic India had been the escape ground of the Sakan leadership since the start-up of the Meru Culture in Middle East. Some Indian scholars do not accept the view that the Aryans came from outside, but were instead locals. They regard them as indigenous Indians, some sections of whom gradually migrated to different part of Asia and Europe. Their legacies were held on other grounds long before the discovery of Mahenjo-daro (AInd: Sindhu Valley Civilization: Spread of the Civilization: P. 26). Nevertheless, We had argued that the Indus Valley's civilization was not of Indian origin but was part of the Sumerian Middle Eastern development. At the same time, we had argued that the Aryans were Brahmans of the Meru court who got their identity from their close association with Meru who himself was invoked (in the Rig-Veda) as the Aryaman (The Man Race: The Shan Mythology: The Aryan Identity). They were originated from the footsteps of mount Himalayas served in the Meru Court and during the early period worshipped the Aryaman who was no other than Meru himself. Their return back into both the Gangetic India and Southeast Asia was done gradually and were warmly greeted by the local naga royal houses (The Man Race: The Himalayan Culture: The Jin of Nagaland). In contrast, evidences show that the Indo-Aryan' s settlement in both the Gangetic India and Southeast Asia were mostly done through military invasion (Notes: The Kauruvas and the Panduvas). To reflect the reality of the Sakan incursion in the naga world of Jambudvipa, we shall split the process into two phases. The first phase that followed immediately the rising of the Shang dynasty was recalled by the locals as tough and enduring. Both domestic and sex Slaves were captured during the raid for both the Tai aristocracy and the European market. Nevertheless, rebelious activities that resulted in the fall of the Shang court and the rise of the Tchou dynasty of China stopped short the exploitation the exploitation of the Sakan world. The second phase of the Sakan settlement was often carried on with tact and less friction. Since they were not the majority of the population, the new rulers found themselves the need to adapt to local politic of the naga worlds. After many generations of intermarriage, they blend themselves completely into the mainstream of the new societies. In a series of cultural transfer, the Khmer culture started to have its own aspect that became later the base of the Angkorean Cakravatin Empire. Mixed with legacies from the past, new imported cultures undeniably enriched the Khmer Tradition. Many aspects of indigenous cultural elements, especially of Naga legacies were preserved and modernized to the new standard of recent development. Indianization, by all means, added another layer into the Khmer culture that was crucial in the next formation of the Angkorean Cakravatin Empire.
We had argued that the Indian Culture was actually the product of the Indus Valley, during the formation of Middle Eastern Cakaravatin Empire. Nevertheless, concrete evidences of the Aryanization of the Gangetic India could be found only at a much later date. For instances, the Vedic scriptures being compiled or made available in the Hindu Culture could be dated by scholars only after 1500 BC. It was the Nandas who first brought the Meru Culture into the Gangetic India and developed into a full-blown Aryan Culture. Nicknamed as the Aryavata, the Gangetic India became the seat of a new Cakravatin Empire that promoted the discipline of the Vedic Culture. Our focus here is restricted only to the Aryan development in Gangetic India that, as we shall see, was carried-on further into the formation of the Khmer Empire in the mainland Indochina as well as to the rest of the world.
The Vedic Origin *
The inscription of Mi-son erected by the Cham King Jaya Harivarman in Saka 1036 (1114 AD) recalled the origin of Civanandana' s lineage from a mystical couple Brahmaloka and Nai Jinayan Vya Bhajas.
Ciy Civanandano nama Bramalokasya bhubhrtah Nai Jinayan Vya bhajas sunur asid raja --- mvarah (BEFEO IV: Notes D'Epigraphie: Les inscriptions de Mi-son: P. 955: Face A: Line II, M. L. Finot)
From the lineage of King Samantha, the first king of the line was Vararaja who became later known as the progenator of Brahmanism and received his posthumous name of Brahmaloka. His kingdom Varadhana became known later as the country of the Brahmans. His son named Vararoja, also known as Uroja or Kururoja, became later the progenator of the Nandas. Represented by a cow or a bull, the Nandas were considered as the god-kings of the agriculture. Archeology confirmed that Southeast Asia was at the forefront of agriculture since its early stage that spread itself to the rest of the world. Hindu ethnography also classified the southern continent of mount Himalayas as the country of the cow' s race or Nanda and was named as Kuruksetra after its king Kururoja. It was the first country of the world founded after the Great Flood where the Man Culture started. It is important to note that during this early stage, only the footstep of mount Himalayas and its surrounding high ground was not flooded and available for agriculture. Even after the flood-water from the rain retreated, the rest of Southeast Asia was still submerged. Tradition holds that two localities were formed after the Great Flood. Paranasi that was located right the footstep of mount Himalayas became known as the big country of the Brahmans and Srasvati that was located farther east at the congruence of the Srasvati and Brahmaputra rivers was known as the small country of Brahmans. The Rig Veda contained many verses in the memory of Srasvati that allow us to identify the Srasvati river as the Irravati River of today (The Man Race: The Spreading of Himalayan Culture: The Countries of Brahman). In his journey to the west, Meru brought the Nandas with him to Middle East as members of his court to help establishing his westernCakravatin Empire. In developing the Moon Culture, the Nandas were responsible for all the material and cultural progression that became the de-facto civilization of the western world of today. The word "Nanda" was often used as a conjunction of the word "Vidya" (meaning Science) as a combined "Vidya-nanda" word in reference to the tantrum part of both the Sivaite and the early Theravata Buddhist religions. More and more hymns were added into the Rig-Veda that constituted the core of Brahmanism. Its application had mostly been in correlation with the Meru Culture in older Paganist discipline that became the sources of modern science and technology. It explains why the Hindu cosmogony attributes the Nanda as the carrier of the Meru culture. As to its importance in the Meru Cosmology, Nanda is a reference to the divine Bull of God Siva and is represented by the constellation of Taureau. In taking care of the Veda, folklore claims that the Bull Nanda stored all the Vedic manuscripts in its plum belly. In the Sumerian pantheon of Mesopotamia, the sun god Uru stood behind the Moon God Tsin until it was replaced by the Sun God Ra or Horus. The western tradition talked about the insubordination of the Nanda to Meru after the birth of Adam. It is said that Satan refused to bow to Adam and was expelled from the Meru court. In western scripture, trying to remind Meru that Adam was not worth of his high esteem got Satan rash judgment from Meru. The Nandas were to be driven out from Ur leaving the Meru establishment to be run by new Brahmans of Adam descended. One of them was Abraham who was considered as the father of western religious schools of today. Unlike his peer, he was faithful to the Moon God Tsin and through his descendants, the Meru culture was preserved in many generation down the line. At the mean time, the Nandas moved into the Gangetic India bringing along with them the original Meru Culture and other inventions that they helped develop in Middle East to be bound into the Hindu Culture. In connection with the Moon God Tsin' s Aryaman identity, they were in the true sense the Aryan Brahmans who scripted and recited the Veda's hymns. An important remark is that the Rig-Veda does not contain hymns to invoke Siva, but contains the Aryaman's hymns instead because Sivaism was conceived at India after Meru already exit from Middle East (The Man Race<: The Shan Mythology: The Aryan Identity). Moving into the Gangetic India, Meru's next task was to lead his followers to salvation. With the help of the Nandas, Sivaism made its transition to Buddhism. It is not surprising that the "Nanda" became then a favorite name of the Sakyan clan among immediate family members of Buddha Gautama's mother side. On the other hand, the Sakyas were Hindus and remained so even after the birth of Buddha Gautama who founded the Buddhist religion. This past heritage of both Hindu and Buddhist legacies explains why the Nanda clan was closely connected to Southeast Asia.
The Relationship Between Meru and the Nanda*
In Indian history, the Nandas were often mentioned of modest background and their emergence seams to have no consequences. Their rise and fall were obscure, often eclipsed by the limelight of the Mauryan and later the Gupta Empire. As usual, historians tend to have a blind sight about the un-glamorous world of the creation. Unlike their Sakyan compatriots, they were not conservative. They did not believe in the cast system and did not maintain their status. They could spring up from any stratum of societies, but one sure aspect was that they always took pride of their divine origin. In that regard, their rise to power was often dramatic and some times miraculous, but often enough through the support of general people. Since the formation of Meru Culture, the Nandas had play important role in the formation of the Sumerian (Aryan) Culture. Through out the Meru' s rule in Middle East, they represented the power of creation used by Meru to establish the foundation of his cakravatin empire. Driven out from Middle East, they brought with them all new development from the west into Northern India and built their empire along the Gangetic River. A new relationship of Meru with the Nanda was made after he found out that Israel could not depend upon to bring the world for salvation. By then, the Nandas already had their Aryavata established at the Gangetic India and already extended their cultural circle into the Chinese continent through the Tchou dynasty (Notes: Chinese Version of the Tchou Dynasty). Nevertheless, their next task of briging the Meru culture out of Middle East to the Gangetic India required a massive campaign to the west. It was recorded in the Genesis' s account of King Nebuchadnezzar taking control of Babylon and transformed it as his new command post for his Middle Eastern mission. According to the Buddhist tradition, a consortium was made when the Naga Coladara King married the sister of the Mahodara Naga King. The alliance gave the Coladra court the needed support for Middle Eastern invasion. The Bible was however quiet about Nebuchadnezzar' s origin, but depiction that he left at the Ishta gate of Babylon show that he belonged to an eastern royal house. In the depiction, one might notice two symbols depicted side by side, one of a cow and the other of a mountain goat. The bull (or cow) symbol was the Nanda's trademark that was known through out Southeast Asia and Middle East alike. It was the symbol of the agriculturist society that made its way along with the Meru Culture to the west. On the other hand, it is well known that the Dragonian Xiang Symbol of the Goat was of eastern origin. The exploit of Nebuchadnezzar in Middle East make us believe that the Nanda' s campaign against the Sakas was extending from Gangetic India deep into Mesopotamia and beyond. It was the same conquest of the Sea People as recorded in the Middle Eastern tradition and depicted on the wall of Egyptian pantheons. With the support of the ocean Naga King Meruduk, Nebuchadnezzar used the Sea People to take control of Middle East and after building his city at Babylon was making his way to conquer Judea. After destroying Jerusalem, they brought the Meru Culture to the Gangetic India (The End of the Meru Culture: The Transition to Buddhism: The Birth of Buddha Gautama). Either by faith or by design, Nebuchadnezzar' s conquest of Jerusalem resulted in the exodus of the Moon God Tsin from Ishrael. From then on, Siva was deitfied as a divinity of this faction of the Nanda who became known as SivaNanda. Just as their campaign was complete, the alliance went sour and the two Naga clans went on fighting against each other again. As we had seen, their feud continued until it was resolved by Buddha Gautama (The Nagadvipa: The Visit of Buddha Gautama: The Split of the Naga World). At the mean time, the feud caused the decline of the Nanda's rule at Middle East that allowed the Elamese court to conquer Babylon from Nabonidus. Nevertheless, the Nandas were still at the high of their might under the rule of king Jayasena who established his own empire at Magadha. Under the canopy of Meru divine protection, his direct descendants would transform the Gangetic India into becoming next the seat of a Cakravatin Empire. The Setback came after Buddha Gautama refused to become the cakravatin monarch of Magadha that forced king Sudhadhanu to hand-over the vacant throne to Bimbissara. In the transition, the Nanda lost their power as the Magadha throne fell into the hand of the Sakan clan once again. After the reign of Bimbissara, the Magadhan Empire started to decline under the negligence of his descendants. The next hero who came to the rescue was Padmananda. By ridding off existing Sakan powers, he restored back the Magadhan throne and brought Buddhism into its next phase of expansion. As other Nandas, he was quoted to be of no Ksatryas cast and ran a barbershop before his ascending to fame. Nevertheless, through his Nanda' s ancestry, he was able to restore back the Magadhan Empire and his next exploit was no less grandiose than other Indian rajas. Through out the Meru' s rule, the Nandas represented the power of creation used by Meru to salvage his establishment after a setback. Like a big brother, the Nanda ' s another task was to protect the peaceful Buddhist religion. As we shall see, the Kala Yuga would render the Nanda' s job very difficult.
The Cultural evolution
Of the history of writing, we know that the pictograph form of writing was the invention of the Sumerian. The next development of alphabetical form of writing however was still in debate on its source and on how it spread into becoming a way of written communication of today. Before the colonization that was responsible for the alphabetization of the world writing system, geographical mapping shows a much more restricted regional use. In Europe, proof of the Linar A and later the Linear B forms of alphabetical writing were found in the heart of the Miscenian Greek societies. Scholars also found other alphabetical use in other parts of Middle Eastern communities as well, but we see no consistency in the usage of the these scriptures in the specific regions to make us believe that they were in fact developed in these regions independently. Further more, indications show that it was instead carried on by a group (or groups) of Sumerian scholars who were on the move through political unrest of the Meru's court. A common factor in all these development was the legacy of Paganism carried on by the Nandas during their stay in Middle East. As well as the Sanskrit language, evidences also show that alphabets were also invented by them and were taught at Taxila (The Western Civilization: The Development of the Sumerian Culture: The Moon Culture). The explosion of rock inscriptions in Parthia in both Karosthy and Brahmi charactors led us to believe that the Miscilinean Greek' s Linear B had progressed itself into the Karosthi charactors and that the Brahmi charactors was actually its derivative. In a close association with the Nanda, the Kambuja, the Yue-shih and the Hiong-nu were on the other hand responsible of spreading the usage to other part of the world through military and trade invasion. Known in Chinese source as the Hou's alphabet, the Brahmi was seen next as the replacement of the Karosthi but not before it was spread to the Phoenician communities of European seacoast. During the Europe's dark age, we knew that the Nandas were already retreated in the Gangetic India as part of an early purge from Middle East (The Civilization). Known as the Aryans, they continued to script the Vedas and established the Hindu cosmology out of their extensive records of world' events. The conception of the Trinity, in particular, gave abstraction of the world religious practices that became standardized through the invention of the Sanskrit Language. These religious records often contained rich information of historical data of which modern scholars thought of tracing back the Aryan origin as well as of determining their real identity. From their deep knowledge base, we shall see that they were connected with every part of the world' s civilization. Their work on the development of the vedas, for instance, give as clues on how they moved from the footstep of Himalayas, along with the Meru court to Middle East where they were responsible to run the Sumerian cakravatin empire at Ur. At the time that they moved to Gangetic India, the Rig-Veda already contained hymns of the Aryaman (or Meru) that was going to be deitfied as Lord Rudra. As we shall se, the Rudra's legacy was found particularly strong in Deccan. Their next task was to concept the Trinity from the essence of historical data that were recorded in the Rig-Veda (Notes: The Conception of the Trinity). It is important to note that the Rig-Veda was compiled prior to the conception of Trinity of which only Vishnu was fully deitfied as a spiritual (impersonal) god. It shows that after leaving Ur, the Aryans continued to play important roles in the development of the next Babylonian ' s pantheon of the Sun God Ra (Notes: The Different Views of God Interference). At the same time, Brahma and siva were not yet deitfied and were thus not considered as Vedic Gods (AInd: New Religious Movements: Saivism: P. 175-177). As the first of the Trinity, Brahma was actually derived from Prajapati to have a very high position as the creator of the early Vedic gods. He was deitfied as Varahman or Brahmana, the spiritual (impersonal) absolute of the Upanishads from which the theists derived the name Brahma (Notes: The Upanishads). As the second member of the Trinity, Siva was traced to the conception of Rudra in the Rig-Veda to represent the malignant and destructive phenomena of nature. He occupies a minor position in the Rig-Veda, but occasionally described to have supreme power. The conception of Rudra is fully developed in the Yajur veda where his benevolent characteristics are brought out from the eclipse. When his wrathful nature is appeased he becomes Sambhu (benignant) Sankara (beneficent), and Siva (auspicious). In the Atavarveda, Rudra is revered as a supreme God, and the furthest point is reached when Svetavatara Upanishad substitute this active personal god in the place of impersonal Brahman of the Upanishad. It assert that there is only Siva and no others who currently ruled the world. Only after exiting Middle East that the supreme God Rudra-Siva became the object of worship, not of a particular Sivaite sect, but of the Aryans in general all over India (Notes: The Aryaman as early personal God of Siva). According to Sivaism, When there was simple darkness and no day and night, Siva alone existed. His form is invisible. Nobody see him with the eye. Those who see him dwelling in the heart and by the internal consciousness, become immortal (Notes: Rudra-Siva as the Personal God of the Bible). Siva, the God, the creator and destroyer, is said to be knowable by Bhava (faith love and pur heart).
The settlement of the Meru court in Middle East induced interbreeding that generated new Simha line of kings among the descendants of king Meru. In the western mythology, the Abrahmic School portrayed this event as the conception of Adam by the Moon God Tsin. Satan who was then a high minister in the court of God refused to bow before Adam. The act of rebellion angered the Moon God who chased him out from his heavenly court. Satan then swore to sway the descendants of Adam from God to prove that they were not worth of God's high esteem. This western view of Satan willful conduct was not shared by the eastern view. As a matter of fact, it was Adam or man 's own aggression that made them to become MArA or the Antichrist against God's will. By the power of knowledge received from the Nandas, Zeus, Hadis made themselves gods of the Sakan world to challenge the Moon God Tsin.
Indrapathpuri Sri Mahanokor *
Known mostly as the country of the Kambojas, Daya Desa (Parthia) was actually their hometown that became since the breeding grounds of Sakan royal houses. Besides the Sri Vijayan and the Mauryan dynasties, there is strong indication that the Sakyas of Kapilavatthu were also members of the Simha or Saka' s clan. The word "Sakya", associated particularly to the kinsmen clan of Budhha Gautama, was etymologically a short form of the word "Sakataya" (Saka-Taya). The word "taya" or "daya", on the other hand, was found later in connection with Daya Desa (Cathay in Chinese) of Central Asia. The Sakaraja was a legacy of the Sakya kings as often enough they were called Sakayang, the kings of Saka. Each Sakaraja's era was created to commemorate a line of Kings that left theirs mark in the development not only in Central Asia, but also in other parts of the world as well. The Buddhist Sakaraja's era started from Buddha Gautama entering Nirvana. Another Saka king to make his mark in Indian history was Kanishaka of the Koshan Empire who set a Sakaraja era (better known as Maha Sakaraja) in conjunction of his reign at 78 BC. He was doubtfully a Sakya, let alone a descendant of Manu, nonetheless a devout Buddhist that set his era to become one of the legacies of the Mahayana Buddhism. His era that started in 78 BC, known as mahasakaraja was widely used in the Khmer court. Since then the Sakaraja became a systematic way of referencing an era. Even the Christian era that started from the birth of Jesus Christ is being called the Christian Sakaraja by the same premise. As we had argued, these Sakan royal houses descended from the Shang or Yin court of China. From the start, their foundation in Chinese continents created a big impact on the Xiang communities (BChina: Sacrfice: P213-215).
One phase of the human sacrifices of the Shang is exceedingly strange. The victims are spoken of sometimes as so many men, sometimes as so many captives, and most of the time as so many Chiangs. These Chiang were made captive in war, and the custom of sacrifying them grew up as an aftermath of warfare. But once it was established it seems to have grown; expeditions were made just for the purpose of capturing Chiang. It is highly probable that these Chiang were used as slave or as offering to god. The word Chiang came to mean Slave as the word slave was derived from Slavs, because one time great numbers of slaves were sold as slave in Europe.
The Chiangs (Xiangs) were meant to be the Kun-lun tribesmen of the east that were formed after the Great Flood. Under the symbol of a mountain goat, they were the first to colonize the rigid region of mount Himalayas and later on made their way to rule Middle East under the Meru Culture (Prehistory: The Flood Myth: Matsya the Fish and the Naga King). The Xiang (Kun-lun) slaves were at first prisoners of wars, but as soon as they permanently settled at Anyang, the Sakan rulers found out that they could make a good business with the Kun-lun slaves. The upland indigenous Kun-lun tribesmen became their victims of the slave raid for the European market. Known as the Khas to the Lao and the Mois to the Viet, these Xiang tribesmen were subjected to exploitation and subsequently drove to the extinction, under the law of natural selection of the west. Their ordeals stayed on and off until the colonial rule and created a political backlash to the Xiang dynasty. To save themselves, a faction of the Xiang started to rebel against their oppressors and made a stop to their bad practices. In consortium with the Nandas of the Gangetic Intdia, the grass-root Xiang aristocracy subdued the Shang court and formed the Tchou dynasty of China. It is proved then that the collapse of the Greek Mycenaean civilization in 1070 BC was actually due to the fall of the Shang dynasty of China. By absorbing the lower courts of the Shang into its own, the Tchou ended up transforming itself as a new breed of the Sakan kings and Kamarakanta became their cultural center. The restoration of the Greek Empire then started under the new phoenician identity. After 750 BC, scattered clusters of villages throughout the Greek mainland, islands, and Iona had grown into city states known in Greek as the polis. Rivalry between the polis were fierce, but by 600 BC, Sparta, Thebes, Corinth, and Athens became dominant after other polis were settled in subordination (Notes: The Restoration of the Greek Empire). Buddhist source claimed that the Greek monarch Malinda was a great patron of Buddhism. Indrapathpuri that was the headquarters of the Indra king was found to be located at Gangetic India close by New Delhi. Nevertheless, it was only after the fall of the Hiong-wang kingdom that we see a serious Buddhist type of Cakravatin Empire taking shape in INdia. With that diversity of leadership and circumstances, the rise of the Gupta empire could only be possible through a form of consortium. On the same remark, the Khmer legend of Prah Thong hinted that Indrapathpuri was then ruled by his father Adityavamsa, as a cakavatin monarch (Prey Nokor: The Indian Connection: Prah Thong' s Family Background).
The Vakataka' s Connection*
In the Khmer legend of Prah Thong, king Adityavamsa was mentioned to rule over a vast territory and anointed each one of his children to rule the four cardinal states of his empire (RPNK: Preah Thong). Prah Thong who was his fourth son was anointed to rule over the southern state that was Deccan. Noticeable heritage of Deccan in south India misled scholars to postulate that Kaundinya came from South India and that the Indianization of the farther India brought by him was of non-aryan heritage. Culturally, From the Purana, scholars were able to trace the rise of the Vakataka' s royal house in Deccan that started eclipsing other Indian royal houses of the north (AInd: Chap IV: The Deccan up to the Rise of the Rastrakuta: The Vakatakas: P. 270). In a close connection with the decline of the Mauryan empire, its ruler Pravarasena claimed himself the title of a Samraj that was a title equivalent to a cakravatin monarch. It was more likely that he inherited the title through his ancestor' s past campaign instead of his own military exploit (Notes: The Exploit of Vindhyasakti). As to its origin, we know from the Indian source that specific titles such as Pravarasena and Nandivaradhana were used in the court of Deccan. The inclusion of the word "Vara" in both titles convinces us that there is a link between the court of Vakataka to the fallen court of Hiong-wang kingdom. According to Buddhist tradition, the Sakyan clan of Kolyani was formed at Tagaung (Srasvati) by the Sakyan king Abhyraja and became actually part of Nagadvipa (The Nagadvipa: The Visit of Buddha Gautama: The Country of Pandaranga). It is said that Buddha Gautama used his mother's country to launch the Buddhist religion in Nagadvipa and that Srasvati became since the residence of his eminent disciples such as Mahamaugalyana. The move of the Kolyani court to Deccan happened later during the fall of the Tchou Dynasty. We had identified that the city Komoriyya of the Arab merchant Lbn Said' s account where the Komara king resided was at Pandaranga at Prey Nokor (Champapura: The Birth of Dai-Viet: The Displacement of the Kamara People). We also identified that the big island of Komara was meant to be Bandung of the Malay Archipelago that was at the time belonged to the Mahodara territory of the ocean naga king. At the end of Pravarasena' s reign, his empire was divided at least into two parts. Rudrasena I succeeded his grandfather and formed the main branch of his family with Nandivaradhana while Sarvasena ruled the western part of the empire. At the same time, the history of the Leang (502-556) contains a passage of the country Po-li or Ra-tsa-po-li that we could identify as Rajpuri of Deccan.
The men had theirs heir curly; they wear a piece of cotton cloth that they enveloped horizontally around their body; the king wore a diadem decorated with all sorts of gems, sit in a throne in gold; the girls who sit around him were adorned with jualary. The family name of the king was Kaundinya; he sent an embassy in 517, the other in 522. It is said that the consort of king Cudhodana (the father of Buddja Gautama) was a princess of this country. (DICI: P.283)
The description of the people in the passage applied in general to the Indigenous tribesmen of Deccan but was the same description that Chinese historians gave to Asian Indigenous tribesmen in general. It reflected the isolation of Deccan before the settlement of Rajpuri court. The interesting part of the passage is that the queen Sri Mahamaya of king Cudhodana was mentioned as a princess of Deccan' s court. From Buddhist tradition, we know that she was a member of the Cakya family of Koliya. In addition, We know now that she and family members belonged to the Nanda house of the Choladara Naga clan. From The findings, we conclude that Kaundinya was in fact came from Deccan where the displaced Sakya court of Kolya took refuge after the fall of the Hiong-wang kingdom. It explains why many so call South Indian legacies that he brought to Southeast Asia were of Buddhist background from Deccan. At the same time, Kapilavathu that was the birthplace of Buddha Gautama himself had no such Buddhist legacy as rich as of Vikramavati. In the new development, Deccan belonged to the same Aryavata of North India. From that note, we knew that the Sakyas were composed of two royal houses. While the mother of Buddha Gautama Sri Mahamaya belonged to the Nanda royal house of Kamara Kanta, her husband King Sudhodhana and all the Mauryan family belonged to the Simha line of Sakan kings. Having their origin from Southeast Asia, the Nandas had no problems to fit themselves into the indigenous environment after their return. In contrast, the Sakan clans of the Sakya house still retained their own pride and prejudice toward the indigenous people. Through out their history of intrusion into the south, clashes had been recorded numerously with the native naga powerhouses. Their temperament of racism caused them to offend their hosts even they knew that they were a lot less noble (of Aryan root) than them.
The Birth of the Gupta Empire*
One iconic event in the modern history of India was the rise of the Gupta Empire. So far, Indian history did not provide good information about its background that could clarify its origin and identity and their political connection with other Indian royal houses. Nevertheless, traces of the Mauryan ancient legacy in its tradition leads us to believe that the Gupta Court was actually a resurrection of this Sakan power house. Nevertheless, adjustments had to be made in regard to the Naga communities of Southeast Asia. From the Indian source we know that Chandragupta I started the empire in 320 by marrying a princess of the powerful Naga State of Lichavi, named Kumaradevi. The state of Lichavi (in Chinese Li-Choui) was referring to Srasvati, which we had argued was part of Vakataka Samraj through the Hiong-wang connection. Her name "Kumaradevi" moreover identified her as a member of the Kumeraraja house of Prey Nokor (Inscription of Vo-Canh: Historical background). From the fact that their son, Samudragupta sided himself to his mother-line, we could see how important the Naga legacies played in during the early formation of the Gupta court. The Vishnu puranas that were compiled later as part of the Hindu heritage provided us with information about the state of the Naga power during the time that was going to affect Southeast Asia as a whole. In the legend of Prah Thong, the mentioning of cardinal states of which Adityavamsa assigned each one of his sons to rule indicates that he himself was a Cakravatin monarch who was then no other than Samudragupta. Following his Sakan ancestry, he was to make a political stunt that would change the state affair of the Vakataka Samraj altogether. It is said that he had to exterminate nine rulers of North India to build his own empire, one of them was Rudrasena I of the Vakataka court. Prior to that, we learn from the Indian source that a consortium had been formed between Vakataka with nine naga kings who ruled at Padmavati (AInd: The Indigenous states in North India: Nagas: P. 128). One of them was Bhavanaga who was known as the maternal grandfather of the Vakataka king Rudrasena I. It was in a high probability that those nine rulers of Northern India exterminated by Samudragupta were the nine Naga kings of the Padmavati consortium. During the start-up, there is no doubt that the Vakatakas were much more powerful than the Guptas. Nevertheless, the Koshans soon started its ascending trend in the world politic along with the rise of the Sui dynasty of China. The rise of the Koshan would give members of the Mauryan families a push in their fight against the nagas. After Samudragupta' s death, Chandragupta II continued the same policy and the Gupta Empire would soon reach its zenith. The fact that he married a princess of the Naga family KuvaraNaga suggests the subjugation and the inclusion of more Naga territory into his mighty empire. Indian history confirms that Chandragupta II proclaimed himself as a Rajadhiraja or a Cakravatin monarch and that Magadha was then the Middle country or the capital of his Cakravatin Empire (Notes: Magadha as a Middle Kingdom). Since Vakataka now fell under the Gupta Empire, it was not a surprise that the Chinese court mentioned him as a monarch of the Funan Empire. Chinese records later mentioned about the king of Funan Tien-tchou Chan-tan who sent an embassy to China, offering tamed elephants as tribute to the Chinese court in the first month of 357. In supporting the Chinese source, Arakkanese inscriptions reveal that Chandraditya was also commemorated as king of Arakkan that was at the time, part of Tian-sun. Mentioned in Chinese sources to be located at the western side of the Indochinese mainland next to India, Tian-sun was then a dependency of Funan (Kamboja: The conquest of Funan: Tien Souen or the country of Brahmans). Eventually, the King Adityavamsa of the Khmer legend of Prah Thong, the same as Prah Thong himself should not be literally identified as any Indian monarch, but a ruler of the combined essence of the Vakataka and the Gupta Empire. As part of its turning cycle, its rise shall be accompanied by its fall due to its karma. As its life cycle turned into maturity, the Khmer tradition exposes signs of favoritism that led to the break down of the Gupta court. While Prah Thong and other brothers were anointed to rule the southern cardinal state, his youngest brother was on the other hand set in the position to rule over the Middle Kingdom. Jealous, the story continues, he made a crucial mistake of challenging his father's decision and was exiled from the country. With a complete court of entourage, he found his way to Prey Nokor and settled among the Cham communities. We shall see that the Angkorean Empire founded later by one of his descendants Jayavarman II, was no less mighty than the Gupta Empire itself.
Of all the enigmas found during the compilation of modern history of India, the disappearance of Buddhism from its birthplace was left very much in the dark. We start by arguing that Buddhism was never been intended to stay in India. Before conceiving his religion, Buddha Gautama had made his trips to southeast Asia many times to prepare the ground work for his religion to find a safe ground to complete its yuga. By the emergence of the Gupta Empire, the Huns (Hiong-nus) already made their way to settle in the Gangetic India. As the Hans had done in China, the Tien-Tchous were to be displaced once again by the Hiong-nus and as expected, Southeast Asia would become their refuge. Before then, we shall argue that Buddhism owed its development to Southeast Asia no less than to the Gangetic India.
The Identity of Buddhaghosa *
There are many occurrences of past Buddhist history in which the same events or sometime religious figures were claimed by both Ceylon and the Mon communities of Tathon as of their own heritage. For instance, the accounts of Buddha Gautama making three trips to Nagadvipa was presented in both Sri Langka and the Mon of Tathon' s traditions as to be done at their current countries. Evidences however show that these trips were done instead at Sri Dharmaraja of the Menam Valley that was then the actual cultural center of Nagadvipa (Notes: Sri Dharmaraja as the Preceptor of Sri Langka and Tathon). Another controversy was concerning the identity of the monk Buddhaghosa himself of which Mon and Magadhan tradition claim to be of their own. According to the Culavamsa, Buddhaghosa was credited to translate the existing commentaries in Simhala Language into the Magadha (Pali) Language (The Culavamsa: Chap 37: History of Buddhaghosa (215-48): P 22-26, translated by Wilheim Geiger). He also added on his own commentaries, one of which was called Visuddhimaga that was a summary of all three Pitakas that never been done before. According to the Mon tradition, Buddhaghosa was credited to spread the Hinayana Buddhism into the mainland of Indochina. Mon scholars even went further to claim that Buddhaghosa was a Mon national as they themselves are. The claim appears to be checked out by evidence of events that were happening not at Tathon, but at Sri Dharmaraja. An inscription found at Kedah, dated at early 5th century cites two Buddhist verses of the laws of cause and karma. The first verse was about memorizing the causality law of cause and effect, taught by Buddha Gamtama.
The laws which arise out of a cause, Tathagata told about that, and what is their suppression has thus been told by the great Samana.
The second verse states the evolution law of Karma as the cause of the life cycle as taught by Buddha Gautama.
Karma accumulates through lack of knowledge. Karma is the cause of (re-birth). Through knowledge no Karma is effected (and) through absence of Karma (one) is not born (again).
Another inscription founded at Weslesly Province repeats the Kedah inscription with added information about the author in the name of Buddhagupta who was mentioned as the great sailor actually residing in Raktamrttika.
[The gift] of Buddhagupta, the great sailor, whose abode was at Raktamrttika.
Buddhagupta and Buddhaghosa, if not the same person as we shall assert, were two Buddhist monks working on the same mission. Our argument is that the mission was very much distinctive and unique in its historical and cultural setting to be considered as the work of two different persons. Back to the inscription, scholar attributes Raktamrttika as the Red Earth Chih-tu of the Chinese text, identified later as Chiangmai. This was happening perhaps during his early monk-hood, for later in life evidence show that Buddhaghosa spent more of his time at Magadha. His translation of many Buddhist texts into Pali Language obviously was intended in the expansion of the Buddhist religion back in Jambudvipa (Notes: Buddhaghosa and the Pali Language). The Siam Tradition also confirms that Buddhaghosa once stayed at Sudhammavati mentioned to be at the western shore of the Me Khong (Menam) river (ASiam1: Les Khmers et les Tais: P.194).
At the year 949 (406 AD) of the foundation of the Buddhist religion, a venerable named Buddhaghosacara, from the village of Kosala, in the country of Sudhammavati, at the west of Me Khong, went to take the 84000 Dhamma from the grand palace of Langka to distribute in Jumbudvipa.
The account dates the work of Buddhaghosa in 406 AD during the reign of Chandragupta II at Magadha and after the settlement of Kaundinya at Lavo (Pan-Pan) in 375 AD. Located around Pong Tuk where Buddha Images of Gupta style were found, Sudhammavati was at the time proved to be connected with the Kaundinya court of Lavo. The Siam account also agrees with the Mahavamsa that Buddhaghosa soon was heading to Magadha.
Then having accomplished what he had to do, he set out for Jumbudvipa to adore the sacred Bodhi Tree.
Coincidentally enough, Indian sources confirm that there was among the founders of Buddhist schools at Magadha, a religious figure named Buddhagupta in the second half of the fifth century. All these findings confirm that Buddhaghosa had played important role in establishing Buddhism in both Southeast Asia and the Gangetic India. Nevertheless, the Mahavamsa did not credit the spreading of Theravada Buddhism as due only to the work of Buddhaghosa at Suvannabhumi alone. As we shall seen, the expansion of Hinayana Buddhism in Southeast Asia was actually a religious movement involving all stratum of society.
The Foundation of Hinayana Buddhism *
Historical facts reveal that Buddhism, as any other religions, was able to spread itself only by the support of the contemporary powerful empires. In the past, it is a known fact that the first Buddhist expansion out of its birthplace could never been done without the support of the powerful king Ashoka. Likewise, without the support from the Khmer court of Kaundinya, and possibly the Gupta court of Magadha, it is doubtfully that Buddhaghosa by himself could do much for spreading the Buddha teaching at both Gangetic India and Southeast Asia. This finding led us to believe that Buddhaghosa whose contribution to the spread of the Hinayana sect of Buddhism in both Sri Dharmaraja and Magadha was himself a member of the translation' s commity of the Tribidaka into Pali version of the Kaundinya court. As we had seen, both Khemara scripture and language were invented to suit the project. On the same premise, it is also important to distinguish the difference between the Khmer scriture that was used in regular text and the Khemara scripture that was invented specifically for use in Buddhist texts. The Khmer scripture have been modeled directly from the Magadha script and could be identified easily by its resemblance to the Gupta or DevaNagari script as found in its early specimen of the inscription of Vo-Canh. The script evolved later into the cursive Khmer scripture that stayed to become modern Khmer scripture. It was used in conjunction with the Khmer Language that was mainly inscribed in the last part of the Khmer inscriptions, reserved for administration purpose. Evidence shows that the Gupta script was also used in the Chenla court and was passed on later to the Chola court of South India. It became later the preceptor of the Mon scripture during the time that the Mons of Tathon was under the Talaing royal house of Orissa. Another scripture that was used in conjunction of the Sanskrit Language, to inscribe the religious section of the inscriptions, was also modeled from the Gupta scripture but included the decorated feature of the Brahmi or Cham script. On the other hand, the Khemara script that was mentioned in the Khmer chronicle as the invention of Prah Thong's court was used solely in Buddhist text. Known also as the Round scripture, it was mostly used on palm leaves that were used to inscribe large Budhhist texts. Its round feature might prevent the stylus to damage the leaves in inscribing the straight line of the Brahmi scripture. On his pilgrimage trip to India in the seventh century, Yi-tsing had stopped at Sri Dhammaraja (Che-li-fo-che in Chinese texts) to study the Buddhist laws. During his stay, he noticed that most Buddhist texts were written in Kun-lun language and scripture (BEFEO IV: Deux Itinarraires De Chine en Inde I:P. 220, By Paul Pelliot). Even-though close to Sanskrit, Yi-tsing had clearly distinguished that it was not the same language. It proves that during Yi-tsing 's visit, the Hinayana Buddhism was already taugh at Sri Dharmaraja, but was obviously not current to the general Chinese Buddhist communities yet. The Kun-lun Language, as we have argued, was no other than the Khmeara Language invented by Prah Thong's court, and was spreading to Sri Vijaya to become later known as the Pali Language. After his stay at Sri Dharmaraja, Yi-tsing was impressed of how Buddhism was thaugth there and advised his fellow Chinese monks to stop by before going further to India. What he did not know was that the Hinayana canon of Buddhism that was being thaug at Magadha was actually developed at Sri Dharmaraja. At that time that India fell more and more under Zoroastrianism and was no longer gave inspiration for Buddhist development, Sri Dharmaraja took on the lead for the Buddhist development. According to the Culavamsa, the work of translating Buddhist texts from Simhalese to Magadha tongue was done at Sri Langka and that Buddhaghosa was very much involved in the translation' s work (The Culavamsa: Chap 37: History of Buddhaghosa (215-48): P 22-26, translated by Wilheim Geiger). It gave the impression that Simhalese language was the same as Sainskrit and that Pali was actually the same as Magadhan native language. As we had seen, Pali is not native of Magadha, but was invented by the court of Kaundinya solely for religious purposes. Even though it retains many of Magadha' s aspect, it also included many of Cham and Sanskrit features. Scripted in Pali, the Hinayana Buddhism was then perceived to be free off the Hindu legacy and was believed to reflect the true teaching of Buddha Gautama. In the new discipline, the Tantric parts of the Sanskrit version were completely stripped off from the texts. In that regard, it is fair to say that the use of the Pali lauguage was primary intended to split the Hinayana sect from its Theravada form of Buddhism. While it was preserved in its pure form and was practiced only in secluded parts of Jumbudvipa, the Theravada Buddhism of Sanskrit version was more acceptable to the rest of the world and was going to give birth to many branches of today' s Mahayana version of Buddhism. At Angkor, the Theravada canon was practiced along with Sanskrit and Paganism and had proved itself to be suitable for the cakravatin establishment of the Angkorean court.

  1. ISSA: The Indianized States of Southeast Asia, by G. Coedes
  2. AInd: Ancient India, by R.C. Majumdar
  3. AGr: Ancient Greece A Concise History, by Peter Green
  4. HOA: History of Indonesia, by by B. R. Chatterji
  5. BChina: The Birth of China, by Herlee Glessner Creel
  6. Funan: BEFEO III: Le Funan, by Paul Pelliot
  7. ASiam1: Annales du Siam, Premier Partie, Translated by Camille Notton
  8. Upa: The Upanishads, Translated and Selected by Juan Mascaro

  1. Chronology:
    230: Fan Man extended the Funan Empire; 240-550: The Gupta Empire; 320-335: The reign of Chandragupta I; 335-375: The reign of Samudragupta; 375: Kaundinya settled at Prey Nokor; 380-414: The reign of Chandragupta II; 433: The governor of Kiao-tche, Tan Ho Chih, overran Prey Nokor; 421: Yang Mah I requested investiture from the court of China; 431/32: Yang Mah II requested troops from Funan to detroy Kiao-tche;
  2. Kandanya vs Kaundinya
    The two words had close phonetic pronounciation, but etymologically are totally different in meaning. The word "Kanda-anya" is a Central Asian legacy from Kamra Kanda and was used mostly to refer for the Western Kambojan stock, known also as the Khek. The word "Kaundinya", on the other hand, is a short formed of "Kau-Nandinya" ad is a derivative of "Kau-Nanda", meaning the Bull Nanda. It was meant to be the Bull Nanda of Siva, and was closely connected to the Khmer identity that is a derivative of Meru.
  3. The Role of Business in modern Societies
    There are perceptions that Modernization is about building big cities to accommodate trade and commercial activities. This mind-set, perhaps a legacy of the Colonialization era, credited business as an important catalyst of Civilization. As happened in the past, this aristocratic view confuses between urbanization and civilization. As the poor folks are mostly left out of this development and often scorned by urbanization, business is only a small part of the world Civilization of today. Unchecked, it becomes a commodity for a selected few to thrive.
  4. Ancient Sea Trade
    Contrary to common belief that Southeast Asia was the recipient of civilization brought by foreign sea merchants, evidences show that western sea trade only reached Ceylon until the first half of sixth century (HSA: Southeast Asian Proto-history: P. 39).
    There is no evidence that shipping from the Persian Golf had yet began to sail direct to China; according to Byzantine writers in the first half of sixth century it went no farther east than Ceylon.
    At the same time, evidences show that Southeast Asia already engaged the sea-trade with China since the early time.
    Indian ships may have been sailing to China, but it is a striking fact that Chinese sources mentioned only Kun-lun, or Southeast Asian ships as bringing the luxury goods from the Nan-hai, the "southern ocean", to the south Chinese ports.
  5. The Sanskrit word Kumara
    Often confused with the word "KumAr", meaning kid or teenager, the Sanskrit word "Kumara" is also a derivative of the word "Meru".
  6. The Aswa or the Iswin of the Rig-Veda
    Aswa or Iswin was often invoked as divinity to the warrior tribesmen of the steppe. Aswataman was actually the title of their Kambojan ruler.
  7. The Kauruvas and the Panduvas
    As a cakravatin monarch of Middle East, Meru was actually the progenator of the forefathers of the European royal houses. During the Kuru's war, evidences show that the Ur's court already fell under the demonic influence of God Ashura. With intense family's feud, they split itself into two antagonist camps, the Kauruvas and the Paduvas. Being the losers of the wars, the Kauruvas were taking refuge in Gangetic India and were immediately fell under the control of Lord Indra who at the time ruled China under the Shang dynasty. As we see next, the emergence of the Western Kamboja clan settling themselves at Parthia, already practicing the knowledge of Giangtism.
  8. Europe' s Dark Age
    In Europe, the dark-age started after the fall of the Miscenian Greek civilization. Triggered by the fall of the Shang dynasty of China, a new civilization that was known as the Minoan civiliztion emerged in close connection with the god-king Meruduk. By then, the Assyrian had established themselves for a long period of time as the ruler of Babylon and were responsible to bring-up the Phoenician civilization of coastal European societies through the sea-trade. Taking the advantage of the Moon God Tsin's retreat from Middle East, a new phase of European civilization started under the influence of Zoroastranism. Along with the invasion of the Hiong-nu by the land channel, the Roman empire started to exert its military control through out Europe.
  9. Chinese Version of the Tchou Dynasty
    The Chous traced their ancestry back to one of the most ancient rulers, but they looked upon Hou Chi as the founder of their house (BChina: Who were the Tchous: P.225-226). He was said to have been Minister of agriculture under one of the ancient emperors. His name means "Ruler of Miller" and he is nothing more nor less than an agriculture deity. The fact that they spent their days with the Fire-dog Barbarians during their decline, Hou Chi and the Tchou dynasty must to be according to the good Chinese formula, rooted from southern royal houses. In fact other sources confirm that Hou Chi himself was a Xiang tribesmen. After losing battle to the Han, the TChous took refuge mostly with the Wu and the Tsu of the south (Prey Nokor: The Break Down of the Hiong-Wang Kingdom: The Remnant of the Tsu Dynasty).
  10. The Conception of the Trinity
    It was the Nandas who formuled the concept of the Trinity. From there, the Atheist might argue that men were the one who creates god (or gods). In reality, the Nandas did only drew the essence from true historical facts that were supposed to be God's manifestation in the physical world. Through these interventions, they came out with attributions that were used to list God's characteristic as taught through the Hindu Culture. As God's is spiritual (impersonal), each god of the Trinity was actually abstracted from his manifestation as living (personal) gods during our current kappa of the Buddhist folklore. Often enough, his existence was not conceived or perceived but revealed through transcendental meditation.
  11. The Different Views of God Interference
    In this pantheist view, God does not interfere directly (personally) with the physical world, but through his manifestation. The Trinity constitutes the three forms of God' s manifestation in humanity (of the four past creations) that already took place on this earth. The view had been since challenged by other institutions. The western theist view is based on Zoroaster's teaching of a single world created by one God (Ahura) and since God is personal, humanity could be preserved indefinitely with God 's grace. On the other hand, atheists who claim themselves men of science challenge the pantheist and theist view and maintain that humanity is born through evolution and could survive without God intervention.
  12. The Upanishads
    The Upanishads are treaties that were revealed to religious scholars mostly through transcendental meditation. They were considered as the top knowledge ever acquired by high-merit Rishis (hermits) in his long search for spirituality. Etymologically the Sanskrit word Upanishad (Upani-shad) means sitting (Sad) under (Upani). It could mean "Sitting under God" for seeking spiritual knowledge through transcendent meditation, the same way that prophets received revelation from god from direct contact or through dreams in Abrahamic schools, It also could mean "Sitting under the master" that was a normal practice of Hindu novice to receive knowledge from his master. Unless they were taught directly by the Living-god, Buddhist schools warned of any possible addendum that came out from personal view of the master.
  13. Rudra-Siva as the Personal God of the Bible
    In the Book of Genesis, the Moon God Tsin (Meru) already applied his destructive force on eastern communities in the attempt to change their religious practices. In the Rig-Veda, Rudra already took the malignant and destructive role of nature that was going to take its full effect in later Vedas. With time running short, Meru destruction force did not accomplish its goal. By the time that he exited the west, the Abrahamic schools did not change theirs habits. Instead, they added a new discipline to worship Rudra as he is and worshipped him the best they could by trying to appease to his grace. The Soma (or Yueh) Culture gave them free will in committing sin as long they made sacrifices to Rudra. Understandably, Meru or Rudra 's wrath was event stronger. In a close analogy, we could identify Rudra as the personal (living) god of the Bible' s book of Genesis and Siva as the impersonal (spiritual) godfather of the New Testament.
  14. The Aryaman as the early personal God of Siva
    Unlike other major Vedic gods, Siva was not invoked in the Rig-Veda even once. Considering that the Nandas were later Sivaite, it is implying that Siva was invoked by other name during the pre-Hindu period. In the Rig-Veda, Aryaman was the first reference to the spirit of Meru who ruled with the help of the Nanda (The Man Race: The Shan Mythology: The Aryan Identity). During the Hindu development, Siva became a member of the Trinity, succeeding Brahma.
  15. The Restoration of the Greek Empire
    A democracy appeared to emerge along side aristocracy in Athens beginning with the reforms of the great law-giver Solon in around 594 BC. Despite the rivalry, some cultural factors united the states. Belief in common deities, cultural events and activities such as the pan-hellinic games at Olympia. Philosophers began to speculate on the nature of the Universe. Looking closely, the emergence of the new Greek societies was in par with the emergence of the Wu dynasty under the cakravatin development of the Tchou.
  16. Magadha as a Middle Kingdom
    Even after the Gupta Dynasty had been disintegrating a century later, Magadha still retained its legacy as a Middle Kingdom. As the Sanskrit word "Cakravati" means the abode of the Ring or Wheel, its concept is based on the Wheel of Dharma which became also the core of Buddhism. It was actually the first Buddhist Cakravatin Empire of the world.
  17. Buddhagupta
    Indian history referred Buddhagupta as a member of the Gupta court. He was portrayed as a feudal king who ruled after the break-up of the Gupta Empire. Considering that Buddhaghosa might have been referring himself as Buddhagupta, the founder of the Buddhist school Buddhagupta at Magadha might have been a monk instead of a king.
  18. The Exploit of Vindhyasakti
    His father Vindhyasakti was a Brahmana, and according to the Purana ruled for 96 years. Etymologically, his title Pravarsena (Pra-vara-sena) indicates to us that he was member of the displaced court of the Hiong-wang Kingdom (Varadhana). The Purana assign him a reign of 60 years and pobably died in 330 AD. To reign for long period of time, Vindhyasakti could not a person but a lineage that brought up the Vakataka family from the Gangetic India to Deccan. Pravarsena is said to have peformed quite a large number of Vedic sacrifices including four Aswamedhas. He married his son Gautamiputra to a daughter of king Bhavanaga of the powerful Bharasive family.
  19. Sri Dharmaraja as the Preceptor of Sri Langka and Tathon
    In retrospective, Sri Dharmaraja was known during the early stage of Buddhist expansion as Langkasuka and also as Sudhammavati. Located at the Menam Valley, it was then a part of Dvaravati that was known as a country of Nagadvipa. The formation of Sri Langka at Ceylon and of Sudharmavati at Tathon, as we shall see, happened later after the uprising of the Chenla clan. Evidences show that the Water-Chenla king Bhavavarman and his line of descendant Anuruddha would play important role in establishing the Pali canon of Hinayana Buddhism in both countries.
  20. Buddhaghosa and the Pali Language
    In Buddhist tradition, Buddhaghosa was always connected with the Pali canon of Theravada Buddhism. Identified him as Buddhagupta of the inscription of Khedas suggests that he was member of the Gupta court. It was quite common that a monk was receiving a royal title through his accomplishment and merit. If this assumption is true, Buddhaghosa must to play important role in the invention of the Pali Language and later was part of Kaudinya' committee in the mission of translating of Buddhist texts from Sanskrit to Pali.
  21. Kumeruraja
    In the chronicles of the Khmer Heroes, the Khmer legendary Prah Thong was referred as Kumeruraja and his father-in-law, was referred as KambojaNagaraja.
    The first Ksatra was KambojaNagaraja; he did it for his son-in-law Kameruraja. (The chronicles of Khmer Heroes, by Eng Sot)
    This is a past recollection of the formation of Nokor Khmer by members of the Khmer court.
  22. The Pali word "Khemara"
    The word "Khemara" is the Pali equivalence to the Sanskrit word "Kumeru".