Project: The Enuma Elish
Author: Lem Chuck Moth
Started date: September/01/2011
Last updated: September/01/2012
All right reserved.
Since this paper is still drafted, the readers would be advised to ignore any context errors. The content is not final and subjected to be reviewed.
The Enűma Eliš is the Babylonian creation myth (named after its opening words). It was found in fragmentary Akkadian Cuneiform 's clay tablets in the ruined Library of Ashurbanipal at Nineveh. The same epic was found later to exist in various copies from Babylon and Assyria. The version from the Library of Ashurbanipal dates to the 7th century BCE. The composition of the text probably dates to later than the Kassite era between 18th to 16th centuries BCE. It had been since translated and interpreted by various scholars along with other epics from the same source. According to their published works, the epic is considered as one of the most important sources of the Babylonian religious background and politic during the pre-Abrahamic era. They may have been the sources of historical elements that were later incorporated as myths in the Bible book of Genesis.
Reference to Previous Works
Many works on the Enuma Elish had been published and are made available for the general audience by various scholars. As far as we agreed in most of their studies, we also found discrepencies that were due to the lack of proper reference. Sumerianologists who worked on deciphering the tablets came out their theories that were based entirely on their own interpretation. In their bias view that Europe was actually the source of civilization, they portrays the Enuma Elish as the proof of the birth of European humanity. To explain the sudden emergence of the western civilization, they recoursed to the extraterrestial origin of the culture. In correlation to the Bible's book of Genesis, they further implicated that these extraterrestial-being were actually the gods of the Abrahamic schools. By doing so, they contradict the general conception of one God as taught by all Abrahamic religions. To resolve the problem, we shall present here our own interpretation of specific accounts as alternative or supplement to what had been provided by those previous studies. Since we had claimed connection of the world development to the Man and later the Meru Culture, we shall base our own analysis on both legacies that are still available today. Derived directly from the same cultures, Hindu and Buddhist cosmogonies were particularly helpful in providing additional information to explicit the real history behind the myth.
Due to its theme evolving around the Babylonian political conflicts, it has been suggested that the epic started its historical debut at the ascendancy of the first dynasty (1894-1595 BC) of Babylon. It is important to note that by the Babylon was not an isolated country, but was part (the center to be exact) of the Middle Easter Cakravatin Empire of Meru. It followed the formation of the first dynasty of Egypt (3000-2800 BC) of which he had attributed to the settlement of the Meru Culture in Middle East. The next event took place after the Akkadian Court was seen taking control of Mesopotamia in 2000 BC. It was at a time that the Semetic development at Mesopotamia had led to the emergence of Babylonian power-houses that eclipsed since the original Sumerian establishment of the region (The Western Civilization: The Indus Valley: The Development of the Gangetic India). The last section of the epic emphasizes on the commemoration of the hero-god Marduk as the ruler and a devinity of Babylon. A similar promotion of Marduk is seen in the first lines of the Code of Hammurabi (1754 BC). Evidences show that his legacy stayed strong through the turbulent period of the start-up of Kalayuga when the ruling house of Ur divided itself into two different antagonist clans. Their fighting for the control of Ur led to the break-out of the very first worldly war of the kalayuga that resulted in the final displacement of the Kauravas from Ur by the Panduvas. The war also changed both the political and cultural standing of the region for good. It marked the decline of the Meru Culture that later on, led to its exodu from Middle East to the Gangetic India. As Marduk avoided to take any part of it, he was still revered by the ruling house of Ur. A bas-relief thought to be of Marduk and Tiamat from a temple at Nimrud confirmed that the legacy of Marduk lasted until the reign of Ashurbanipal II (883-859 BC) when the first set of tablets were apparently transcribed. Many versions of the epic were later compiled by descending courts who still worship Marduk. The last of copies that were found in Assyria, however had the god Marduk replaced by the Assyrian God Ashur.
To avaid confusion, we shall divide the epic story into two parts. Presented in tablet I (of a total of seven tablets), the first part serves as the genesis of the story line that follows. It gives hints on how gods came to their existence while the rest of the story is about the conflict between the higher gods and theirs offsprings that contitutes the main theme of the Middle Eastern developments. with the creation of men by Marduk to release the works of gods. The epic ends in the last tablet (tablet VII), with the praise of Marduk of his meritual work for both divine disturbance and the creation of humanity.
The Genesis of Gods
The epic starts by the highly abstract claim that before anything else to form, only the primordial entities Apsu and Tiamat existed
At a time when even the glories above had yet to be named . And unuttered was the word for the world which lay beneath. It was then that the first being Apsu who was the source, and the progenator Tiamat, the mother who gave birth to all. Intermingle, their waters produces neither field nor marsh. (EE: Tablet 1: p.3)
The epic did not specify what the two entities were, neither where they originated from, nor how they later ended up on the surface of the earth. The Buddhist version however stated that the very first entities of the earth were from the Brahma world (The History of Humanity: The Genesis: The Origin of the Gods) of which we could relate Apsu and Tiamat as two spirits from the Brahma world. The Southeast Asian tradition of King Samanta spreading the Man Culture around the globe through land and sea, might have been done through Apsu and Tiamat respectively. The next development started with a new generation of gods alongside the mystic godheads of Lahmu and Lahamu.
There were no names to be spoken, and no fate pronounced, but the gods were given birth within those intermixing waves. The first were were Lahmu and Lahamu; their names were spoken. But once the had fully ground and become mature of form, then were born Anshar and Kishar, and they outshoned them.(EE: Tablet 1: p.3)
We shall identify them as Meru and his son Mahameru who, as a member of Mahasamanta family tree, became the progenator of the Meru (Moon) Culture. This identification allows us to date the event's occurence to be in the last of the Bhadrakappa, which is our contemporary kappa when Meru founded the Egyptian first dynasty and his son became actually the first king Aha of the dynasty. The reference furthermore implicates that the early Sumerian pre-dynasties of Babylon were from the Meru court of Egypt. From there, we conclude that prior to the first dynasty the Sumerian societies of Mesopotamia were practicing the Meru Culture of which the site of Sumer owed its name to. Degradation however was seen taking hold of the culture along its preceding dynasties. At first, the Hara (Soma) Culture could be detected among the early Akkadian rulers and disappered algogether after the Assyrians took over the region (The Western Civilization: The Impact of the Kalayuga: The Harrian and the Hittie).
The Anu Lineage
Continuing on the geneanology of the Sumerian gods, Anu was born from Anchar to become a new godhead that surpassed most of his ancestors.
Their first son was Anu, being as great as any of his forebears. And Anshar caused his son Anu to become just like himself. Froam Anu came Nudimmud, who was his spitting image and Nudimmud proved to be even greater than his forebears. Profoundly wise and full of insight, with strength in his limbs, more infused with might than even his grandfather Anchar.
(EE: Tablet 1: p.3)
As Anu was a Sumerian reference to heaven, he should be identify as no other then the Sakan God Zeus (Indra in Hindu cosmogony). In later reference, Anu was commemorated in the Esharra (Istar) shrine along side Enlil and Ea (EE: Tablet IV: p. 29) who, connecting to the Greek mythology, were his siblings who were Hadis and Poseidon. From the chief god Anu came a new generations of gods, the Anunnaki who were particulart agressive in natue (Notes: The Etymology of the Word Anunnaki). Their disturbance annoyed both Tiamat and Apsu and they could not calm them down. Historically, it represented the complex relationship between the Tai-Kambujas and the Eastern Asian Xia dynasty (2070-1600 BC) that drove the latter to consider a drastic measure to take care of theirs skiemishes. From the advice of his son Mummu. Apsu decided to destroy the new gods. but When they notifed her of theirs plan, Tiamat was incensed and angrily rejected theirs proposal. Mummu then took the campaign to carry on himdself. Nevertheless, it was Apsu who was subdued along side his son Mummu. However, the Anunnaki knew about their plan and it was Ea who went to the rescue. After he crafted a spell that caused Apsu to sleep, Ea took Apsu's halo and wore it himself. Historically, it was when the Tai-Yuan nomads became in control of the steppe and furthermore incursed into the ream of the Xia Dynasty. After taking Apsu as his dwelling place, Ea started to extend his empire eastwrd, It was when the Shang Dynasty (1810-1300 BC) Was found ruling over Anyang in China. With the help of his wife Damkina, he created Marduk to surpass himself and the other gods in his godliness. Ea called him "My son, the Sun!". It is important to note that the Sun dynasrty started with the primordial king Samanta to become the legacy of Southeast Asian original god-King. As we shall see, this ancient llegacy was going to incur substantional changes under the agressive maneuvers of the Anunnakis.
The Lgigi and the Anunnaki
King Samanta and all his descendants were born in human form, but many of them were referred as god-kings because they were believed to be god reincarnated. The Nandas were direct descendant of king Uroja, the son of king Aamanta who was better known as the the Sun God Uru. During the Meru era, they served as his court members. Of eastern origin they were represented symbolically by the cow and were also called the Aryan brahmans of the Sivaite culture. They could be regconized in the Sumerian clay tablets to have the same dress code as modern Buddhist monks with the exception that their robe (saprong)' s color was white instead of yellow. After drifting out from Uru, they came back to the east bringing along the Moon culture to Arianize the Gangetic India. In close connection with the Indian development, they were worshipping Shiva and became Buddhist in later time. We thus identify the lgigi (heavenly god) of the Sumerian folklore as the Brahman Nandas who served in the court of Meru. On the other hand, we shall identify that the Anunnaki (fallen angels from heaven) were actually serving in the court of Anu (earthly heaven). Claiming their ancestry from the Sun God, the lgigi and the Anunnaki differed themselves from different aspects of theirs origin and development. In the Enuma Elish, both were referred as gods, but (unlike the old gods) had to work to sustain their subsistence. In eastern culture, they were hardly perceived as of devine nature, but were regconized of their supernatural attributes of either spiritual or physical strength. Born in human forms, the Nandas were reknown of their scholastic knowledge and mostly served as court ministers. On the other hands, the Anunnaki were often referred as Yakkas (giants), but by serving in the Anu (Heaven) court of Indra, they were regconized also as angels. In the Sumerian clay tablets, they were shown of hight physical stature that characterized their physical strength. After the rising of the Akkadian Empire, they became the new generation of Middle Eastern Rulers. They could be regconized by their horn helmets or tiaras head-dress to indicate their ranking. Their tendency of querelling with each other creates the noise making of the epic' s main theme that irritated the old gods, Apsu and Tiamat. It was Ea who saved them from Apsu 's campaign to distroy them. During the next developments, they did not stop making noise and this time it was Tiamat herself who was annoyed and planned to destroy them. Under pressure from other gods of avenging her husband and aggravated by Anu's mischieving against her, Tiamat prepared for war against the new gods, The existence of these gods (or angels), old and new, of high or low merits became later compiled in the Greek and cosmogony. In later representation, the Annunaki s were portrayed in western folklore to have wings.
The continuing conflists between the of the old and the new gods reminds us of the epic war of Mahabharata between the Kauravas and the Panduvas. Since the Mahabharata was compiled as an epic story, it was much more informative than the Enuma Elish that was on the other hand compiled as an abstract myth. As the onflict was occuring at the same place and time, We shall further argue that the myth was actually compiled to give a full version of the Epic wars between gods and human kinds, happening during our current Kalayuga. In that though, we shall use Mahabharata as a reference to help identifying each personage of the epic and some historical events that took place during the story line.
The Kuruksetra War
The Mahabharata was compiled in India to glorify the Panduvas victory in their fight over the Kauravas. Under the leadership of Krisna, Arjuna and his brothers conducted a bloody war against the Kauravas. On the other hand, the Enuma Elish was compiled at Mesopotamia to give the Kauravas its side of the story. Historically they were the Akkadian power-house who after the reign of Gilgamesh, took control of the whole of Mesopotamia to form Babylon under the state symbol of lion. Living under the house of the blind king Dhritarashtra, they started on a family feud with the Panduvas of the Pandu house. Through the Assyrian lineage, the Panduvas were actually derived from the Queen of the west who after marrying Meru took part of Meru development at the west. According to Middle Eastern history, Ashur was founded in 2600 BC, perhaps to regroup the Queen 's legacy that most likely became the residence of Tiamat. In the Mahabharata, they were prented as of loveable nature while the Kauruvas were portryed as vile. In their fighting' s spirit, both houses were loosing of the Meru' spiritual presence who now were residing in Jerusalem. As the feud continued, the Kauruvas was canieving to chase out the Panduvas from Ur. Loosing the bet on the Chess game, the Panduvas brothers to leave Kuruksetra and left everything else under the hand of the Kauravas. Later in time, they decided to return back to fight against the Kauravas and after winning the war, managed to wrest Ur from the Akkadian power-house. In parallel to the Enum Elish' s account, it happened when the goddess Tiamat decided to fight the new gods (the Anunnaki) to avenge the death of her husband's Apsu. She creates an army of chimeric creatures armed with weapons placed it under the command of the god Kingu who was then becoming her new consort. The 'Tablet of Destinies' is then given to him, making his authority undisputable. When Ea who fought and killed Apsu in previous war, heard of Tiamat's plan, he spoke to his grandfather Anshar telling him of his growing concern about other gods joining with Tiamat's side. Eventually Anshar ordered Anu to resolve the conflict with Tiamat, but Anu was at the time too weak to face her. We shall identify Kingu as Krishna who led Arjuna and his brothers to war against the Kauravas. In the war, bot the Param-Kambojas and the Tai-Kamboja of Ganthari joined into the figh on the side of the Kauravas, but Krisna was able to win over them all. It is important to note that during the war, Meru (the spirit of Lahmu and Lahamu) did not involve with the war itself. On the other hand, Marduk who was then a close friend of Krisna also stayed completely outside of the conflict. Nevertheless, Marduk agreed to join in the fight after Anshar promessed to him the position of the supreme god if he wins over Tiamat.
The Supreme God Marduk
The war between Marduk and Tiamat that was narrated in detail in tablets IV was actually the the continuing of the Kuruksetra war. Having exterminating both Tiamat and her partner KIngu at the same time during the wr, he was hailed as the war hero forallowing the Akkadian court to continue residing at Ur. At the same time, he was given the title of the supreme god as promised, presiding over other old and new gods (including Anshar himself). He then split the Tiamat's kingdom in two. The one half that he made the Sky, was gaven to Anu to rule and became the residence for the old spirits, Anu, Enlil, and Ea to live .
And in the temple Esharra, which he made to resemble heaven, he placed there the centers of veneration for Anu, Ellil, and Ea. (EE: Tablet IV: p. 29)
As we had idebtify that Anu, Enlil and Ea was actually the Greek trinity of Zeus, Hadis and Poseidon, the event took place during the hight of the wordly Greek Empire 's expansion to include China of the Shang or Yin Dynasty (1810-1300 BC), Egypt of Osiris spanning from the Dynast 19 (1292-1190 BC) to the Dynast 23 (1075-945 BC) and the rest of the ocean world under the leasership of Poseidon. A noticeable charateristic of the development was the increasing presence of Asiatic societies known as the Hyksos in the worldly politic and the start-up of European civilization as part of the Greek Empire
The Meru Connection
- EE: Enuma Elish: The Babylonian Creation Epic, by Timothy J . Stephany
Gilgamesh[a] was a historical king of the Sumerian city-state of Uruk, a major hero in ancient Mesopotamian mythology, and the protagonist of the Epic of Gilgamesh, an epic poem written in Akkadian during the late second millennium BC. He probably ruled sometime between 2800 and 2500 BC
34th-30th centuries BC: Bronze age; 33th-31th centuries BC: First Dynasty of Egypt; 24th-23rd centuries BC: Sargon , Gilgamesh; 2300 BC: The Jins left the footsteps of Himalayas toward the plain; 2070-1600 BC: Xia dynasty; 1810–1750 BC: Hammurabi; 1810-1300 BC: Shang or Yin dynasty; 1200-800 BC: Greek Dark Ages; 1046-771 BC: Western Tchou dynasty; 771-221 BC: Eastern Tchou Dynasty; 883-859 BC: the reign of Ashurnasirpal II
- The Etymology of the Word Anunnaki
Scholars agreed that the word Anunnaki (Anu-Na-ki) meant to be From heaven (An) to earth (Ki). It meant to be the officers of the court of Anu. In eastern tradition, they were mentioned of tall stature and of physical strenght as a lion. Genetically they were the Kambojas who had a link with the race of giants. In western tradition, they became actually the second generation of rulers and were seen as gods.