Project: The Enuma Elish
Author: Lem Chuck Moth
Started date: July/01/2018
Last updated: December/01/2018
All right reserved.
Since this paper is still drafted, the readers would be advised to ignore any context errors. The content is not final and subjected to be reviewed.
The Enűma Eliš is the Babylonian creation myth that was named after its opening words. It was found in fragmentary Akkadian Cuneiform 's clay tablets in the ruined library of Ashurbanipal at Nineveh. The same epic was found to exist in various copied tablets that were unearthed from Babylon and Assyria, with some minor changes, that proves the shared tradition of both the Akkadian and the Assyrian royal houses. The version from the library of Ashurbanipal dates to the 7th century BCE, but scholars agreed that the composition of the text should be dated earlier, to no later than the Kassite era between 18th to 16th centuries BCE (Notes: The Start of the Epic Story). It had been since translated and interpreted by various scholars along with other Sumerian epics from the same source. Judging from their various published works, the epic must to be one of the most important sources of the Babylonian religious common background dated back since the pre-Abrahamic era. Evidences show that they became the sources of rare historical elements that were later incorporated as historical myths in the Bible book of Genesis.
References to Previous Works
Many works on the epic had been published and are made available for the general audience by various scholars. As far as we agreed in most of their works of deciphering the text and translation, we also found discrepancies in the historical interpretation that was due mostly to the lack of proper reference. Sumerianologs who worked on deciphering the tablets constructed their theories that were based entirely on in their postulation. In their bias view that Europe was actually the source of the world civilization, they portrayed the Enuma Elish as the proof of the birth of European societies. To explain the sudden emergence of the western civilization, they recourse to the extraterrestrial origin of their culture. In correlation to the Bible's account of creation, they furthermore implicated that these extraterrestrial being were actually the gods of the Abrahamic religions. By doing so, they contradict the general conception of one God as claimed and accepted by all Middle Eastern Abrahamic schools and other religions of the world.
We shall present here our own interpretation of specific historical accounts as alternative or supplement to what had been provided by those previous studies. Since we had claimed connection of the world development to the Man and later the Meru Culture, Hindu and Buddhist cosmogonies were particularly referenced in providing additional information to explicit the real history behind the myth.
The Religious Background
Due to its theme evolving around the cosmic conflicts between the new and old gods of Babylon, we could date the event to start after the decline of the Meru establishment at Middle East and the rise of the Akkadian Empire at Ur. From this chronology, the Enuma Elish is concerning about events that carried on by the new God Anu and his siblings Elill and Enki outside the mainstream of the Meru Culture. Identifying this Akkadian trinity with the Greek God Zeus and his two siblings Hadis and Posidon, we are confident enough that the myth was about the early formation of the Greek Hellenistic Empire. Out of Crete, the empire extended itself into the eastern tip of Chinese continent through the rule of the Shang or Yin Dynasty (1810-1300 BC). It happened after the victory of Marduk in the cosmic against Tiamat and the Sumerian Anu, Ellil and Enki. The Men Creation Myth at the end of the story line was actually concerning about the peopling of Europe and the eastern Greek empire after the war.
To avoid confusion, we shall divide the epic story into two parts. Presented in tablet I (of a total of seven tablets), the first part serves as the genesis of the story line that follows. It gives hint on how gods came to their existence on earth while the rest of the story is about the conflict between the higher gods and theirs offspring that constitute the main theme of the Middle Eastern developments. With the creation of men by Marduk to relieve the new gods from works, the crises appeared to subside. The epic ends in the last tablet (tablet VII), with the praise of Marduk of his meritual works to solve divine conflicts and his rise as the supreme divine of the universe.
The Origin of Gods
The epic starts by the highly abstract statement that before anything else to forms, only the primordial entities Apsu and Tiamat existed.
At a time when even the glories above had yet to be named. And unuttered was the word for the world that lay beneath. It was then that the first being Apsu who was the source, and the progenator Tiamat, the mother who gave birth to all. Intermingle, their waters produces neither field nor marsh. (EE: Tablet 1: p.3)
The epic did not specify where the two entities originated from, nor how they ended up on the surface of the earth. The Buddhist tradition however stated that the very first divinities to settle on the surface of the earth were from the Brahma world (The History of Humanity: The Genesis: The Origin of the Gods). We could relate Apsu and Tiamat as respectively as the Small Brahman and the Big Bhraman spiritual communities that sprung from their earthly settlement in Southeast Asia. As mentioned in the account, Apsu was the source of divine origin at the foothstep of mount Himalayas while Tiamat was the mother of humanity to be located at Manipura. Takkasila (Takka-Sila), the water-mountain duality of the Buddhist tradition was actually the geographical referencing to the split of Tiamat-Apsu spirituality of the Sumerian folklore. The tradition of King Samanta spreading the Man Culture around the globe through water (Takka) or ocean became later the geographical reference of Mahabharata. Other of his descendants who spread through land (Sila) or mountainous region would become part of the Bharata family, of which Meru belonged to. In a parallel development, the Enuma Elish stated that the next generation of gods started with the birth of the mystic godheads of Lahmu and Lahamu.
There were no names to be spoken, and no fate pronounced, but the gods were given birth within those intermixing waves. The first were Lahmu and Lahamu; their names were spoken. But once the had fully ground and become mature of form, then were born Anshar and Kishar, and they outshone them.(EE: Tablet 1: p.3)
We shall identify them as Meru and his son Mahameru who, as a member of Mahasamanta family, became the progenator of the Meru (Moon) Culture. As indicated in the account, the Akkadian societies recognized the duality of Meru and his son Mahameru as their first godhead to be heard about (Notes: Meru's Godhead). This identification allows us to date the event's occurrence to be in our contemporary kappa when the Egyptian tradition commemorated Narmer (Meru) as the founder of the Egyptian first dynasty and his son Aha (MahaMeru) became actually the first king of the dynasty. The reference furthermore implicates that the early Sumerian pre-dynasties of Babylon were from the Meru court of Egypt. From there, we conclude that prior to the first dynasty of Babylon, the Sumerian societies of Mesopotamia were practicing the Meru Culture of which the site of Sumer owed its name to. Degradation however was seen taking hold of the culture along the preceding dynasties. At first, the Hara (Soma) Culture could be detected among the early Akkadian rulers and disappeared altogether after the Assyrians took over Babylon from them (The Western Civilization: The Impact of the Kalayuga: The Harrian and the Hittie).
The Anu's Lineage
Continuing on the genealogy of the Sumerian gods, Anu was born from Anchar and Kishar to become a new godhead that continued on the Meru lineage.
Their first son was Anu, being as great as any of his forebears. And Anshar caused his son Anu to become just like himself. Froam Anu came Nudimmud, who was his spitting image and Nudimmud proved to be even greater than his forebears. Profoundly wise and full of insight, with strength in his limbs, more infused with might than even his grandfather Anchar.
(EE: Tablet 1: p.3)
As Anu was a Sumerian reference to heaven, he should be identifying as no other then the Sakan God Zeus (Indra in Hindu cosmogony). In later reference, Anu was commemorated in the Istar shrine along side Enlil and Ea (EE: Tablet IV: p. 29) who were no other than his siblings Hadis and Poseidon of the Greek mythology. From the chief god Anu came a new generations of gods, the Anunnaki who were particularly aggressive in nature (Notes: The Etymology of the Word Anunnaki). Their disturbance annoyed both Tiamat and Apsu and they could not calm them down. From the advice of his son Mummu, Apsu decided to destroy the new gods, but when they informed Tiamat of theirs plan, she was incensed and angrily rejected theirs proposal. Mummu then took the campaign to carry on himself, but the Anunnaki already knew about their plan. It was Ea (Enki in Sumerian) who went to the rescue and it was Apsu who was subdued along side with his son Mummu. After he crafted a spell that caused Apsu to sleep, Ea took Apsu's halo and wore it himself. Historically, it was when the Tai-Yuan nomads became in control of the steppe and furthermore incurred into the ream of the Xia Dynasty. After taking Apsu as his dwelling place, Ea started to extend his empire eastward, Not only that the Xia Dynasty was subdued, but also the Shang Dynasty (1810-1300 BC) also extended their control over Anyang (Anu-Yang) deep in Central in China. With the help of his wife Damkina, Ea created Marduk to surpass himself and the other gods in his godliness. Ea called him "My son, the Sun!". It is important to note that the Sun dynasty started with the primordial king Samanta to become the legacy of Southeast Asian original god-King. As we shall see, this ancient legacy was going to incur substantial changes under the aggressive maneuvers of the Shang Dynasty.
The Lgigi and the Anunnaki
King Samanta and all his descendants were born in human form, but because they were believed to be god reincarnated were still referred as god-kings. In the lineage, the Nandas were direct descendant of king Uroja who was the son of king Samanta. Known in the Sumerian world as the Sun God Uru, king Uroja was known to be the first to venture out to the west where his descendants spread the Man civilization to the native people. Born in human forms, the Nandas or the lgigi (heavenly god) were renown of their scholastic knowledge and most all the early Middle Eastern development owed their progression to them. During the Meru era, they were serving as his court ministers and bore the symbol of the cow in representing the agricultural race. They were actually the Lgigi who implanted the Meru Culture to the next generation of western rulers.
They could be recognized in the Sumerian clay tablets to have the same dress code as modern Buddhist monks with the exception pf their robe (saffron)' s with color denoting their Sun's heritage, the Nanda's color code. On the other hand, Buddhist monk's color code is yellow, with the variation to brown (in leaning to the Meru or Moon heritage) and red (in leaning to the Kala heritage). After drifting out from Uru, they came back to the east bringing along the Moon culture to Arianize the Gangetic India (around 1500 BC). In close connection with the Indian development, they were known to compile all the Vedas that became since the backbone of the Hindu Culture of Gangetic India. On the other hand, we shall identify that the Anunnaki (fallen angels from heaven) were actually officials serving in the court of Anu. Also claiming their ancestry from the Sun God, the Anunnaki differed themselves from the Lgigi by many aspects of theirs origin and development. In the Enuma Elish, the Lgigi and the Annunaki were both referred as gods, but (unlike the old gods) had to work to sustain their subsistence. Ac6tually, the Lgigi belonged to the small family (Choladara) of gods who were direct descendants of king Samanta while the Anunnaki belonged to the big family (Mahadara) of gods. As portrayed in many of the Sumerian clay tablets, the Anunnaki were actually the Lgigi 's apprentices. In Buddhist tradition, they were hardly perceived as of divine nature, but were recognized of their supernatural attributes of either spiritual or physical strength. On the other hand, the Anunaki were often referred as Yakkas (giants), but by serving in the Anu (Heaven) court of Indra, they were recognized as angels. After the rising of the Akkadian Empire, they became the new generation of Middle Eastern rulers who eventually proclaimed themselves as god-kings. They could be recognized by their horn helmets or tiaras headdress to indicate their ranking. In the Sumerian clay tablets, they were shown of height physical stature that characterized their physical strength. Their tendency of quarreling with each other created the noise making of the epic' s main theme that irritated the old gods, Apsu and Tiamat. If Ea could not save them, they might already have been annihilated by the Apsu 's campaign to destroy them. After the incidence, their habit of making noise did not stop and this time it was Tiamat who was annoyed and planned to destroy them herself. Pressured from other gods to avenge her husband and being aggravated by Anu's mischief against her, Tiamat prepared for the Mahabharata war against the new gods,
THE COSMIC CONFLICTS
The next continuing saga of the epic story was primary about conflicts between the old and the new gods that plagued the unrest of the Middle East politic ever since. As the conflict continued, We shall argue that the myth was actually compiled to give a full perspective of the Epic wars between spiritual beings (gods) and human kinds. Happening during our current Kalayuga, the next war reminds us of the epic battle of Mahabharata between the Kaurauvas and the Panduvas. Compiled as an epic story, the Mahabharata was much more informative than the Enuma Elish that was compiled as an abstract myth.
Due to its theme evolving around the Babylonian political conflicts, it has been suggested that the epic started its historical debut at the ascendancy of the first dynasty (1894-1595 BC) of Babylon. We started by asserting that Babylon was not an isolated country, but was part (the center to be exact) of the Middle Eastern Cakravatin Empire, following the formation of the first dynasty of Egypt (3000-2800 BC). The conflict started after the Akkadian Court was seen taking control of Mesopotamia in 2000 BC that led to the emergence of Akkadian power-houses to eclipse the original Sumerian establishment of the region (The Western Civilization: The Indus Valley: The Development of the Gangetic India). The event could be related to the start of the conflict between Apsu and the new gods with the latter winning and taking over the Apsu ream. The next section of the story line concerning the revenge of Tiamat over the new gods could be related to the rise of the Assyrians taking over Babylon from the Akkadians. In Mahabharata, it was the fight of the Panduvas and their victory over the Kauruvas. Under the guidance of Lord Krisna, Arjuna led his family's members to fight against and won. In the bloody battle, Marduk kept himself distanced from the conflict. Nevertheless, Marduk would lead the fight for the Kauruvas to take back Babylon from the Assyrians and was recognized as the supreme god of the universe as promised by Ea. The last section of the epic emphasizes on the commemoration of the hero-god Marduk as the ruler and a divinity of Babylon. A similar promotion of him is seen in the first lines of the Code of Hammurabi (dated in 1754 BC) indicating that he already became a major god before the Kalayuga. Evidences show that his legacy stayed strong through the turbulent period of the start-up of Kalayuga when the ruling house of Ur divided itself into two different antagonist clans. Their fighting for the control of Ur continued on to change both the political and cultural standing of the region for good. The conflicts also marked the decline of the Meru Culture that later on had to settle itself at Jerusalem. Its final exodus from Middle East to the Gangetic India concluded the Meru Culture and the start-up of Middle Eastern own cosmogony. During all these transitions, evidences show that Marduk was still revered by the ruling house of Ur. A bas-relief thought to be of him and Tiamat from a temple at Nimrud confirmed that the legacy of Marduk lasted until the reign of Ashurbanipal II (883-859 BC) when the first set of tablets were apparently transcribed. Many versions of the epic were later compiled by descending courts that still worship Marduk. The last of copies that were found in Assyria, however had the god Marduk replaced by the Assyrian God Ashur.
The Kuruksetra' s War
The Mahabharata was compiled in India to glorify the Panduvas victory in their fight over the Kauravas. Under the leadership of Krisna, Arjuna and his brothers conducted a bloody war against the Kauravas. The Enuma Elish was on the other hand, compiled at Mesopotamia to give the Kauravas its side of the story. Historically they were the Akkadian powerhouses who after the reign of Gilgamesh, took control of the whole of Mesopotamia to form Babylon under the state symbol of lion. Living under the house of the blind king Dhritarashtra, they started on a family feud with the Panduvas of the Pandu house. Through the Assyrian lineage, the Panduvas were actually derived from the Queen of the west who after marrying Meru took part of Meru development at the west. According to Middle Eastern history, The Assyrian capital of Ashur was founded in 2600 BC, perhaps to regroup the Queen 's legacy that most likely became the house of Tiamat. In the Mahabharata, they were presented as of lovable nature while the Kauruvas were portrayed as vile. In their fighting' s spirit, both houses were loosing of the Meru' spiritual presence who now were residing in Jerusalem. As the feud continued, the Kauruvas were conspiring to chase out the Panduvas from Ur. Loosing the bet on the Chess game, the Panduvas brothers were force to leave Kuruksetra and left everything else (including their wife Draupadi) under the hand of the Kauravas. Later in time, they decided to return back to fight against the Kauravas and after winning the war, managed to wrest Ur from the Akkadian powerhouse. In parallel to the Enuma Elish' s account, the Kuru War happened when the goddess Tiamat decided to fight the new gods (the Anunnaki) to avenge the death of her husband's Apsu. She creates an army of chimerical creatures armed with weapons placed it under the command of the god Kingu who was then becoming her new consort. The 'Tablet of Destinies' is then given to him, making his authority indisputable. When Ea who fought and killed Apsu in previous war, heard of Tiamat's plan, he spoke to his grandfather Anshar telling him of his growing concern about other gods joining with Tiamat's side. Eventually Anshar ordered Anu to resolve the conflict with Tiamat, but Anu was at the time too weak to face her. In the war, Kingu (Krishna in Mahabharata) led Arjuna and his brothers to war against the Kauravas. Krisna was able to win the war, even though both the Param-Kambojas and the Tai-Kamboja of Ganthari had joined into the fight on the side of the Kauravas. It is important to note that during the war, Meru (the spirit of Lahmu and Lahamu) did not involve with the war itself. Marduk who was then a close friend of Krisna also stayed completely outside of the conflict. Nevertheless, after the Panduvas' victory, Marduk agreed to join in the fight after Anshar promised to him the position of the supreme god if he wins over Tiamat.
The Rise of Marduk as the Supreme God of the West
The war between Marduk and Tiamat that was narrated in detail in tablets IV was actually the continuing of the Kuruksetra war. The war between the Kuruvas and the Pandavas ended with the succumbing of the Akkadian powerhouse and the emergence of the Assyrian powerhouse to rule Babylon. At the same time, Ishta was on her way to take control of Middle Eastern religious pantheon. In Sumerian tablets of later date, the Lgigi were no where to be found as evidences show that they were reduced to become the work forces while the Anunaki were promoted into becoming Middle Eastern gods. Among them were Enlil (Hadis in the Greek Mythology) and Enki (Poseidon in the Greek Mythology) who rose up to become the Anunaki chief gods. From Enki descended EA who late4r gave birth to Marduk who was later rose up to become the supreme God of Balylon. During the Mahabharata 's war, Marduk managed to stay out of the conflict but decided to fight against Tiamat after being promised to become the supreme God after the victory. Having subdued both Tiamat and her partner Kingu, he was hailed as the war hero for allowing the Akkadian court to resettle at Ur. As promised, he was given the title of the supreme god of the universe, presiding over other old and new gods. He then split the Tiamat's kingdom in two. The one half that he made the Sky was given to Anu to rule.
And in the temple Esharra, which he made to resemble heaven, he placed there the centers of veneration for Anu, Ellil, and Ea. (EE: Tablet IV: p. 29)
As we had identify that Anu, Enlil and Ea was actually the Greek trinity of Zeus, Hadis and Poseidon, we can date the event to take place during the hight of the worldly Greek Empire 's expansion. Under Cain's leadership, the eastern expansion policy would include China to be ruled by the Shang or Yin Dynasty (1810-1300 BC) at the expense of the old Xiang dynasty. On the other hand, Hadis would control Egypt under the Osiris and Isis's lineage, Spanning from the dynasty 19 (1292-1190 BC) to the dynasty 23 (1075-945 BC). The rest of the ocean world was then under the leadership of Poseidon who was revered in Babylon as Marduk himself. A noticeable characteristic of the development was the increasing presence of Asiatic societies known as the Hyksos in control of the Middle Eastern politic. It also coincides with the emergence of the Sakan leadership of central Asia and the start-up of European civilization, as part of the Greek Empire.
THE MERU CONNECTION
Statues found later among Sumerian archeology sites, especially of Lagash, show princes dressing like a modern Buddhist monk among members of the high court. Identified as the Nandas, the Lgigi's presence in the court of Meru proves that monkshood was held in high position in the Meru societies through which they became the driving forces of the western civilization. Also proved, was the transition of the Meru's legacy into Buddhism later in the history of humanity. In Southeast Asia, the Arie-Monks were actually the remnants of the Lgigi (Notes: The Ari-monks).
The Decline of the Meru (Aryan) Culture
By the time that the Enuma Elish was compiled, Babylon already fell into the sway of the Kalayuga. Back to their powers, the Kuruvas would establish their own world-order to take control away from the Panduvas. Nevertheless, evidences show that they continued to distance themselves from the mainstream of the Meru Culture. According to the Enuma Elish, a New World order had been established under the leadership of their own trinity composing of the gods Anu, Enlil and Enki. Even then, evidences show that the degrading Moon culture was still carried on by the Akkadian courts without the guidance of the Moon God himself. Residing at Jerusalem, Meru was being betrayed by the Jewish Community themselves. Knowing that his legacy was fading, Meru was preparing for the final exit from Middle East. To do that, he needed the assistance of Marduk to help carrying on the transition. Giving the honor to start the ceremony, Meru offered Marduk his ceremonial blessing.
The gods all gazed and their heats were glad because of him (Marduk). Then Lahmu, Lahamu, and his forebears clasped him fondly. (EE: Tablet V: p. 34)
The Buddhist tradition recalled the event of the Choladhara naga king receiving the hand of a nagi princess and the throne of Jewel (a symbol of a cakravatin monarch) from the Mahadhara court. The consortium of the two naga powerhouses was confirmed in the Mahavamsa to be actually part of a plan to make the next Meru development possible. While the ocean Naga King Marduk invaded Tiamat (Assyria) to free Babylon from the Panduvas, Nebuchadnezzar led the Mountainous naga powerhouse to bring the Meru Culture east to the Gangetic India (The Nagadvipa: The Legacy of Nokor Phnom: The Tian-Tchou Dynasty). For the reward, Meru acknowledged to the Nandas (the Lgigi) the suzerainty of Marduk as their supreme ruler.
Lahmu and Lahamu paid their undivided homage to him (Marduk). They raised their voices to be heard, speaking to the Lgigi. Until now Marduk has only been our own cherished son, yet now he also stands as your monarch, obey him truly. (EE: Tablet V: p. 35)
In the statement, Meru made it clear that Marduk was of his lineage that explains why he had his support to carry on his next project. After the Meru's exit from Middle East to the east, the Hellenic Empire started to degenerate. Facing with the new rise of zoroastrianism, Babylon fell back into the Assyrian royal house of which Ishta got a new breach of power from the Eclipse God Ashura. Marduk then lost his supreme God 's credential and retreated himself back into Southeast Asia. We shall see his resurgence to take the important role in the next establishment of the Angkorean Empire (The Chola Dynasty: The Cholan Intrusion: The Reign of Jayavarman IV). At the mean time, some sources say that it was Hadis (Ellil in Sumerian, Osiris in Egyptian cosmogony) who rose up to take the role of the fire god Ashur.
The Creation of Men
Another credit that was associated to Marduk was the creation of men. From the request of the Anunnaki, Marduk decides to create men so they could off-load the tedious works of gods. He conveys to his father Ea of his plan on how to do it.
My thought is to create a primitive human, to be called Man. (EE: Tablet VI: p.38)
The word "Man" in association with the primitive human could be a reference to the earlier creation of human kind by Manu. In his earlier creation, gods and primitive (archaic) men did not have the same appearance, even though some men already have similar anatomy of a homo-sapien (Notes: The Physical Body of Gods vs Men). To solve the Anunnaki's problems, Ea was willing to make the physical body of archaic men in the same image of a god.
So thus I am well inclined to give rise to primal humanity and the works which is now done by the gods he will do, so that the gods will not be required to labor for everyone. (EE: Tablet VI: p.38)
It was from then on that all homo-erectus species started to extinct giving way to the only one specie of men, the homo-sapien. The account appears to indicate that a specific proceeding to make a new man was used by combining the flesh and blood of a god with that of archaic men. Kingu was sentenced and after he was killed, Ea used his blood to make humankind. The account is however sketchy to draw any detail information of the proceeding, but was consistent with other men creation myths from other sources. Even though they were very much similar, the difference in their themes is clear enough to convince us that they were separate events. We conclude that in the history of humanity, the creation of men did occur by the combination of super natural and natural proceedings, in many occasions and for many purposes. The Atrahasi and the Enuma Elish conveys that even outside of the Meru' s mainstream development, men were created for the glory of gods mainly to help carrying on their work loads. In the Hindu tradition, Vishnu is consecrated as the god of maintenance (of humanity) and under the god Asura, men were in addition created to worship gods that became the main theme of the Abrahamic religious practices. Historically, the creation of men by Marduk was actually carried on by the Greek godheads Poseidon (the Ocean Naga king in Buddhist tradition) during the expansion of the Greek development that resulted in spreading of the western culture over Europe and the rest of the globe.
- EE: Enuma Elish: The Babylonian Creation Epic, by Timothy J . Stephany
- EEWiki: Enűma Eliš, Wikipedia
1810-1300 BC: Shang or Yin dynasty; 1200-800 BC: Greek Dark Ages; 1046-771 BC: Western Tchou dynasty; 1000-1BC: Dong-Son Culture; 771-221 BC: Eastern Tchou Dynasty; 883-859 BC: the reign of Ashurnasirpal II
- The Start of the Epic Story
Dating the epic story to no later than the Kassite era (between 18th to 16th centuries BCE) is consistent with the start of the Kalayuga of which the epic started. Nevertheles, the story was not completed until it was compiled during the Ashurbanipal' s reign that was dated to the 7th century BCE.
- Meru's Godhead
During the formation of the first dynasty of Egypt, the founder Nrmer (Lahmu) and his son Aha (Lahamu) were living as human being. After that, they became the godhead of the Sumerian pantheon and existed in spiritual form (Holy Ghost). Their appearance in the royal palace of Ur or any-where else in Middle East are attested in the Christian Bible 's book of Genesis, to be in spiritual form.
- The Etymology of the Word Anunnaki
Scholars agreed that the word Anunnaki (Anu-Na-ki) meant to be From heaven (An) to earth (Ki). It meant to be the officers of the court of Anu. In eastern tradition, they were mentioned of tall stature and of physical strength as a lion. Genetically they were the Kambojas who had a link with the race of giants. In western tradition, they became actually the second generation of rulers and were seen as gods.
- The Ari-monks
Called themselves Aryavamsa, the Ari-monks were actually descended from the Aryan Brahmans who compiled the earlier Vedas, including the Rig-Vedas, to constitute the base of the Hindu Culture. Of half Brahmans and half Buddhist Monks, they carried on the Meru legacy of the Lgigi of the Sumerian pantheon of Babylon.
- The Physical Body of Gods vs Men
The difference between the Homo sapiens and homo-erectus physiology is mostly about their skull shapes in a close connection with their brains. While Homo-sapiens were made to suit God's spirituality, homo-erectus or archaic human were made to suit normal human's spirituality.