Author: Lem Chuck Moth
Started date: March/01/2005
Last updated: December/30/2017
All right reserved.
Since this paper is still drafted, the readers would be advised to ignore any context errors. The content is not final and subjected to be reviewed.
Through the open sea and land route, Arab merchants paved the way for aristocratic classes to move into Southeast Asia. At the high of the intercontinental commercial activities, Southeast Asia became the meeting place of Middle Eastern migrants, not at the population stratum but at the ruling class as a whole. Apparently, they came in different phases and were of different backgrounds but always had the same objective in mind that was looking for opportunity to build their own venture. To achieve their goal, they were not afraid to use any mean available to shake off the local leadership. After making their ways into Southeast Asia, they started to exert their influence in the local politic that resulted in the next political unrest of the Kamara World. One of the earliest comers was king Hun-Tien who, according to Chinese sources, subdued the local queen Ye-Lieou and founded the Funan Empire. More disturbances were on the way and this time it was happening right in the court of Funan. Starting from the plot of king Hun Pang Huong against the rightful heir who was the son of king Hun-Tien and the native queen Ye-Lieou, the dynastic fight continued. With more Sakan intrusion, we see split among members of the Funan court into two antagonist factions. The fighting was mostly concerning about the supremacy between the grass root Kamara leadership led by King Fan Che Man and the new arrived Sakan migrants led by king Fan Chan. By the late third century, we know from Chinese sources that the descendants of king Hun-Tien and the queen Ye-Lieou lost all their political standing as ruler.
His descendants became weaken, and their prosperity ceased to rule. The general Fan Sium started a lineage that inherited of the Funan kings.
(BEFEO III: Le Funan, Paul Pelliot, p. 254)
The rise of the new dynasty founded by the general Fan Hsun and the end of the original lineage of king Hun-Tien were seen as closely connected to the rise of the Cham aristocrats in the politic of Southeast Asia.
The Cham Identity
In Gangetic India, the Nandas lost the fight and the Sakas moved along the Ganges Valley to settle in communities called Saka Satraps. One of them was named Champavati and became a city of the ancient naga ream of Kalyani. The Sakan migrants who took shelter at Champavati became known as the Chams (Notes: The Cham Satraps or Villages). Driven out by internal crisis, they arrived at Southeast Asia to form their own communities on the ground of local tribesmen (The Sakadvipa: The Race of Giant: The Giants and the Magicians). As indicated in the Cham Cosmogony of Po-Nokor (NCham: La Chronique de Po-Nokor: pp. 339-345), the effect of the next Cham movement is much more extensive than previously perceived. The map of Ptolemy confirms that in the second century, the capital of Kamboja desa was named Zabag and was located at northwest of Prey-Nokor (HCamb: Le Funan: P 21-22). Zabag was meant to be a Greek reference to Champapura or more precisely the city of the Cham kings (Notes: Zabeg or Champapura). After Funan was formed by the Kambujan king Hun-Tien, we notice the influx of Cham Aristocrats from the Sakan countries to settle in Southeast Asia. Like their Kambojan counterpart, they were the same Central Asian stock of physically taller that should not be confused with Southeast Asian natives. On the same note, it is important to differentiate Champapura (the city of the Chams) from Lin-Yi (Prey-Nokor) since they were not the same country as commonly misrepresented by scholars. As a matter of fact, we shall see that Champapura (Tchou-Po in Chinese source) was not formed at Prey-Nokor but at Koh-Thom (near Phnom Penh) of today. Before the advent of the Han taking hold of Southern China, we had argued that Prey-Nokor and the whole of Southeast Asia was part of the Hiong-Wang kingdom and was inhabited and administered by the Kun-Lun (Khmer-Mon) people. Politically, there were fine lines separating the Cham leadership from the native court of Lin-Yi during their early foundation. While Champapura was receiving full support from the Han Dynasty of China, Lin-Yi was on the other hand fighting off both the Cham and the Han's control. Regrouped themselves at Pandaranga or Phang-rang, the native court of Prey-Nokor brought themselves up to become the next progenator of the Khmer empire (Prey-Nokor: The Fight for Independence: The Chu Lien's Uprising).
THE COSMOGONY OF PO-NOKOR
The chronicle of Po-Nokor was by far a valuable source, if not the only source, illustrating the expansion of the Cham world in the past. The chronicle starts by introducing the Cham divinities that played important role in the formation of Middle Eastern Meru Cakravatin Empire. The rest of the chronicle was dedicated more to the creation and how the Cham world was developed under the watch of the imminence Goddess Yang Po-Nokor. It is interesting to note that this western cosmogony credited Yang Po-Nokor as a goddess to take on the charge of the world affair, after the decline of the Meru Culture. The chronicle was by all means, the record of her latest exploit from her Middle Eastern headquarters over the eastern part of the world. Deciphering properly, the chronicle provides us with elaborate information about the rise of the Yueh-Shih in both China and the rest of the world.
The Rise of the Yueh-Shih
Supposedly derived from the Meru culture, the Yueh-Shih culture had been subjected to a new development under the Goddess Po-Nokor whom we shall identify as no other than a spiritual representation of the Queen of the west. The Ta-Yueh-Shih had expanded from Central Asia into India where it was known as the Cham. Bringing along the latest of Middle Eastern development, they were actually the promoter of Zoroastrianism into Indian societies and added more complexity to the Indian religious believes (Notes: The Indian Religious Believes). Through Yang Po-Nokor, three nations were created with the help of her beloved son Adam.
Po-Nokor exhaled and created the lightning Po Yang Amo exhaled into the sacred conch and created the Banis, the Cham, and the Annamete. (NCham: La Chronique de Po-Nokor: p. 340)
Po Yang Amo is a Cham reference to Adam. Through him the Cham Banis and the Annamete nations came into existence. As we shall see, the legacy of the Cham aristocratic societies was a global development and was not restricted to Southeast Asia only. But first, the chronicle comments on the assignment of two distinct kingdoms to each one of the two divinities who were supposedly descended from her and her consort Meru himself.
Po Uvlvah duplicated himself into Po Avahuk to rule the Chams while he himself went to establish the kingdom of Java. Po Debata Svor duplicated himself also as a terrestrial king and he himself went to establish the kingdom of China. (NCham: La Chronique de Po-Nokor: p. 341)
Po Deba Ta-Svor was a Cham reference to the Hindu God Deva Ta Isvara, an incarnation or a descendant of Maha-Meru in the lineage of king MahaSamanta. In the Greek mythology he was known as Poseidon who, like Meruduk in the Sumerian cosmogony, was known to be the creator of the Ocean Draconian (Naga) Culture to spread all around the world. Historically, the event happened during the high expansion of the Archamenic Empire (550-330 BC) and the decline of the Kambujan establishment in Parthia. At the time that they formed Champavati, the Yueh-Shih communities already started to spread themselves into the Chinese continent. As we shall see, the foundation of the Han China and Annam were closely related to the rise of the Yueh-Shih in Quangzu of Central Asia. Derived from the word Yueshi (Lunar eclipse), the Yueh (in short for Yueh-Shih) culture owed its conception to the Moon (Yue) Culture, but along the way became eclipsed by the Rashu God and degenerated. The identity confusion arose when the short form Yueh of Yueh-Shih was thought to be the same as Yue (meaning Moon), instead of Yueshi (meaning Lunar Eclipse). The Yueh' s legend of the Dragon king Lord Lac might shed light to the shared background of the Vietnamese and the Han rulers on how it was formed. According to the legend, the Dragon King came from the southern sea and consorted with the queen Au-Co to rule over the World. The Dragon King then departed to his southern realm, leaving his consort and half of his offspring to rule the Chinese continent. This Cham development is echoed by the tradition of the Muong, the only ethnic minority of North Vietnam that was culturally close related to the Kinh people of Annam about the creation of men (Notes: The Muong' s Tradition of Men Creation). The Yueh were known in the traditions of the Khmer-Mon tribes as the Chuongs and were famous for their magical art and their vagabond life-style. Their ways of life earned them the reputation of barbarians from their Chinese peers as well as from the natives of Southeast Asia. According to the Vietnamese tradition, the Dragon king Lac Lord brought another half of his offspring to the south. They were actually members of the Ta-Yueh-Shih royal houses who, through their venturing in the southern ream, became known as the Cham Aristocrats. They were joined by king Ajiraja to take control of the southern part of Southeast Asia as shown in the world map (of Ptoplemy) as the Cham kingdom of Jabeg. Closely related to their Central Asian Yueh-Shih counterpart, the Cham aristocrats were born to be merchant and warrior at the same time (Notes: The Cham Aristocrats). If they were not fighting in a battlefield, they busied themselves collecting wealth at the market places. The legacies remained when they moved into Southeast Asia where they settled in small satraps along the Mekong River. In northern Lao countries where the Cham legacies had been already established with the presence of the Yueh leadership among the Lao tribesmen, the "Chao-Fa" could have his status elevated up to a king (Notes: The Etymology of the Word "Chao-Fa"). We shall see that the Cham legacies stayed on after the formation of the Khmer empire at Prey-Nokor by the Indian prince Kaundinya (Prey-Nokor: The Indian Arrival: The leftover Cham Legacies). After the Cham kings were ousted, the Cham's Chao-Fas were left to govern local communities under the Khmer control. The Khmer word Chao-way (Chao-Fay) meaning boss or chief that is a derivative of the word "Chao-Fa" was used since to predicate the governor's title of a city or a province, but (at the time) never a kingdom.
The Development of the Han China
Known as the bamboo plantation, the Han policy of expansion was very effective on extending their frontier on the ground of the natives. Once the bamboo is planted, it spreading leaves no ground for other indigenous plants to survive. By extending the Saka world over China to be ruled by the Naga Po Debata Svor, the Cham Cosmogony implicates that the Han rulers were of Saka stock. One way to check it out is to trace back the origin of the Kushan that left its mark in the world history at the first century by invading the Gangetic India. We knew from modern history that they were driven out from their eastern homeland and founded their dominion at northwestern part of India, assumably at the expense of the Kamboja. Their actual homeland and their origin were however obscure. In correlation with the Cham Cosmogony, the Tibetain tradition tells us that they were in fact, a faction of the Kamboja themselves who in the verge of the formation of the new Chinese history, were known as the Yueh-Shih.
What may have been a crucial formative influence on the proto-Tibetans was the migration of the people known in Chinese source as Hsiao Yueh-Shih, a branch of the Yueh-Shih. Defeated by the Hsiung-Nu in the second century BC, the Ta-Yueh-Shih migrated to Bactria and is identified as the Tokharians. Those among who were unable to make the trip moved instead in the Nan-Shan area, were they mixed with the Xiang tribesmen, and became like them in custom and language. (TECA: Before the Empire)
The statement that Ta Yueh-Shih was defeated by the Hsiung-Nu might have been overstated. It could be as well that the Hiong-Nu was just a new generation of Ta-Yueh-Shih and that their expansion toward the west resulted in the Yueh-Shih taking hold of Parthia. According to the Tibetain Tradition, the Chao Yueh-Shih made their migration south and settled among the Tian tribesmen. At first, they were at peace with the Indigenous Kun-lun people, but in no time started to be more aggressive toward them. Through trick and ruse, they wrested the control of the village headmen position from the local people. That was just the start. As we shall see later, the next movement of both the Ta and Chao Yueh-Shih are much broader and sinister than that. In China, a faction of Ta-Yueh-Shih was seen emerging to defeat the Quin dynasty and formed the next Han Dynasty of China. On the same development, the Chao Yueh-Shih moved south to replace the native rulers of the Tsu State (Prey-Nokor: The Fall of the Hiong-Wang Kingdom: The Remnant of the Tsu Dynasty). Their presence in the Tsu country resulted in the apparition of the Nan-Yueh and the one hundred Yueh communities in the southern part of China. Taking hold of China, the Han adopted Confucianism to become the backbone of the Chinese administrative system according to a centralized state' s bureaucracy (Notes: Confucianism' s conception). During its apogee, the Han controlled the Silk roads to the eastern tip of Parthia of the Kambojan Empire. This expansion that was typical of the Han Culture, would not let rivalry to stand in their way and Parthia was their next target. The conquest of the Kushan over Parthia opened the silk-road all the way from China to Middle East. Apparently the Han had achieved their goal of commercial engaging with the Western Ta-Tsin without going through Parthia as a middle agent (Notes: The Western Ta-Tsin). As anything else beside the Hans were considered inferior, they justified themselves to conquer the world for the greatness of their race. The feeling had been transplanted in many other parts of the world contributing to later worldwide crises in many occurrences. In the south, the eviction of the Kamara court from Jinnan along with the control of Kiao-Tche was not a coincidence. It was part of a worldwide Cham development that was carried through by the Han dynasty. The global arrangement would set China of the Han dynasty a step closer to its goal as the center of the world if they had not been subjected to the same life-cycle rule of the law of karma. As the old saying says, what goes up must come down, the next phase of the Sakan development was concerning about its divergence. According to the Cham Cosmology, the Sakan world soon lost its supremacy and started to diverge through the world of men.
The Chinese followed the Chinese, The Javanese followed the Javanese and the Chams followed the Chams.
They stopped understand each other, meaning that the Han Sakas of China became Chinese, the Javanese Sakas became Javanese and the Cham Sakas became the Cham Aristocratic themselves. The decline of the Sakas (of Yin energy) confirmed the Yin-Yang cosmic cycle. Just as it was about to succumb completely, the Yang of the Kamara World was back into the limelight.
The Cham Banis and the Southern Spread of Austronesian Language
Since its early history, Indonesia was connected with the Cham's World more than any other part of Southeast Asia. In the Cham cosmogony, it is said that Po Yang Amo or Adam created the Cham Banis who were identified as the Autronesian stocks of Indonesia. It is consistent with the fact that the southern islands of the Malay Archipelago were part of Sri Kambu's kingdom known as Kambuja desa. In the chronicle, it is said that Po Uvlvah duplicated himself into Po Avahuk to rule the Chams and under the intervention of Po-Nokor herself, went to establish the kingdom of Java. It is important not to be confused of the new Indonesian people and the ancient austronesian tribesmen of the south as they were totally of different culture and life-style. As recounted by the Rhade tribesmen, the austronesians shared with their Chinese peers the same northern tradition of the deep past. One of their claims seams to support Darwin's law of evolution (Prehistory: The Flood Culture: The Fish People and the Journey back to the Sea). Despite this long recollection, the austronesians tribesmen appeared to be different in both cultural background and life-style than their Chinese peers of the north. Of their northern environment, the Austronesian should never have any sea's contacts before the great flood. Their navigation skill using small boats might have been learned from the Malay people and was not elaborate enough to allow them to go farther off the mainland. While some of them managed to go down into southern islands, others stayed on the mainland the same way that the Rhade had to settle at the Darlac Plateau. Our finding shows that after the flood, the Austronesians had passed through the mainland Indochina before they moved on to the sea (Notes: Austronesian Sea Venturing). Some stayed behind as legacies were still found scarcely at the footstep of Himalayass and to the eastern hills of the mainland Indochina. Their flood legacies stayed on and could be easily traced by their communities of multiple family units living in the long houses that stayed until modern days. Others who ventured out of the mainland did not go far as scholars once mis-associated them to the seafarer Polynesians. No evidences show that this prehistoric austronesian migrating south did cause the modern spread of the southern Austronesian Sea People in a wide spread as the polynesians. Due to their lack of knowledge and mean to explore the sea, they did mostly settle close to the mainland (Prehistory: The Flood Culture: The Fish People and the Journey back to the Sea). Being not tonal like other Chinese dialects of the Mainland China, the austronesian language was apparently not native to them. From there we conclude that the southern Austronesian tribesmen had been in contact with the Malay People from whom they learned the art of navigation and their language. As a consequence, they should not be treated as the ancestors of modern Indonesians and other islanders of the Southern Sea who were proved to be more or less related to the Tian People (The Nagadvipa: The Naga' s Mythology: The Tian Culture). On the same token, we shall argue that neither the Malay nor the Austronesian Language was related in any way with the Han Chinese Language. During the Han's Nam-Tian' s campaign to form Annam, mass movement of the Annamete people from Central China had been organized to populate the southern part of China that was wrested from the Kun-Lun people. One might argue that the Hans extended the mass Chinese migration during the development of southern China (as in the case of Annam) down to the southern sea with the accommodation of the seafarer Kambu Naga King. The argument seams to support the linguistic theory of austronesian spread to the southern sea from Southern China (through Taiwan). Nevertheless, we shall see that the Annamete development did not occur beyond the southern part of Chinese continent and that the extending of the Cham World down to the Southern Sea People was done instead by the Ta-Yueh-Shih. In a correlation with the cosmogony of Po-Nokor, the spread of the Autronesian Language must to be done the same way (Notes: The Spread of Southern Autronesian Language). The Javanese tradition recalled next the arrival of the Cham king Ajisaka from abroad whose trip to Southeast Asia resulted in the emergence of Cham leadership in the politic of Southeast Asia. A storm forced his ships to land at Mataram where he settled down with his crew. He was quoted to leave his country from the seaport of Gujarat in a destination to the east. Some sources say that it was a leisure trip, others say that it was an escape from a foreign attack (perhaps during the assault of Alexander the Great over Mesopotamia). Whatever the cause, the arrival of king Ajisaka contributed to the next revolution of the regional culture alongside the economic progression of the sea trade. At first, he was credited to bring the Kawi scripture (known also as the Cham scripture) into Southeast Asia to enrich the local culture along side the Kambujan legacy of King Hun-Tien.
THE FORMATION OF CHAMPAPURA
Starting from the usurpation by Seth, the Middle Eastern Cakravati incurred change. The return of Osiris under the divinity of the Sun God Horus created a new dynamic of Middle Eastern religious system. Conceived at the Gangetic India, the Vishnuite folklore was actually the epic tale of the Chola Dynasty. As another event was unfolding at the other side of the Indian continent, Southeast Asia was deeply affected. Through king Kahamdeng and Sinhanati from Day Desa, the Kambojan and Yueh Shih courts already claimed the northern countries of Southeast Asia to be their own. The next foundation of Yueh-Tiao and Chan-Tcheng under the imperial Han Dynasty would change drastically the demography and politic of Southeast Asia. As we shall see, the arrival of the Cham king Ajiraja would lead to the formation of southern Cham communities (Poh-Nan in Chinese) that would be in the long-run challenging the authority of the Funan Empire.
The Spreading of the Cham Chao-Fas
On the southern part of Laos today, the people called themselves "Djourou". However, the Lao people of Vieng-Chan knew them as the "Loven" or "Boloven" people. The story behind the new identity was remembered as followed.
A Laotian Chief bought from the Djourou Chief the right over the suzerainty with the price of a boat and the Laotians took it as, thus the name given to the Djourou "La ven" meaning "he lost a boat". (ETIC: Boloven: p. 291)
The story, no matter how absurd it seams, reflects the true nature of the early relationship between the native tribesmen and the new Yueh leadership. The Laotian Chief in the passage was actually the Chao-Yueh-Shih who, in their early migration south had mixed in with the Xiang People and became like them. Known in the Khmer tradition as the Chuong, the Cham Chao-fas used tricks and ruses to promote themselves as headmen of the austroasiatic tribesmen. As portrayed in the story line, one of them gave a boat to the Djourou Chief in the deal to get the leadership of the Djourou tribes. It was an old political trick of bribery that was one of the Yueh trademarks among many other political manipulations that allowed the Yueh leadership to built their control on the ground of the native tribesmen. They took advantage of the political inept of their leaders to wrest the powers from them. It was how the Ngiev-Lao communities were formed as a whole on the ground of the Lua or Khmer-Mon tribesmen after the fall of the Hiong-Wang kingdom. On the same developments, other tribesmen that stayed unchanged at the isolated places, the Bahnars in particular, claimed that the Laotians were at the beginnings the same people as them before they moved down to the valley (ETIC: Bahnar: p. 305). It was Contrary to common belief that the Cham or Lao People of the mainland were formed from the Austronesian tribesmen. Of theirs central Asian life-style, the Chuongs had no interests in extending their venture into the isolated hilltop Austronesian Peoples. Like the Han rulers, the Cham Chao-Fas were more comfortable with the crowded communities of the Valleys where they can form market places and cities. Under the Cham Chao-Fas, the Boloven built their social establishment themselves between the Mekong and the Sekong Rivers to take important part in the new development of modern Lao people. Their tradition located them to be first at Viengtiane with the rest of the Kha tribesmen (ETIC: Boloven: p. 291). They are actually remnants of the indigenous tribesmen who were originally Khmer-Mon and were later became part of the Cham development. In their own recollection, the Boloven later moved south with other tribes under the Cham rulers.
In front were the Radeh and at the end were the Boloven. The latter, exhausted by the long march and catching all kind of diseases, could not passed the region that they settled down and established themselves until today. (ETIC: Boloven: p. 291)
The migration was due to the assault of the Kambojans over the settlement of the Chams at Viengtiane conducted by the giants of Mien Ta Tok (the Tokharian). It marked the end of the Cham control at Viengtiane and the expansion of the Kambojan Empire over Nan-Tiao. The Cham rulers settled down at Wat Phu and their settlement was known later as Champasaka. Under the Cham leadership, they were bilingual and adapted themselves to the Tai or Lao culture. Most speaks Laotian as the result of commercial relationship through the Mekong River. Their current life style is now very close to the Laotians from whom they borrowed many customs: dress of Sampot, hair cut etc. However their societies still retained their own structure dated back since the Kamara era of the Hiong-Wang kingdom.
The villages have no relying administration between them. The Chao muong of Saravane and of Khan-thong-gnai represented the superior authority. The groups of population are administrated for the affairs of municipality or simple policing, by the chiefs of the following hierarchy: Kagnong loung, Kagnong ao, Kagnong Louk, Kagnoung muong, Kagnon lan, small villages have only magistrats of inferior order. The dignities were hereditary. (ETIC: Boloven: pp. 291-292)
This organization which differed from the Lao communities of today and resembled more to other Khmer-Mon communities of the eastern hill tribes, reflects the organization of the Khmer-Mon's Culture of the great flood. Each village has its own autonomy and is connected to a higher authority in a hierarchy ranking according to its size and obviously its political and economical standing.
The Legend of Ajiraja and his Settlement at Nokor Kauk Tloak
Both Javenese and Khmer sources recall the story of a Middle Eastern king named Ajiraja, along with his complete court to make his way to Southeast Asia. It is not clear that he had any connections with Champavati of the Gangetic India, but Khmer tradition refers his descendants also as the Cham kings. From the fact that he secured himself with a big entourage during the voyage, he must to have well established royal status and was a king of an abroad kingdom. That was mentioned clearly in the Khmer chronicle.
There was a great king (mahaksatryia) with the name of Ajiraja, along with officials and subjects of 5,000 persons, boarded ships from his kingdom toward the high sea. Arriving at the middle of ocean, a storm carried the ships aground near the Dangrek Mountain and the ships sunk at the coast of the Great Kingdom (Maha Nokor), on the footstep of the Dangrek range. (RPNK: king Ajiraja)
His original homeland was not however specified and neither was his background. Nevertheless, indications show that he belonged to the Yueh-Shih court of Parthia (Notes: The Background of King Ajiraja). By naming analogy, it is clear that Ajiraja and Ajisaka (of the Javanese source) was the same person and that Ajiraj (Aji-Raja) was referring to Aji the king while Ajisaka (Aji-Saka) referred to Aji of Saka stock. This proposition is supported by the fact that the sea route from India to South East Asia had to pass through the islands of Indonesia. Javanese sources also hint that Ajisaka left his kingdom at Gujarat that agrees to the fact that Mesopotamia as well as the Indus Valley was by the time, under the Elamese Empire. The event recounted in the Khmer source appeared more like a combined events, composing of the sea voyage which landed Ajiraja and his crew at Mataram coast after the storm accident, and the moving north along the Malay peninsular to the tip of Dangrek Mountain where they settled permanently.
Unable to go back home, they settled at the coastal region near the island of Kauk Tloak. That was called Nokor Kauk Tloak. The king Ajiraja then had a son named KravarlTishraja. After the death of king Ajiraja, KravarlTishraja took over his father's kingdom and, fulfilling his father wish, created a long line of descendants ever since. (RPNK: king Ajiraja)
The passage mentions that they settled near the island of Kauk Tloak on a coastal region that became later as Koh-Thom. Khmer tradition later places the island near Angkorpuri in the province of Takeo today. By then, the surrounding of the island was very much submerged and according to the Chinese source, the displaced Kun-Lun people already settled themselves on a group of islands located in the southern part of Cambodia today. They were known as the Small Kun-Lun kingdom that was formed under the displaced Hiong-Wang court of Prey-Nokor. It is interesting to note that the passage mentions about the existence of the Great Kingdom (Maha Nokor) or Mahidhara of the Sri Vijayan community, prior to the arrival of Ajiraja. To recall back, Maha Nokor was then formed by the exile Sri Vijayan court and Angkorpuri could have been their capital at the time. His arrival that was dated after the trip of Buddha Gautama to Suvannabhumy could also be chronologically dated after the formation of Funan by king Hun-Tien. Remnants of Cham settlements could be checked out along the Mekong River from the Khorat plateau down the Mekong delta of South Vietnam. The lower part of the Mekong River was still retaining its name as the Basaka (Ba-Saka) River, named after the Saka settlement along its shore. Extending up north to the Dangrek Mountain range into the Khorat plateau, Needless to say, the Cham settlement would clash with the Kambojan leadership of Maha Nokor that was already anchored among the Kamara societies. Their rivalry were carried on cross-continentally from Central Asia, through the Gangetic India, and finally to Southeast Asia. Their animosity toward each other and their feuds were the primary catalyst in shaping up the dynamic historical events of Southeast Asia until modern days. While the Cham King Ajiraja was building Cham Communities along the Mekong River, we had seen that a faction of the Cham court used trick and ruse to bring down the Kamboj legacy of King Hun-Tien and took the throne upon themselves (Notes: The Cham Communities in Cambodia). One of the major contributions of the Sakas in the development of the new Southeast Asia was the sea trade. They came by ships and brought along the shipbuilding technology that revolutionize the sea venture of the New World. In conjunction with the primitive naga people who already mastered the art of sea navigation, they sprung immediately to become the maritime power of the region. From here on, concrete evidence of sea trading passing through the Malay Archipelago can be checked out by the existence of the seaport Oc-Ev at the southern tip of the mainland Indochina.
The Cham City of Champapura
As in Gangetic India, the Chams settled down in small communities called Satraps or villages that along the way grew into becoming either cities or market places. Their settlement spread from the Delta region up to the Khorat plateau where they left legacies of their strong presence behind. Their concentration at What Phu was noticeable to be known as Champasaka. Along the way, a place called Kampong Cham (Port of the Chams) received and retained its name until today for it was one of their major ports of the time. After they moved, there are hardly any other legacies or concrete vestiges left to be uncovered in those places. This was due in part to the fact that they were forced to move constantly and left no information behind. In Chinese texts, the first reference to Champapura was Tchou-Po that was often mentioned in close connection with Funan (BEFEO III:Le Funan, Paul Pelliot P. 264).
At the east of Funan, in the immense sea there is a big island. On the island there is the kingdom of Tchou-Po. At the east of that kingdom, there is Ma Wou Tcheou.
On the fact that Tchou-Po was mentioned as a kingdom situated on a big island, scholars mistook it as the island of Java. Nevertheless, we shall see that Java and Champa were both inheriting the Saka legacies and were about to share a very close history a few centuries later. The Chinese texts in some specific cases use the same reference to both countries. They were known to the Arab world by the name of their city as Zabag and their kings having the title of Maharaja. Back to our Chinese text, the passage clearly indicates that Tchou-Po was located at the east of Funan and judging from the description, it was located around the southern branches of the Mekong River which was originally part of the Funan Empire. Because of the low altitude, the southeastern part of Cambodia was partly submerged and a number of islands were there to form later the Mekong Delta. The two branches of the Mekong River received and retained their name as Basak (Ba-saka) Rivers. Tchou-Po was mentioned to be on a big island located at a region that still retains its name as Koh-Thom (the Big Island) of the Kandal province in Cambodia today. It is important to note that these Cham aristocrats came as court members of King Ajisaka and were not agriculturist as the Khmer-Mon people. Living among the latter, they earned their living mostly from commercial or business activities besides animal husbandry and fishing. Either driven out by hostility or moving to find better market place, their ventures dictate to them at first a nomadic life-style. Nevertheless, evidences show that they gradually adopted the Khmer-Mon Culture and transformed themselves into becoming the aristocratic Khmer-Mon people. Local tradition had plenty to say about the class of wealthy families, called sethi, who established their wealth through land-ownership as well as intertribal trading. Their social well off status enabled them to launch political maneuvers that would secure their aristocratic standing among the locals (Chenla: The Chenla Brotherhood: The formation of the Chenla court). Their power were mainly due to their ability to control of the economy and their achievement enabled them to move up further in the new societies and secured them the status of the wealthy class. Rather then building-up their politic from supports of the local people, the Chams at first inserted their influence on corrupted officials through the back door policy. While their peers at the northern side of Indochina, the Saka immigrants of the southern part were experiencing more constraints in their environment among the less civilized southern tribesmen. Their development was slow but nevertheless progressive. They relied on new arrival of more Sakas to support their ventures and founded themselves communities of the Saka legacy. Their communities (formed on the ground of austroasiatic tribes) underwent changes and did not retain much of the Central Asian legacy. Unlike the Khmer kings who left score of vestiges about their Sivaite and Buddhist practices behind, the Cham aristocrats virtually left no traces of their settlement, but a substantial strong cultural (of both good and bad) heritage to the natives. Adding into the list of their contribution, the Kawi scripture survived in ancient Java texts until replaced by the modern Muslim (Arab) scripture (Notes: The Kawi scripture). Having been involved themselves with the Hindu cultural development of South India for a long time, the Cham aristocrats were responsible for the more Indianized Java than any other part of Southeast Asia. Out from the reach of China, they were developed into Hindu societies and carried on the South Indian lifestyle. The remnant of such society is still found in the island of Bali of today.
THE BIRTH OF ANNAM
Through out ancient Chinese exploit, the Han was the first dynasty to become conscious with territory expansion. Under Tartarization, the Han brought the western notion of race and nationality to the oriental world. After displacing the Kamara people of southern China, the Han built Annam by settling migrants from Central China to occupy the fertile land wrested from the Kun-Lun people and the migrant Yueh from Central Asia to administrate the new country. At the same time, the Han prepared the western part of Prey-Nokor into becoming a vassal state of China with the help of the Cham royal houses. The advent of the Coladara uprising brought the Han southwestern development to an end and prompted the Han to build Annam as a Chinese military command post to guard against any Kamara's attempt to claim back its past's hereditary.
The Yueh Migration down South
During the conflict between the Mountainous and the Ocean naga spirits however, Yueh (of both Ta-Yueh-Shih and Chao-Yueh-Shih) migration down south under the divine manifestation of Po-Nokor. Of aristocratic background, the Ta-Yueh-Shih were mostly of Middle Eastern origin speaking Indo-Aryan tongue (Notes: The Cham Aristocrats). On the other hand, the Chao-Yueh-Shih were actually Central Asian stock of Sino-Tibetain tongue and received the Yueshi Culture from the Ta-Yueh-Shih. Of their root at Gang-su of Central Asia, the Chao-Yueh-Shih were born to be merchant and warrior at the same time. If they were not fighting in a battlefield, they busied themselves collecting wealth at the market places. The legacies remained when they moved into Southeast Asia where they settled iamong the Xiang or Lao tribesmen to form small satraps along the Mekong River. The word "Chao" is a Khmer word meaning grand-son, when used in conjunction with the word "fa" (Prah or God in Khmer), the Tai word "Chao Fa" means the Grand-son of God, a title that was commonly assigned to the Yueh or Sakan king. Yueh-Tiao was actually referring to the stronghold of the Yueh Chao-fas who, through the development of the Quin and later the Han Dynasty settled themselves at the south and met with their Cham leadership of Ta-Yue-Shih from India. This mixture gave rise to the identity confusion with the Yue (Moon) Culture of the late Xianf tribesmen implanted upon them by the Tchou Dynasty. The problem was due to the Chinese word "Yue" or Yueh was used in referring specifically to word Yushi (the Lunar-Eclipse) culture of Central Asia. Originally originated at Egypt, the culture was specifically associated with the nomad Gypsy communities. The Yueh people were known in many traditions of the Khmer-Mon tribes as the Chuongs and were admired mostly for their magical tricks and the use of ruse in the daily business endeavor. Their vagabond life-style earned them the reputation of barbarians from their Chinese peers as well as from the natives of Southeast Asia. Their southern move gave way to mass migration theories that were going to affect both modern histories of Southeast Asia and China. Some scholars argue that this massive Yueh migration from Central Asia could never been taking place in recent time. The skepticism was based partly on the wrong assumption that indecent people such as the Chao-Yueh-Shih could pass through the sophisticate Han people without any incidence. Even though reasonable, the assumption was faulty due to the attribution of the Han identity as the same of Chinese people and not to their leadership of Yueh background. As we had argued, the Han rulers were originated from the same big Yueh family of Ta-Yueh-Shih. As early as they were in control of China, they encouraged the Chao-Yueh-Shihs to join in the southern development. Unlike the Quin, the Han emperors were much more ambitious about forming China into becoming the country of the Han Chinese. Through Confucianism, they were the first Dynasty to use a centralized system of governing to rule China. A closer study would reveal that the Han campaign was conducted in many phases and was done according to the geographic setting of the country. At the southeastern part of China, evidences show that the implantation of Chinese migrants from Central China took place after displacing the Tian or the Kun-Lun communities from the southern coastal part of China. The re-population was conducted immediately by coordinating mass migration of Central Chinese (Annametes), along with the establishment of the Yueh aristocrats from Central Asia to take on the administration and commercial activities of the region. Mass migration of the Nung and other Yueh people were organized (as part of the Han's Nam-Tian project) to complete the process (Prey-Nokor: The Fall of the Hiong-Wang Kingdom: The Displacement of the Kun-Lun People). When the Quin dynasty retook the control of China in 220 AD, the Nam-Tian campaign had been put to a stop under Chinese decentralized government. Nevertheless, the Cinicization of southern China had already been completed. On the same token, the goddess of Po-Nokor already accomplished her mission of laying the ground-work for her next development, which was the spread of Islam to the east (The Lanna State: The Ming's connection: Yunnan as a Province of China). On the other hand, Yunnan and the southwestern part of China was spared from the Han development simply because it was rewarded to the Miens by helping the Han Emperor from a bad situation. The Han emperor gave king Pan Huang the hand of a Chinese princess and the right to rule the western mountainous region of China allowing Yao communities to take on a dominant role in Yunnan until the Ming era.
The Implantation of the Chinese Familie at Xiang-lin
After taking control of Central China, the Han court targeted the Tians. They started the policy of expanding their territory southward and Kiao-Wang was brought into their control. The conquered Kiao-Wang became Kiao-Tche and the Cinisized Annam was formed to be its central command post. On most archeology sites in northern Vietnam, the Dong-Son graves now gave way to the Chinese tombs indicating an influx of Chinese migrants into the region, done gradually through implanting Chinese families (Notes: Tomb vs boat shape coffin Burial). One example of such implantation that grew along the way into becoming Chinese communities, was the foundation of the Ma-Lieuo community at Xiang-lin by a Chinese general Ma-Yuan. As to its location, Chinese sources gave out some information below.
At the east it touches the blue sea; at the west it arrives at Siu-Lang; at the South it touches Funan; at the north, it is bordered by Kiou-To.
(FUNAN: P. 282)
The passage indicates that Xiang-lin was at the north of Funan. Indicatiing that Xiang-Lin itself was the site of Prey-Nokor (in Chinese Lin-Yi) during its early foundation. Another passage indicates that Siu-Lang was actually located at the high stream of the river Lin-Yi where the Siu-Lang or Lang-Houng tribesmen lived.
It is question about the tribesmen Siu-Lang or Lang-Houng who lived the high stream of the river Lin-Yi, after that the geography continues its description to the south: if we go further to the south, we arrive finally to Fu-Nan.
(FUNAN: P. 282)
These descriptions were obviously not very much helpful, since all references given to other location around Xiang-lin were mostly unidentifiable. However, closer study would allow us to identify that Lin-Yi was actually a native name of the Hion-Wang Kingdom (Prey-Nokor: The Kingdom of Hion-Wang). In that perspective, we know that Xiang-lin was located in Je-Nan where the ethnic Ma Chinese settlers later resided. This frontier city formed by the Hans, as we shall see, was very much disputed between Prey-Nokor and the Chinese province of Kiao-Tche. The Lin-Yi ki or notes on the Lin-Yi at the end of the fifth century recounted this border set-up between Annam and Lin-Yi (Malaka Le Malayu el Malayur: Les Ma-Lieuo des Han, Gabriel Ferrand).
At 43, a Chinese general Ma-Yuan installed 2 posts of bronze at the southern frontier of Xiang Lin to set the boundary between the Han country and Chih-Tou.
The Chih-Tou in the passage was referring the northern Siam Country (in close approximate of Xiang-Saen and Xiang-Mai) that extended itself to Laos today to share its northern frontier with Yunnan. The tribesmen Kiou-To in the passage must to be a general reference to a group of native tribesmen that was no other than the Djourou indigenous tribesmen of Laos today. As we had seen, their account about the Cham taking on their community leadership through mean of ruse (The Sakadvipa: The Race of Giant: The Giants and the Magicians) might have dated during the Han's control of Lin-Yi. After setting up the frontier with Chih-Tou he left behind ten Chinese families to guard the bronze posts that later multiplies and formed the Cinicized community of the ethnic Ma.
The people called themselves Ma-Lious, meaning people left behind by Ma-Yuan, but their new generations knew that they were the descendants of Chinese (sons and grandsons of the Han).
The Wen-hien-tong-kao, in the notice of Lin-Yi, provides the same information.
At the time of Sui (518-617), the ten families multiplies more then three hundred families; all having the family name of Ma. The indigenous gave them the surname of Ma-lieou-jen. The posts in bronze were destroyed. At the time of Tang they became the frontiers of the kingdom of Tang and the country of Lin-Yi.
The formation of the Chinese people of ethnic Ma is a typical example of other ethnic tribes of Chinese background. As family name plays important role in Chinese tradition, powerful families of the same family's name connected themselves to form societies that attracted other rural people to join in. As their societies grew bigger, the family name became the ethnic identification of the whole population and the core people who inherited the last name became the aristocrats and enjoyed all the privileges that a big society could offer. Unlike in Yunnan where implantation of Chinese people was down in a small scale and gradual, evidences show that the Chinese implantation of the eastern part of the Hiong-Wang Kingdom was done drastically with more or less Yueh infiltration. As the dispute with the native of Prey-Nokor grew, Annam was particularly formed in a haste to quiet down the southern rebels.
Annam as a Military Commanding Post of the Han
In Chinese history, the Han was considered as the preceptor of the true nationality of the Chinese people. In the formation of the unified China, the Han conducted a campaign to destroy the Hiong-Wang kingdom that started with the implantation of Yueh communities among the Kun-Lun tribesmen by the Han officials. In that situation, the foundation of of Annam as a whole consisted mainly the implantation of Chinese population down south. The same way that the Cinicized communities of ethnic Ma were formed, the communities of the ethnic Kinh grew from implanting Chinese families on the land wrested from the Kun-Lun people. Mostly of bad elements, the new population was brought to settle in the new lands and was protected by the Han army. Their particular life-style soon became nuisance to the locals and forced them to move away. The second phase of the Han project involved mass migration from Central China to complete the whole of the Chinese re-population. Evidences show that during its early phase, the cinicizations of Southern China were done more or less with existing Yueh infrastructure left by the Wu dynasty. Rebellions occurred that forced the Han to develop Han southern commanding post along with Han administration in the effort to contain the uprising. The Han general Ma-Yuan was commissioned to form Han armies in a haste for the establishment of order in the new country. His expedition brought a new class of immigrants from which he got all the human resources with warrior background as he needed among the migrating Yueh from the north.
His army included eight thousand men from northern China and twelve thousand militiamen from Kuang-Hsi and eastern Kuang-Tung.
(BViet: The Han-Viet era: The Great Han-Viet Families: P. 48-49)
These new recruits of Ma-Yuan were not educated men as the immigrants of the Wang-Mang era had been. Nevertheless, they were made into becoming the Han new power-elite to take on both administration and military function of the new Annamete country. Because of its strategic location as a frontier state with Indochina, the development of Annam was particularly accomplished through even more Yueh migrants than other Dai-Viet communities of Southern China. As many Yueh principalities appeared at the first time at the southern part of China, it is quite obvious that the emergence of the southern provinces of China under the name of "Hundred Yueh" was due to some sort of Yueh migration from the north. The Yueh migration theory was in fact true. As we had argued, Central China (or Annam) received its Yueh heritage from the Wu dynasty since at least the formation of the Hiong-Wang kingdom by the Tchou. But this past heritage could not be compared with the new Yueh development, brought upon them by the Han dynasty. Through mass migration, the Han founded the Yueh communities of the south to become part of Dai-Viet until modern days. The largest of them received the name as Nan-Yueh (Southern Yueh) and was centered on the mouth of the Hsi River in the vicinity of modern Canton. The second Yueh settlement in size was Min Yueh in Fu-chien. It is important to note that during all this time, the Kun-Lun or the Tian whole community had already heading south leaving this southern China to the Yueh migrants. The new comers were then recruited at first as paid soldiers, but along the time became state officials of the Han government.
Their interest in Han culture and their loyalty to the Han authority was maintained by opportunities to serve as middle-and low-level officials of Han government, especially in police and military affairs.
Annam soon became an active seaport even to top over the Chinese port of Quangtong. By sea route, merchandises from all over China that were transported to the west, the same way as merchandises transported from the west to China, had to pass through Annam. This successful sea-trade might be due in part to the Red River transportation that played important role as the sea route extension inland. Other Yueh of higher status also migrated into the south, this time it was for another reason. It was the get-rich-quick made possible by the international sea trade that motivated the Yueh aristocrats to move south. After crushing all local rebels, the Han completed the transformation of the eastern part of the Hiong-Wang kingdom as the southern part of China.
THE IMPACT ON THE TIAN LEGACY
After the birth of Meru and his subsequent marriage with the queen of the west, the Meru Culture gave birth to three offsprings that were going to revolutionize the world of men. While the Khek, the Khan and the Po Vamsa took turn to establish their own supremacy, the Meru Culture started to retract itself to its birthplace. At the same time, the youngest of the three siblings Po Vamsa took the lime light as the true ruler of the remaining Kalayuga. As its name implies, Po Vamsa started its odyssey as a dynasty from the union of the Ocean Naga King and the new queen of the west. In its latest development, the Po Vamsa (Po Dynasty) clashed itself head-on with the Southeast Asian home-ground dynasties, the Xiang and the Nanda that marked the last occurrence of the men's culture with that of the Man.
The Impact on the Moon Culture
Better known as the lunar eclipse, The Yueh-Shis (Yushi in Chinese) worldwide development was actually a close caption of the dark side of the Moon Culture. As we had argue, the Meru or Moon Culture was the second generation of the Man Culture that started its debut at the footstep of mount Himalayas after the Great Flood. It took many centuries later for the floodwater to subside and Southeast Asia to become habitable for the flood survivors to move in (Prehistory: Notes: The Cause of the Flood). At the mean time, evidences show that the development of humanity already started at the Tian Shan Range where high attitude kept it out from the flood's reach. It was there that the Man Culture started to spread itself around the world. Following the footstep of his ancestor, Meru started his own cultural development in a more restricted territory. After its short initial start at the Tian Shan range, it moved into Middle East where it progressed into the full-blown Moon (Yue in Chinese) Culture. On the same development, the northern part of China became the first to be initiated to the Yue culture through the Jin dynasty of the Meru lineage. The ancient legacy of the Yellow Emperor in Chinese recollection might date from that time. Nevertheless, the legacy did not last long as northern China became next subject of Tartarization. Unlike Middle East where the Meru culture started to develop itself into becoming the source of the western culture, the Chinese continent became next the target of the Skythian invasion. The trade route (known later as the Silk Road) became actually the international highway that made the western incursion possible. With the spreading of the Tai-Yuan Culture, the very first Tartarization started. By conquering China and establishing Anyang, the Shang dynasty subsequently overran the Jin and split their country into two separate political factions. Under the Shang Dynasty, city and state along with the western concept of civilization took hold of northern China. Anyang was then a big city of the oriental world to be considered by the locals as the heaven on earth. Under the Shang influence, Central China that constituted the southern part of Anyang was then known as Annam (An of the south). The situation did not change after the fall of Anyang under the Tchou Dynasty' s control. For most of its rule, the Tchou just topped themselves over the Shang existing establishment. Formed by a faction of Ta-Tsin, the Tchou Dynasty was itself Tartaric and naturally found big cities like Anyang to be actually suitable for their rule. In contrast, the swamp region of the south appeared to generate little interest to them and was left un-populated until it was dried out and left to the Tsu dynasty to develop. The Stieng's account of Djiang, the founder of the southern Tsu dynasty, conveys to us that Djang had strong blood relationship with the Southern Austroasiatic leadership (Prey-Nokor: The breakdown of the Hiong-Wang Kingdom: The Remnant of the Tsu Dynasty). In consortium with the grass root Xiang of southern countries, they transformed the swamp country to become the fully developed country of Prey-Nokor. During all this time, evidences of mass migration from the Kujin country of Nagaland that started from early third millennium BC continued on to populate the mainland Indochina as well as the southern coastal part of China. Under the Xiang Dynasty, Varadhana (Hiong-Wang in Chinese) was established as part of the Tchou Cakravatin Empire. Many localities in Indochina still retain their Xiang identification due to the administrative systems of the Xiang Dynasty. At the same time, the rise of the Tchou had significant implication on the cultural development of Central China as well as of Southeast Asia. Evidences show that the Tchou had accommodated members of the Shang royal house to co-rule his country and subsequently spread the Bronze (Dong-Son) cultures all over the Tian country. The splitting of the Wu as a branch of the Tchou, as we shall see, had led to the next formation of the Greek Empire and a new development of western culture. It was when Buddhist tradition mentions about a new consortium being established between the ocean Naga king and the hand-over of his daughter to the mountainous Naga King Coladara. Before he died, the ocean Naga king gave the throne of Jewels to his son-in-law as token of his love for his grandson. It was actually representing his consent to crown the Coladara King as a Cakravatin monarch over the Mahodara ream. In the same development, we had seen that Nabopolassar and son Nebuchadnezzar who were actually members of the Tchou dynasty went out to wrest Babylon from the Assyrian court of Middle East. Their exploit resulted in moving the Meru culture out of Middle East into the Gangetic India (Nagadvipa: The Naga's Mythology: The Naga Land). Following the exodus of the Meru Culture from Middle East, the Abrahamic schools lost their focus on the Moon God Tsin and started to worship the god Ashura. In the east, a new development concerning the establishment of the Hiong-Wang kingdom was at the right moment that Meru was making his way to exit Middle East. However, Meru's will was soon challenged and his works would be destroyed by the zoroastrianist development. As we shall see, Po-Nokor's intervention in the east would bring down the Hiong-Wang kingdom and at the same time brought down the Moon Culture to its end.
The Displacement of the Kun-Lun People
After driving the Tchou Court down south, the Han drove the Kun-lun people out of the southern part of China. The Arab merchant Lbn Said recounted about the Komara' s escape to the Southern countries (KLun: Le Kouen-Louen et les anciennes Navigation: P. 204-213). He described the Komara people as brothers of the Chinese who occupy the oriental region of the earth. The Chinese then chased the Komara to the islands, they settled there for a while. The Chinese that drove the Komara down south were actually the Han Dynasty. The word "Komara" was the transcription of the Sanskrit word "KMR" referring to the Tian communities of Mount Meru. It was actually a reference to both the Meru Culture and the Southeast Asian people who practiced the Culture. Known as the Kun-Lun in Chinese source, the Kamara was actually the Arab reference to the Khmer-Mon people (Prehistory: The Hoabinhian Culture: The Language Factor). Back to the Chinese assault, the account mentions that the Komara first stayed with their king at Komoriyya on the small Komara Island. Connecting to the fallen Hiong-Wang kingdom, the city of Komoriyya must to be located at Pandaranga at Prey-Nokor where the Kamara communities regrouped themselves from the attact of the Han. As we shall see later, the title "Kamara" was seen inscribed in Khmer inscription as an official royal title of the Khmer King (Kamboja Desa: The Kamboj legacy: The Kun-Lun Tradition). The Arab 's account furthermore refer to the ruler of the Kamara as Kamrun, which was likely an Arab adaptation to the royal title "Kam-long" as referred in Chinese source the Kambu Naga King. It is consistent with the fact that the Kun-Luns were already been made (Kamboja-Desa: The Kamboj Legacy: The Kun-Lun Tradition). The Arab merchant Lbn Said also mentioned that after settling for a while, a number of Kamara people then moved to Madagaska, but that their king still stayed at the city of Komoriya. These settlements appeared to be self sustained and as expected Madagaska was not ruled by a Kamara king. It conveys that the Hiong-Wang Kingdom (of the Coladara Naga King) had been destroyed and that its court was now located at Komoriya. The displacement of the Kamara People further to Madasgaska suggested that they were not safe in Southeast Asia as the Hans already extended their control deep south to the mainland Indochina. In the Heou han chou (25-220 AD), a passage describes the emergence of Yueh-Tiao along with Chan-Tcheng as vassals of the Chinese Court.
In the sixth year of yong-kien in the twelfth month (131-132 AD), the kingdom of Yueh-Tiao off the border of Jinnan and Chan-Tcheng sent an embassy to offer tribute. (DICI: p. 266)
Chan-Tcheng or the kingdom of the Chan was perhaps a Chinese reference to "Viang Chan" or Viengtian, a city of the northern part of Laos today. The passage indicates that as early as 131 AD, Chan-Tcheng was already formed and sent its embassy to China along with Yueh-Tiao. The commentary, composed under the Tang, added the following citation to the passage.
The king of Yueh-Tiao sent an ambassador Che-houei to the court and offered tribute. The court made Che-Houei a "master of the city of Yueh-Tiao submitted to Han"; and offered to this prince the violet ribbon.
In the chapter Tsin Han chou that was dedicated to the barbarians of the South, there is another mentioning of the same embassy to China.
The sixth year yong-kieu of the emperor Chouen, the king of Yueh-Tiao off the border of Jinnan, Pien, sent an embassy offering tribute. The emperor gave back to Pien a pail of gold and a violet ribbon.
The violet ribbon was the regalia of Chinese investiture. Perhaps ranked by its color, it symbolized the suzerainty of the Chinese court over vassal states. Contrary to common belief that the Cham kingdom started in Prey-Nokor (Lin-Yi), evidences show instead that Champasaka of the Khorat Plateau was actually the birthplace of the Cham communities in Indochina. It is known that the Cham Chao-Fas were in control of the mainland of Indochina' s northern parts since at least the Christian era. By tricks and ruses, they wrested small feudalities of Khmer-Mon tribesmen from their native rulers and transformed them as Cham communities of Champasaka. The Ming Shi account confirms that Champapura (Zhan-po in Chinese text) of Prey-Nokor was only known in Chinese court during the Tang Dynasty (618-907) and did not exist by then as many scholars postulated. The assumption of Viang Chan was under the Cham king aggrees with the advent of the Cham king Ajiraja settling in the mainland Indochina as seen earlier.
The Ta-Tsin's Connection
The presence of the Yueh communities over Southeast Asia reflected Po Nokor's successful campaign over the Tian country. It consisted of elaborated maneuvers to rally the Cham aristocrats in destroying the Tian authority over both the Tian country and the Hiong-Wang kingdom. Just as Hiong-Wang was destroyed, evidences show that Po Nokor shifted her focus to the west. Through the support of the Ocean Naga King, Po Nokor transformed the Ta-Yueh-Shih leadership into becoming the political driving force of the Yueshi powerhouses. According to the chronicle of Po-Nokor, the Cham establishment in Southeast Asia started to face with major setback.
The beginning of the Cham kingdom was extremely hard, harassed from all fronts, by the Jin, specter and demons.
The formation of Kambuja desa in a close consortium with the Vakataka Smaraj in India was in close development of the re-groupment of the displaced Tchou and Tsu leadership to free themselves from China and the formation of Prey-Nokor on the Ground of the displaced Kun-Lun People. Besides the harassment by the indigenous people (specter) and later by the Kambojan kings (demons), the major problems for the Chams were the Khmer (Jin) kings of Prey-Nokor (Lin-yi) to rise up and fought against the Han Dynasty. On the same development, evidences show that the broken court of the Quin Dynasty took the opportunity to regroup themselves to fight against the Hans. After the Sui Dynasty succeeded to take control of China in 220, the Han era ended. It is important to note that during Po-Nokor's excursion to the east, the Gypsy legacy of the couple Osiris and Isis was in its prime development in Middle East that was going to be strengthened by the invasion of the Elamese. After the attack of the Greek Ruler Alexander the Great, the culture stayed in Egypt under the new Roman rulers of the Ptolemy Dynasty. Through Rome, Po-Nokor totemized image of the Annanuki stayed to become the next European sign of civilization. Falcon and Eagle became since the western national mascot to stay until modern days to represent a new world order in contributing to the final end of the Meru Culture. The formation of Rome to become the center of the men civilization (Ta-Tsin in Chinese) represented in its renaissance the modern era of the men culture. Rippling along the Silk Road, the Ta-Yueh-Shih conception by the Ocean Naga King contributed to the birth of the Han China and the Cham leadership of the south. In India, the invasion of the Ta Yueh-Shih power-house resulted in the whole of Gangetic India being brought under the Cham court of Champavati and subsequently drove the Naga kingdom of Kalyani to drift to Deccan. From the Purana, scholars were able to trace the rise of the Vakataka's royal house to start by king Vindhyasakti whose reign, according to the Purana, lasted for 96 years (AInd: Chap IV: The Deccan up to the Rise of the Rastrakuta: The Vakatakas: P. 270). More studies might reveal why the Kalyani Naga Court was moved from the Gangetic India and how the Vakatakka Court was formed at Deccan. However, the exploit of Po-Nokor must to affect one way or another the Naga communities of both Gangetic India and Southeast Asia. King Vindhyasakti' s reign that started in 174 AD right after the formation of Funan Empire moreover led us to believe that Vakataka was formed in a close consortium with the Funan Court. As we shall see, the rise of the native king Fan Shih Man of the Funan Court after the death of king Pajn-Pan, was very much similar to the rise of the Nanda in the history of the eastern Naga world. Under his extensive campaign, he was able to wrest lost territories to the Cham King and placed them under the control of Funan (Kamboja-Desa: The Funan Court: The Reign of King Fan Man and the Consolidation of Funan). Its ruler Pravarasena claimed himself the title of a Samraj that was a title equivalent to an emperor ruling over a numbers of subordinated states. His long reign indicates that he was not a person but a lineage of at least two kings with a combined reign of 96 years. It was more likely that Pravarasena inherited the title of Samraj through his ancestor's past campaign instead of his own military exploit. The Purana assigns him a reign of 60 years and he probably died in 330 AD. He is said to have performed quite a large number of Vedic sacrifices including four Aswamedhas. He married his son Gautamiputra to a daughter of king Bhavanaga of the powerful Bharasive family. As to its origin of the Vakataka court, titles such as Pravarasena and Nandivaradhana that were used in the court led us to believe that they were no stranger to Southeast Asia royal courts. The inclusion of the word "Vara" in both titles convinces us moreover that there is a link between the court of Vakataka to the fallen court of Hiong-Wang kingdom. Another key event that happened next was the formation of Nokor Khmer at Prey Nokor by Kaundinya who, as we shall argue, was also a member of the Vakataka court of Deccan (Prey-Nokor: The Preceptor of Nokor Khmer: Kaundinya and the Nanda Dynasty).
- ISSA: The Indianized States of Southeast Asia, by G. Coedes
- NCham: BEFEO VII: Notes Sur Les Chams: pp. 313-355, By E.M. Durand
- PCCPA: BEFEO 23 Numéro 1: La première conquête chinoise des pays Annametes (IIIe siècle avant notre ère): pp. 136-264, By Léonard Aurousseau
- HOA: History of Indonesia, by by B. R. ChaTerji
- CKH: The Chonicle of Khmer heroes, by Sot Eng
- MGRV: Minority groups in the Republic of Vietnam, Department of the army pamphlet
- TECA: The Tibetan Empire in Central Asia, by Christopher I. Beckwith
- AChina:Ancient China Simplified, by Edward Harper Parker
- BChina:The Birth of China, by Herrlee Glessner Creel
- BViet:The Birth of Vietnam, by Keith Weller Taylor
- ARom: Ancient Rome, By Robert Payne
- KLun: Journal Asiatique Juilet-Aout 1919: Le Kouen-Louen et les Anciennes navigations interoceaniques dans les mers du Sud, by Gabriel Ferrand
- ETIC: BEFEO I: Notes Ethnographiques sur diverse Tribus du Sud-Est de l'Indo-China, Par M. A Lavalle.
- DICI: BEFEO IV: Deux Itineraires de Chine en Inde, by Paul Pelliot
2070-1600 BC: Xia Dynasty; 1300-1046 BC: Shang or Yin Dynasty; 1046-221 BC: Chou Dynasty; 550-330 BC: The Achaemenid Empire took control of Middle East; 322-185 BC: The Mauryan Empire; 221-207 BC: Quin Dynasty; 206 BC-220: Han Dynasty of China; 100 BC-400: The Roman Empire; 27 BC- 68: Julio-Claudio Dynasty of Rome; 43: Chinese general Ma-Yuan set the southern frontier of Siang Lin; 137: Uprising of Chu Lien at Lin-Yi against the Han; 192: Chu Lien liberated Lin-Yi; 230: Fan Man extended the Funan Empire; 240-550: The Gupta Empire;
- The Kamboja vs the Yueh-Shih
Politically and demographically, the Yueh Shih were derived from the Skythians Saka or the Kamboja but culturally there was a fine line between the two Sakan clans established by later developments. The same as the modern Mongolians, the Chao Yueh Shis rulers did not speak the same Simhalese (Indo-Aryan) language as the Kambojan rulers, but instead spoke Sino-Tibetan tongue. Clashing with the Hiong-Nu, the Yueh-Shih dispersed in many directions. While the Ta-Yueh-Shih branch went into Bactria, the Chao-Yueh-Shih migrated straight into Yunnan.
The Cham Satraps or Villages
At the early stages, the Cham aristocrats came in a complete court to form a country. The Cham villages were mostly formed on local people but were administered by the Cham headmen known as Chao-fas.
The modern history of India indicates that Champavati was formed by King Champa as the capital of Milini of Anga (Aind: Later Vedic Period-Political History: Minor States: p. 70). It was built on the Ground of the city Bhagapur of the Naga King Bhagdatta of the Menam Valley. Needless to say, the Cham people of Champavati was actually the same people of Bhagpur.
- The Indian Religious Believes
As much as we know that the Yueh Shih were Mahayana Buddhist, other Saka who settled in Southeast Asia inherited other Hindu cultures back to their homeland in Middle East. The early Sakan migrant, identified as the Kamboja, were known to practice Sivaism and were readily accepted Buddhism as their next devotion. The next arrival of the Cham aristocrats in Gangetic India were Zoroastrianist, but judging from later development we know that they were already converted to Visnuite practitioners. As part of the Chola legacy, Sivaism and Vishnuism merged and most Chams still retained this heritage until the arrival of their new faith, which was Islam.
- The Western Ta-Tsin
In Chinese texts, Ta-Tsin was first a reference to the kingdom where Meru originated. After Meru moved his court to Middle East, Ta-Tsin was referred to Mesopotamia. Depend upon the dynamic of the Meru Cakravatin Empire, Ta-Tsin was placed in Chinese texts further and further west. During the Han era, Ta-Tsin appears to be a reference to the Raman Empire.
- Confucianism' s conception
Confucianism owed its philosophical concepts to the Sakan legacies of the Ocean Naga World. The Yin-Yang cosmology had been found in all Sakan communities as remote as the Indonesian archipelago, independently from the Chinese development of Confucius.
- The Muong' s Tradition of Men Creation
THe Muong' s Tradition of Men Creation echoes the Cham Cosmogony of PO-Nokor about the development of the Cham's world.
The sky created the first man, Ban-co, who fathers four sons. The first, Phu-ky, fathered the Chinese; the second, Than-Nong, sired the Annamete; the third, Gich-Rong, fathered the aristocracy; and the fourth, Loc-Tac-An, sired the common people. (MGRV: The Muong: Tribal Background: Legendary History)
Connecting to the Cham Cosmogony, the aristocracy of the Muong's tradition was referring to the Yueh-Shih power elite themselves.
- The Kawi Scripture
The Cham (Kawi) scripture was undoubtedly derived from the Brahmi scripture and was brought by the Sakan rulers to Java. Chinese texts mention about the scripture that in use at Funan resembled very much the Ho's scripture in Central Asia that included the northern slope of Himalayas and Tibet. The Khmer Tradition mentioned that it had 33 alphabets sounding like the Magadha scripture of the Gupta court.
That is why the Chams counted 33 alphabets sounding similar to Magadha words.
- The Cham Aristocrats
It is not to be confused the Cham Aristocrats with the Cham Banis of Southeast Asia as they were in fact of Middle Eastern origin. Of their homeland in Central Asia, they belonged to the Ta-Yueh-Shih branch. Through theirs venture in the Silk Road, they became warlords of the steppes. Due to the nature of theirs business, they transformed the steppe as the breeding ground of barbaric and vagabond life-style. Known as the Yueh people, the natives of the steppe who became their subjects moved with Han to the Southern coast of China to form Dai-Viet. At the closing of the Silk Road, most of the Yueh people left the Silk Road to participate in the lucrative sea-route venturing of the Southern Sea.
- The Etymology of the word "Chao-Fa"
The word "Chao-Fa" could be a derivative of the Khmer word "Chao Prah" meaning God's grandson. As the Kambujan Ksatrias adopted the title "Rajaput" or Son of Raja, The Yueh Shish and the Cham kings often adopted the title of "Chao-Fa" or the God's grandson.
- The Legend of Lord Lac Quan
The Vietnamese legend of the Dragon Lac Long Quan who came to the Hong-plane from the sea, teaching civilization and rice cultivation sound very much the same as the Tai mythology of Khun Borom (Xiang-Mai: The Tai Mythology: The Tai's Flood Myth). This attribution agrees with the Cham mythology of Po-Nokora, on the formation of Annam. It also reveals to us that the Draconian culture of China (as well as of Annam) was sea-born from the family of Paramkamboja kings of Southeast Asia. Through Dai-Viet's account, we know that Lord Lac later retired back at the sea, leaving China into the whole control of the Han dynasty.
- The Chou's Development of Central China
Under the leadership of a Tsu prince, ancient Chinese tradition recalled about the formation of the Wu state that later became the countries of the Chinese Han, the Annamete Yueh and the Japanese ancestors (Notes: The Tsu vs the Wu). At the mean time, the occupation of the Xia Dynasty promoted the Tai Culture along the eastern Ta-Tsin Country but did not cover-up the eastern barbarian states of Jinnan.
- Where the Kinh came from
In contrast to the southern indigenous Muangs who preferred to build their dwellings on stilt, the Kinhs built their dwellings flat on the ground. Studies reveal that the Kinh were from Central Asia and unlike the Muang and the Tai tribesmen who preferred to live on the hills, they rarely settled out in high ground. The difference of their life style from their southern natives reveals that they were not subjected of the same great flood as Southeast Asian once did. Further more, they considered themselves as city dwellers and lived in close networked community like the Han.
- The Spread of Southern Autronesian Language/Big>
As we recall back, the Ta-YUeh-Shih was a sibling of the Kambuja and had been very close in culture and custom with the latter through the Kambu Naga King of Southeast Asia. The finding leads us to believe that the Indo-Aryan Languge that was spoken by both the Kambojas and the Ta-Yueh-Shih included in its core a high legacy of Austronesian root, but was more and more cinicized through contact with Chinese communities of the north. Spreading over the austroasiatic communities of the Southern Sea, the Cinicized Indo-Aryan Language gave birth to the Cham and other southern Austronesian Language that were going to excel along with the seatrade development.
- The Background of King Ajiraja
The arrival of king Ajiraja coincided with the fall of the Persian Empire by the attack of Alexander the Great. Their connection with the Rashu lineage and later to Rama leads us to believe that they were part of the new Middle Eastern Zoroastrianism believers who soon became Vishuite. In conjunction with the establishment of Champavati in Gangetic India, we believe that king Ajiraja was from the Kushan stronghold of Parthia. Back in Gujarat or Mesopotamia, they were already mastering the art of ship's building. They brought along this technology that revolutionize the ship industry in the Southern Sea.
- The Cham Communities in Cambodia
Through their tradition, some indigenous tribesmen recounted how the Cham Aristocrats had their move to wrest the control of the Khmer-Mon chiefs and started on imposing their own authority on the Khmer-Mon communities. The events could have been started under the Han initiative. While the people of the Hiong Wang kingdom escaped south, the Han implanted Chinese people to take over the Kun-Lun Country. In a similar move, evidences show that the Han had reached out to the court of King Ajiraja and brought it up to challenge the court of king Hun-Tien of Funan.
- The Establishment of Rome
Historians agreed that the establishment of Rome symbolized a new wave of European Civilization on the old turf of Pagan communities. They also agreed that it was the Etruscans who laid their own culture on top of the Greeko Mycenean Culture that led to the birth of what is called the Roman Civilization of today. What they could not agree on was where the Etruscans (more precisely the Etruscan Culture) originated (ARom: The Etruscan Mystery: pp. 1-20).
- Tomb vs boat shape coffin Burial
In the new development of the Silk Road, tombs were used to bury corpse of hight status, replacing boat-shape coffin Burial. The custom became since a Chinese trademark of burying corpse of wealthy or dominant Chinese society members of Yueh background while standard burial was still practiced by poor peoples. In a particular circumstance, bones from the burial ground were retrieved and placed in smaller boat-shape coffins or other type of containers for better preservation. Vietnamese still use this funeral custom to preserve their death.