The making of a Cakravatin Empire

Project: The making of a Cakravatin Empire
Author: Lem Chuck Moth

Started date: March/01/2005
Last updated: January/01/2009
All right reserved.
Since this paper is still drafted, the readers would be advised to ignore any context errors. The content is not final and subjected to be reviewed.

Tracing through remnants of ancient civilization, evidences show that many parts of the world had been once a center of the human cultural center. It is the place where cultural development was taking hold and revolutionized itself across the world (Nagadvipa:The Meru Culture: The Spreading of the Meru Culture). Since its start-up, the epicenter of the Meru Culture evolved around the mount Himalaya and its traces could be detected around its path. Formed by consorting kingdoms in an association that facilitates common interests, the epicenter was also known as the Middle Kingdom of the Cakraravatin Empire. For instances, China and India were retaining their legacies as Middle-Kingdoms because they were once the center of a Cakravatin Empire. The first Middle Kingdom to be located in Southeast Asia, as known in history of mankind, was obviously Angkor. In the ancient past, there were indications that the legendary Hiong-wang of the Chinese texts was also formed as a Cakravatin Empire that started at Yunnan and spread over the whole of Indochina. However the geographical locality placed its late Middle Kingdom at Jinnan, more in the Chinese continent than in Southeast Asia. Evidences show that Angkor owed many of its legacies to the Hiong-wang kingdom as well as previous Cakravatin Empires of the world. Being the last of its kind, Angkor inherited many aspects of its predescessors. Following the Cakravatin tradition of reproducing itself, Angkor was built on a blueprint of past legacies very much preserved through out the Meru development. Through inheritance, many aspects of Angkor could be related to its predecessors of ancient or recent past. Due to its recent existence, Angkor left fairly amount of historical data behind that allows us to compile a comprehensive understanding of its civilization. The knowledge allows us to trace back other ancient great civilizations known to be in connection with the Meru Culture. Adding to its rich heritage, Angkor was formed after the emergence of Buddhism that played important part in its foundation. We shall see that Angkor, after it was formed, resumed its active role of promoting Buddhism that became its core culture.
Documenting the Angkorian Empire
Starting from the formation of Nokor Khmer at Prey Nokor, inscriptions were by far the main records, left fairly intact from bad weather and human's destruction. Many were erected, but only a few were dedicated to provide historical records during the formation of Angkor. The inscription of Sdok kak Thom, for instance, is the most valuable of all (Le Cambodge: Le Temple de Sdok Kak Thom, Aymonier, p.248). Besides providing a continuous chronology of the Angkorian monarchs since the formation of Angkor, it provides information on how the court was conducted. Other inscriptions were more or less important in providing additional data, but none provide a complete picture of the Angkorian court from it formation to the reign of Rajendravaramn. From deliberate studies, scholars were able to draw out important events that became the back-bone of modern history of Angkor. Besides inscriptions, many information of Angkor could also be found in Chinese records. This is due to the fact that Angkor, as a Cakravatin Empire, had close relationship with China. With the help of Chinese records, a comprehensive history of Angkor came out to light. However, missing links are expected as both Khmer inscriptions and Chinese recorded were meant to be only court's records and for most of the time were not written as historical data. To connect these events together, scholars had to develop theirs own theories to patch-up the holes. Without having to go through local sources, mistakes were made due to misconceptions. The availability of these historical records was moreover contributing to the shortfall as not many versions were left. Even though there were evidence of records on light material that might contains more detail historical information to be existed, none of these records survive until today (The Sri Vijaya Connection:The Angkorian Empire under the Mahidhara court: The origin of Suryavarman I). So far only oral versions were left to be collected and compiled by monks and were deposited in Buddhists temple. Still, these chronicles were not much credible to Western scholars because, as we shall argue, contain oddities that counld not be apprehended by western standard.
The inscription of Sdoc Kak Thom of the eleventh century is an important record of the formation of Angkor. Its description of the proceeding during the coronation of Jayavarman II, allows us to have some insights about the cult of Devaraja itself. Performed by the Angkorian chief priest of the same family descended from the Brahman Silvakaivalia, the Devaraja's rituals proclaimed an Angkorian monarch as the protégé of a God King. It became the crowning ceremony to be performed faithfully at the Angkorian court. The inscription was erected by the last member of the family, during the reign of king Udayavarman II. Besides providing a complete list of Devaraja kings, the inscription provides other valuable information about how it was acquired and performed during the coronation of a Cakravatin Monarch.
The Proceeding
The cult of Devaraja is a series of rituals designed to elevate a Siva linga to the spiritual status of a divinity. After the ceremony, the linga received the title as "Kamrateng jagat ta raja" and was named after the Hindu divinity that it represented. The Linga became the image of the God King or divine protector of the reigning king who received the same name ending with the word "varman", meaning protégé. For instance, Jayavarman II was the protégé of the Kamrateng jagat ta raja Jayasvara, the God king of Victory. According to Khmer Tradition (RPNK, M. Traney), Devavamsa (Deva-vamsa) was the dynastic title of Prah Thong and his nagi queen. This Sivaite tradition, apparently carried on by both Cambhupura and Vyadhapura courts during the Kaundinya line of kings, was the product of the marriage between two cultures. The "Varman" legacy, dated back to the very first Kamboj kings of the Funan Empire, was seen later consistently applied to all Angkorian kings. The concept of Deva king was on the other hand a tradition of the royal court of Indrapath or Magadha. It is clear that Jayavarman II did not invent the cult himself and neither that he was the first devaraja king. To reinstate the cult, Jayavarman II had to invite an Indian priest from abroad to perform and teach the local priest Silvakaivalia to carry on the tradition.
There was a Brahman named Hiranyadama, learned in the "siddhi" science, came from Junapada at the king's invitation to perform a ritual designed to ensure that the country of Kamboja would no longer be dependent on Java and that its sovereign would become the only one Cakravaltin.
The Brahman Hiranyadama who performed the rituals of Devaraja was quoted to be from India, most likely from Magadha. The rituals were perhaps the same as his ancestors had performed at the Gupta court.
This Bhraman performed the ceremony by Vinasikha, and finished by the Nayottara, the Sammoha, and the Siraccheda. He showed from beginning to end in order to be written down to Lord Sivakaivalia and ordained Lord Silvakaivalia to perform the ritual of the Devaraja. The king and the Bhraman Hiranyadama took an oath to assign the family of Lord Silvakaivalia, and not others, to conduct the tradition of the Devaraja. The Lord Sivakaivalia, the chief priest, assigned all his relatives to the task.
After the ceremony, the crowned king became a protégé of the God King (jakataraja) and proceeded to fulfill his obligation as a Cakravatin Monarch. His earned merit and prestige was used to enable him in becoming another god king after his death and received a posthumous name. According to the concept of Devaraja, the posthumus name was conceived to allow Brahmans to invoke his spirit, when needed. As a divinity in Hindu folklore, the Devaraja kings may reincarnate among the line of their descendants. Strict conformity of the Hindu tradition allows us with certainty to trace back the ancestors of a Deva king from the identity of his jakataraja. For instance, the god king Bhadrasvara was the common ancestor of all descendants from the first Bhadravarman whom we had identified as Kaundinya or Sivanandana.
Sivaism and the Cult of Devaraja
The cult of Devaraja was based on Sivaite rituals and inscriptions in Sanskrit Language were normally used to commemorate the ceremony. The reference to Sivaism in these inscriptions obviously outnumbered those of Visnuism and Buddhism. It is undeniable that the soul of the Khmer Empire was of Meru legacy. In that heritage, the Angkorian Empire was obviously Sivaite from the start. The God King Paramamesvara that had been long associated with the pre-Angkorian line of kings was in fact resuscitated as a posthumous name to Jayavarman II after his death. At the same time, Paramamesvara is also found in inscriptions of Dong-doung (BEFEO II: Notes d'epigraphy de Champa: Steles de Dong-Duong, M.L. Finot) as the progenitor of a new line of kings of Indrapura and was connected with the very first Cakravatin establishment of the Angkorian Empire. As we have argued, Paramamesvara was associated with the ancient ParamaKamboja Kings of Southeast Asia who were in close connection with Sivaism. From that fact alone, scholars made mistake of portraying the Angkorian kings as devout Sivaite. Brought to the Angkorian court by necessity, the cult of Devaraja had nothing to do with the king personal belief. It was Buddhism that started the Khmer kingdom at Prey-nokor and Angkor was actually the first Cakravatin Empire with Buddhism as the core of its culture. Even-though, the Cakravatin's establishment was based on Hindu's cult and was carried on by Sivaite rituals, evidences show that most of Angkorian Devaraja kings, if not all, were Buddhist. As a matter of fact, Angkor was formed by the consortium of the Sailendra and the Sri Vijaya courts and that Buddhism and Sivaism were two of their strong devotion. The next Devaraja kings, Yasovarman I and Rajendravarman, in particular, were well known to be Buddhists. Erected inscriptions dedicated to Buddhism, found under their rules, prove that Sivaism was complementing the Theravada Buddhism from the start-up of the Angkorian Empire. Under Mahayana Buddhism, the Sivaite concept of divinity was completely assimilated into the core of Buddhism. In the Angkorian tradition, the concept of Devaraja had been extended to the Buddhist discipline as well. Under Mahayana Buddhism, the Sivaite concept of divinity was completely assimilated into the core of Buddhism. This compatibility explains the tigh alliance between the Sailendra and the Sri Vijaya during the early formation of Angkor. After its formation, however, Angkor also opened itself to include the Chenla' s membership and became in a true sence a Cakravatin Empire. Consistent with the fact that the Hindu culture was broadly based (on the spectrum of seven energies), a Cakravatin establishment had to embrace all spectrum of religious believe (Civilization: The development of the Sumerian Culture: The Sky Gods and the spectrum of energies). Another God King, the Tribhuvanesvara, that was connected with Vishnuism had also been adopted along the Angkorian line of Kings of Another God King, the Tribhuvanesvara, that was connected with Vishnuism had also been adopted along the Angkorian line of Kings of Cholan background. On top of the existing trinity of the Hindu Culture, the latest occurrence of Buddhism provided Angkor with more cultural strength that constituted a more stable ground for the formation of the Cakravatin Empire.
The Cult Bearers
One important feature in the foundation of the Angkorian Empire often ignored in recent compiled history of Angkor is the Angkorian court. As the king took the lime light of representing the empire, his court was actually the head of the organization itself. Evidence show consistently that eminent Angkorian monarchs were well trained and guided through out their career by a court of high scholarship members. The old saying that says " the king is as good as people that surrounded him" had proved itself in the past formation of Nokor Khmer and, as we shall see, would prove itself again during the lifetime of the Angkorian Empire. Immediately after its inauguration, the Cult of Devaraja was handed to the Brahman Sivakaivalia and his families to carry on the royal ritual along the Angkorian line of kings.
Arrived at the eastern district, the king bestowed an estate and a village called Kuti upon the family of the royal Chaplain.
Apparently the Brahman Sivakaivalia had to relocate himself to a place name Kuti (Notes: Kuti). Because it was supposed to be a family's commitment, his whole family was also relocated.
Later the king reigned in the city of Hariharalaya. The royal Chaplain also settled in the city, and the members of his family were appointed to the corps of pages. Afterwards, the king went to found the city of Amarendrapura, and the royal chaplain also settled in this city to serve the king. Then the king went to reign at Mahendraparvata, and the lord Sivakaivalia followed him, establishing himself in the capital to serve the king as before.
Through dedication, his descendants became the cult bearers and were responsible to sustain the Devaraja cult to crown the Deva kings through most of Angkorian lifetime. Along with this high honored task, they were also assigned other duties of no less importance, one of which is titled as royal Guru. Their duty included the formal training of the future king, and once he was crowned they became his personal adviser or chaplain. Often enough, they were married into the royal family and exerted a great deal of influence in the state decision making. They were awarded lands and wealth to shelter their family in the mission of preserving the Devaraja Linga.
An inscription carved on the piers of the tower at Baksei Chamkrong, gives the genealogy of the famous Angkorian dynasty (JA t. XIII serie X: L'inscription de Baksei Chamkron, George Coedes). Originated from king Kaundinya and the daughter of Soma, the inscription describes the relationship of their descendants and outlines the Devaraja dynasty (Devavamsa). Other inscriptions revealed that the queen or princesses of Devavamsa had their name ending with the word "Devi". The inscription ended the lineage with king Rajendravarman who was probably the sponsor of the inscription and the contemporary Angkorian king of the time. The lineage did not include later devaraja kings such as King Jayavarman V and king who was also a direct descendant of king Rajendravarman. He was left out for the reason that he became king after the inscription was done.
The Reign of King Jayavarman II (802-869 AD)
Even though his direct ancestors were not explicitly known, many inscriptions tell us that he was a descendant of Puskarasa from the lineage of Kaundinya and the nagi princess. He was mentioned as a "Dinavamsa Julam Gopta" in the inscription of Stok Kak Thom, a reverence to the Dina (Sun) line of the Cholagopta Dynasty. His biography was then brought to light as he became the first Khmer monarch of the Angkorian Empire. Through the same inscription, we know that he was originated from Indrapura and came from Java. The passage misled scholar to believe that Indrapura was once a city of Java. From there scholars postulated that he might have been raided when he was with the Sailendra. Many scholars believe that he was kept there as a prisoner of the Javanese Empire. Evidences however show that the Sailendra was once established themselves with the Sri Vijaya and was contending the Sanjaya court at Central Java. Chasing out by the latter from Central Java, Indravarman brought the Sailendra court to Prey Nokor. He then reestablished Indrapura at Dong-Doung where Jayavarman II stayed, during the time that the Sanjaya set itself up as the sole ruler of the Javanese Empire. To avoid further harassment form Java, Jayavarman II moved the Khmer court inland at Hariharalaya founded at the northern shore of the great lake. A Sanskrit inscription, found at mount Prah Vihear (JSS, Sanskrit Inscriptions of Campa and Cambodia, by Abel Bergaine), indicates that Jayavarman II had granted a piece of land to his family members in the vicinity of Lampang and Bhavalaya. The inscription also mentioned that his queen named Prana and that she bore the title of Kamvujalaksmi indicating that she belonged to the Sri Vijayan court. She gave birth to a son named Sri Dharmavaradhana who later was crowned under the same coronation name of Jayavarman III. His posthumous name was Paramesvara.
The Reign of King Jayavarman III (869-877 AD)
He was the son of Jayavarman II. His capital was Hariharalaya. His Chaplain was the Sten An Suksmavidu, a nephew of Sivakaivalya. Before he was crown he was named Dharmavaradhana, meaning he who carried the law. In collaboration of his title, the inscription mentioned him to have strong commitment with his science and religion and had no interest with women. It explains why he left no heir, after his reign. The next kingship was delegated to the son of his maternal uncle, named Indravarman. from there, we shall identify him to be the ex-husband of the queen Camadevi who went-out to found Haripunjaya. Under the initiative of Jayavarman II, the queen left her husband amid the family's crisi. His short reign explained the lack of other inscription commemorating his exploit as a king and leads us to believe that most of his career was done during his father's reign as vice-king and ruled over Ramana Nagara. His posthumous name was Vishnuloka.
The Reign of King Indravarman II(877-889 AD)
The next Angkorian monarch was not a direct descendant of Jayavarman II. He is the son of Prithivindravarman, a maternal uncle of the late Jayavarman III. We shall see that Prithivindravarman was then a ruler of Champapura. His queen Indradevi was a descendant of the ancient royal families of Vyadhapura, Sambhupura and Aninditapura. Perhaps because of her that he was entitled to the Angkorian throne after the death of Jayavarman III. As we had seen, he was member of the Sailendra kings who rebuilt the Khmer Kingdom of Prey-Nokor after driving out both the Cham and Chenla courts out to Java. In the absent of a heir to take on the throne of Angkor after the death of Jayavarman III. His capital was Hariharalaya where he received the title of Devararaja from the chaplain Vamasiva, a grand son of Sivakaivalya. His achievement in construction works earned him the recognition by scholars as the first master builder of Angkorian period. He began by constructing massive irrigation systems including the great Indratataka dam. He also known as the builder of Prah ko and Bakong temples. On the wrong premise that he was not in the same lineage with the king Indravarman I of Champapura, scholars number him as Indravarman I of the Angkorian kings. For the sake of clarity, we shall number him Indravarman II to be a descendant of the Champa king Indravarman I who himself was the founder of the Khmer Cakravatin Empire at Prey-nokor. In connection with his ancestor Kaundinya and later Rudravarman, Indravarman II was Buddhist. At his death in 889, he received the posthumous name of Isvaraloka.
The Reign of King Yasovarman (889-900 AD)
He was the son of King Indravarman II with the queen Indradevi. The Sten An Vamasiva, also named as the Sten An Sivasrama was his guru and Chaplain. The inscrition of Stok Kak Thom mentions that before he was crown at Angkor, he received the title of Yasovaradhana. His reign lived up to the promises of his double ancestry. The inscription of Backsei Cham Krong mentioned that his kingdom included Asuksma Kamarata, the South China Sea and Champa (JA: L'inscription de Baksei Camkron, George Coedes).
Yac criyasovarmapadam dadhanah asuksmakamrata payodhacina campadidecad dharner adhicah.
He was the builder of Lolei temple on top of an island at the middle of the great dam built by his father. The inscription also mentioned that he had constructed the pool of Yashodhara. The inscription of Tep Pranam (JA: George Coedes, La Stele de Tep Pranam) mentioned that he was of Ksattra vangsa and worshipping "Bodhaya tribhuvanam svayam eva Buddhhya" and had the rank (Yasya) of "Abhranta cakren aniruddhari cadaj jayah". His capital was moved from Hariharalaya to a new place bearing his name, Yasodharapura. In one of his inscriptions, the construction of the new capital Yasodharapura was justified to serve as the Middle court of the Cakravatin Empire. This was probably the necessity to control the expanded kingdom that earned him the title of the supreme master of the land (History of Indonesia: B. R. Chatterji, p.70).
He who defended Kambupuri (the capital of Kambuja), Ayodhya, Vibhishana, with Sumatra as his friend, and with sita as it ornament, like the descendant of Raghu.
On the wall of the temples at Loley, at the right of the front door, there are four inscriptions, one for each tower, commemorating king Yasovarman as the monarch at 890 AD (812 saka). At the tower of the north he was introduced as sri Sasaukacandrashta-cakapatarajya, the Cakravatin Monarch (JA Apr-June 1883: Inscriptions en vieux Khmer: Inscriptions de bakou et de Loley, Aymonier). It was also under his reign that a construction started on mount Prah Vihear to shelter the God King Sikharisvara and on Phnom Sandak to shelter the God King Bhadresvara. According to many inscriptions found at mount Prah Vihear, we know that Sikharisvara was the incarnation of the God King Bhadresvara who himself was first time consecrated at Mi-son to deitfy Kaundinya. Yashovarman's posthumous name was Paramsivaloka.
We had seen that Cambodia of the past was submerged. Due to the tectonic elevation, dried lands were formed to make Cambodia becoming more habitable (Nokor Khmer: The Khmerization of Kamboja: The work of the naga king). By the time that Angkor was built, the northern shore of the Great Lake had already been available to become the seat of the new empire. Taking the opportunity, Jayavarman II regrouped the Deva Dynasty in land and founded Amarindrapura.
Prah bat Devavamsa then continued to reign peacefully. The sea was retreating, the land was forming bigger and bigger and more populated. (RNPK:Ketomala)
What came next was the birth of Prah Ketomala, the King who brought the Angkorian era to the new Empire. According to Khmer tradition, Prah Ketomala was the first king to build Angkor's temple entirely in stone. Following his predescessor Devavamsa, he found the new dried land of central Cambodia perfectly suitable to build the Middle Kingdom of the Khmer Cakravatin Empire.
The Legend of Prah Ketomala and Visnukarman
In all the glory of Angkor, the birth of Prah Ketomala was divinely connected to the court of Lord Indra (RNPK:Ketomala). When conceived, the queen mother saw in her dream that Lord Indra instilled her pregnancy.
The queen was pregnant and one night in her dream she saw the god Indra touching her belly and gave her a crystal raying with 5 bright colors. She told her husband to consult the court astrologer. It was predicting that she would deliver a mighty son with the glory over his enemies in any direction. After the end of the pregnancy she had delivered a baby. He was named Prah Ketomala.
Politically, it means a new consortium between the descendants of Kaundinya and the Nagi princess with the last court of the remnant of the Yin Dynasty. In the next account, God Indra soon interfered in the new Cakravatin Empire. After revealing himself as the God father of Prah Ketomala, he brough the latter to visit his celestial ream of heaven.
At the age of 6 years old, the God Indra commissioned one of his angels Matalidevaput to inform Prah bat Devavamsa that Prah Ketomala is also his son for he is an incarnation of a son (Devaput) of his. He then invited Prah Ketomala to take the celestial chariot and brought him to the realm of heaven. After 7 days, God Indra commissioned Matalidevaput to bring Prah Ketomala back home.
Still in his youth, Prah Ketomala was going to receive the best experience of his life. In order to bring fame and glory to Kamboja, Indra who was Prah Ketomala's godfather wished to build a stone temple for his adopted son. Indra then organized a tour of his celestial palace so Prah Ketomala could choose which of the buildings he wished to have it build in his kingdom. After the tour, Lord Indra asked his adopted son for his choice. Deeply humble, Prah Ketomala pointed to the smallest of them all that was the shelter of Prah Ko, the divine bull. On the way back, God Indra sent a celestial architect named Vasyakamma (Visnukarman in other oral tradition) along with him.
He (Lord Indra) sent along an angel of his, Vasyakamma Devaput, to be born as a human architect and built a small temple for Prah Ketomala. After the death of Prah bat Devavamsa, Vasyakamma Devaput built another big temple of stone decorated with walls and moats as a tribute to the new monarch. He had Purohita to keep track of either bad or good events and save until today.
To build the temple, Visnukarman used materials available in the kingdom and made sure that the knowledge had passed on to the Angkorian court. That was how the Khmer Tradition remembered about the building of the first stone temple, and coincidentally enough it was named Ba ko (the Master Cow). Needless to say, it was the starting of a series of stone temple's construction at Angkorian site. As a new lineage drawn from the Devaraja Dynasty, the Ketomala kings were remembered in Khmer tradition as the great builders of the Angkorian stone temples that included later the famous temple of Angkor-wat.
The Identification of the Ketomala king and Visnukarman
The existence of the legendary king Ketomala could not be proved through concrete evidence. No one of Angkor's inscriptions mentioned the name that was widely known through oral tradition. As a legendary figure, he was conceived later by Khmer scholars to represent a cosmic force that played a specifi role in the history of Angkor. It is also expected that he was not a single person, but a lineage of kings who received special protection from the court of Lord Indra. Etymologically, we know from the word "Keto-mala" that they were Mala Kings of Kedah Mountain. The suggestion links him to the Sailendra Kings of the Sri Vijayan court whose connection with Lord Indra was particularly strong. From the list of khmer monarchs who were protege of Lord Indra, we know that Indravarman II was the first to inherit the title from his father Prithivindravarman. As we shall see, Prithivindravarman came from Malayu to rule over Champapura and created a new lineage of Ketomala kings of Prey Nokor. Perhaps for the legitimacy purpose, it is a customary for the king who started a lineage to trace back his ancestors. and Indravarman did just that. Through the Sankrit inscription of Dong-duang (BEFEO IV:Notes d'Epigraphy: Premire Stele de Dong Duong, M.L. Finot) Indravarman traced his lineage back to the king Rudravarman. He was undoubtedly the same Rudravarman of Prey Nokor whom the Chenla kings ousted from the Kambojan throne. After taking refuge at Yunnan, he formed a lineage that was remembered in the Northern Siam and Lao tradition as Khun Borom (Xiang-mai: The Nan-Chao connection: King Borom of Nan-chao). In correlation with the northern Siam tradition, his descendant Khun Inh (a nickname for Indra) came back to build Ayudhya and other cities of Prey Nokor. It was when the inscription of Dong-duang commemorated the very first Indravarman king who could be identified as Indravarman I. He has the founder of Indrapura and that Prithivindravarman was a direct descendant of his. The Sankrit inscription of Prasat Cha Chuk recalls one of his purohita named Visnubhatta who also served successively under the king Yasovarman and Harsavarman.
Gotrena Kasyapas tesam anucanah purohitah asit sriparvvate dese jato yas siddhimurttivat visnubhatta iti khyatam abhikhyam lokapavanim dadhareva tripathagam yo visnupadalaksitam. (BEFO 57: La Stele du Prasat Cha Chuk K. 1034, Claude Jacques)
The passage mentions his origin from Sri Parvate Desa or Nokor Phnom that is, as we have argued, a Khmer reference to the Shan country. His name along with his reputation as the famous Angkorian scholar at the time, lead us to believe that he was no other than the legendary Visnukarman, credited to be the very first architect of the Angkorian temples.
Yasodhara and Indrapath
Continuing the khmer tradition of Visnukarman whom Prah Ketomala brought with him from his visit to God Indra, the building of the stone temples started. The first temple ever built entirely in stone, was the stone temples of prah Ko and as its name implied was built to shelter the linga representing the devine cow, Prah Ko. As we had identified that Bhadrasvara was the first god king consecrated in the name of Kaundinya or Sivanandana, the devine Bull of Siva, Prah Ko was nothing else than Bhadrasvara. The temple had a specific Khmer architecture of a mountain temple, a legacy of the ancient Nokor Phnom culture. It was built as a stone tower with multiple stepped stone roofs, mounted on top of a pyramid of multilevel bases representing the mount Meru. The pyramid base provides stable ground for the tower that was becoming the abstract representation of the Angkorian society at the start. Other mountain temples followed and evolved into different styles and architectures.
After the death of Prah bat Devavamsa, Vasyakamma Devaput built another big temple of stone decorated with walls and moats as a tribute to the new monarch.
The next temple is Phnom Bakheng and as its name implies, was also a mountain temple. The base is a platform mounted on a pyramid elevated by five levels of steps. In smaller scale, its architecture resembles the Borobudur temple built by the Sailendra Empire in Java. The only contrast is that the Borobudur temple's top three levels are of circular pattern, a tradition of the naga culture, and the Bakheng temple's all levels are of square or rectangular pattern, a reminiscence of the modern Angkorian architecture. The five shrines on the summit are arranged in equinox, replicating the five peaks of the mythical Mount Meru and representing the Cakravatin establishment. Dedicated in 907 under the reign of Yashovarman I, the temple was built in the exact center of Yashodharapura, the new capital of the Angkorian Empire.
He had Purohita to keep track of either bad or good events and save until today. He then crowned Prah Ketomala in the palace of the Great Nokor Wat. The country prospered peacefully, other countries called it Nokor Khmer, had its name changed to "Krong Kamboja Thibti Sri Sodhara bavara Indapath Kururajja Vararajadhani Puriram Uttam Mahadhan".
This official name of Cambodia was still used until the French protectorate (JA 1920, Les origines de la dynasty de Sokhodaya, George Coedes). It is interesting to note that the word "Yasodhara" or "Sodhara" followed immediately the word "Kamboja" in the name of the Angkorian kingdom. The Kambojan legacy in the formation of Angkor is obvious through inheritance from the Pu-Kam (Funan in Chinese) Empire. Indrapath, as we might recall it, was an ancient city of Northern India where the legendary Prah Tong originated (Notes: The Legacy of Indapathananagara). This renewal of the Indra' s connection was obviously done through the Pala Dynasty of West Bengal. Unlike the two borrowed names, Kamboja and Indrapath, Yasodhara or Sodhara retains its legacy from the Kamara or naga culture of the Hiong-Wang era. It is in a true sense the original identity of Nokor Khmer. The early rulers of Prey Nokor of the Uroja lineage was mentioned as Dharapati which indicated that Dhara was at the time a capital of Prey Nokor (Champapura: The Formation of Champapura: The uprising of Lin-yi). After freeing themselves from the Hans, the native Uroja kings of Prey-nokor had to deal with the Cham kings who were, as we have argued, relative of the Han Dynasty (206BC-220). The name also includes "Vararajadhani Puriram Uttam Mahadhan", a reminiscence to the past legacy of the Varadhana or the brave kingdom, known in Chinese text as Hiong-wang. It is quite common that many Khmer kings bore their title of "Varadhana" before it was changed to "Varman" during their coronation as a cakravatin monarch of Angkor. This ancient Kamara of the Nokor Phnom' s legacies could also be detected during the emergence of the Pala and later the Sailendra dynasty. According to the Khmer Tradition, Vasyakamman Devaput then started building the city of Yasodhara of the Amarindrapura.
The concept of a Cakravatin Empire was based on unifying kingdoms into a confederation that sustain the state affair of each member conforming to a common interest. Its formation consists of a Middle Kingdom and at least four cardinal states. Under the Cakravatin umbrella, kingdoms were united under the same supreme ruler called rajadhiraja or king of kings. Required to pay tribute to the central court that constituted its main revenue, they were concerning of their own business. They were allowed to sustain their own court ruled by their own kings, and most of all, except for some critical circumstances, they retain their own autonomy. In turn, the Cakravatin Monarch was the ruler of all the vassal kings. His court was concerning about policy making mainly to control and to protect their vassal states. To keep them in check and sustain orders, the Cakravatin Monarch need to be in high regard to their subordinate. Both economic and military pressures were imminent, but diplomacy was clearly the name of the game.
The Prestige
After stone temples were discovered at the Angkorian sites, scholars argued about the rational behind their practicality. It is obvious that these stone temples were not suitable as living shelters, let alone for other practical use. The answer is provided in many inscriptions. They were built to shelter the lingas, symbol of the mystical power granted by the Hindu god Siva in the commemoration of a new Devaraja or God King who will protect the king and his kingdom. For instance, the temple Bako was built to shelter the god king Bhadrasvara, the linga of the very first Kaundinya or Prah Ko. Inscriptions also reveal another rational about the responsibility of Devaraja kings to leave their mark during their reign. After the coronation, they sprung immediately into actions by building reservoirs (barays) and dams, constructing temples or religious shelters, and crushing rebels to safeguard their Cakravatin Empire. Built mostly from the booty collected during the war and from tributes of their vassal states they were built in honor for themselves or for their predecessors. They recorded their victories, achievement and historical events in inscriptions and on base-relief depicted on the wall of the temples. Thank to them, modern scholars could trace back Khmer history that would otherwise perished along with the Angkorian Empire. They were historical books that lasted through wars and bad weather while their contemporary history records in light material all perished. Clearly, these stone temples were built to serve one primary purpose that is to sustain the prestige of the Cakravatin Empire. They represented the universe centered at mount Meru where the god king ruled over his cardinal vassalage. The Angkorian court used the stone temples as commodities to propagate the Cakravatin culture. For scholars, they were open books on religious theologies and most of all on history in the making where they could walk through and not just to learn but to live in it. For the mass people, they were their cultural center where they get their sense of purposes and belonging, duty and achievement, and most of all their common identity. Khmer Tradition and inscriptions mentioned that vassal states sent their yuvaraja or heirs and perhaps also the children of the elite classes for training at the Angkorian site. As the prestige grew, the temples also grew in size and obviously in cost. For long, scholars had argued that the cost could be one of the major contributors to the fall of the Angkorian Empire in the next millennium to come.
The Khmer Language
During the Funan era, the Kamara language was naturally predominant among the Autroasiatic societies of Buddhist religion. Other indigenous languages were left to the choice of their communities along with their own beliefs and cultures. During the Khmerization, the Khmer language and scripture were kept mostly for the administration of the Khmer court and by all means was not enforced on the general population. It explains the existence of many other indigenous dialects side by side with the Khmer Language in Cambodia until the modern time. Outside of Angkor, the spreading of the Khmer Language was even more restrictive and was concentrated only in the Khmer administrative centers. Used only by the family members of the Khmer elite, its existence among the Mon-Khmer communities could only be checked out by stone inscriptions found in many places at the Menam Valley and the Khorat Plateau. On the other hand, due to the lack of public institutions, languages as well as cultures were spreading at best through religions. Endorsed by the Buddhist societies of Ceylon, the Pali language became the primary language of the Theravada Buddhism. Under its influence, the Kamara language of the original Mon-Khmer family underwent transformation into the Mon Language. The divergence does not obviously bother the Khmer Empire since Theravada Buddhism and the Pali Language were also part of their legacy. Under the Cakaravatin Umbrella, languages as many other aspect of cultures were left to the believers. This loose cultural enforcement was resulting in less friction that made the Khmer Cakravatin establishment transparent to subordinate states. However, it also made the alliance vulnerable to foreign interference. We shall see that after the Mongol incursion, the Khmer establishment was disintegrated completely into separate nations. Under the Cinicization, new nations were formed based on specific set of local and imported cultures. To strengthen their nationality, each nation invade its weaker neighbors and enforced its culture upon them for the sake of homogeneity (The break down of the Cakravatin Empire: The Break down of the Angkorian Empire: The impact of demographic changes and the effect of Cinicization).
The Dynastic Connection
One well-known policy of sustaining order and cooperation in the Cakravatin Empire involves intermarriage. Once a ruler accepted his subordinate status, he often sent his daughter to the higher court as token of gratification. As a result, the Cakravatin Monarch could have as many secondary queens as the number of the cardinal states. The reverse policy was also common; at his own discretion, the Cakravatin ruler might also choose to marry his daughter to a potential monarch of subordinate state. A typical example was the marriage of the daughter of naga king, the Funan ruler, to the Khmer King Prah Thong. The consequence was immediate; even though derived from different origins, these rulers were involved in intermarriage so much so that they were all blood related. This policy worked well in time that circumstances allow them to unify and was an efficient diplomacy to secure peace and alliance. However, it was also a source of conflicts in the time of crises. According to matrimonial tradition, an heir of one kingdom could claim himself to be the heir of the others. Fights erupted and created all sort of political skirmishes if smooth transition was not achieved. The Angkorian throne that represented the middle power of the Cakravatin Empire was particularly vulnerable. To minimize the risk, the Angkorian office of rite had come up with elaborate rule of identifying the heir to the Angkorian throne. Because of its inheritance, the Angkorian court would still have to resolve dynastic conflict sprung from the Khmer court of Prey Nokor. We shall see that two lines were becoming strong players in the future of the Angkorian politic due to their assimilation with the two contemporary power houses of Southeast Asia, the Sri Vijaya and the Chola Empire. Understandably, the conflicts between the twos lines were not only carried on in the internal affair of Angkor, but in a grand scale, over all its cardinal states. It is thus not surprising that records of such conflicts were not inscribed in Angkor's inscriptions, but instead were spreading in local records of its surrounding states. During the next dynastic crisis, recorded in the Mon tradition, the Angkorian court would face a drastic transformation, even-though still retaining the legacy of the Cakravatin Empire (The Chola Dynasty: The Dynastic Crisis: The conflict between Java and Sri Vijaya).
Until recently, Angkor was believed to be formed on the ground of the native Khmer people of Cambodia today. We had argued instead that Angkor, as the middle kingdom of a Cakaravatin Empire, owed its existence to all its cardinal states. As a matter of fact, Cambodia of today was a bay and that before the formation of Nokor Khmer at prey-Nokor in the late fourth Century, the Angkorian site was still inhabitable (Prey Nokor: The Cradle of Nokor Khmer: The Great Lake). To start, Angkor received the Khmer legacy from Varadhana of Prey-nokor and the Kambojan legacy from Lawasangharatha of Lavo. We shall argue that two other cardinal states like Champapura and Sri Dharmaraja were also important in the formation of Angkor as well.
Prey Nokor as the early Middle Kingdom
Retaining the legacy of the ancient Hiong-wang Kingdon, Prey-Nokor was actually the preceptor of the Khmer Empire. It was here that Kaundinya or Yang-Mah built the Khmer kingdom after chasing out the Cham king from Champapura and freed Prey-Nokor from Chinese control. It was here also that the first Southeast Asian Cakravatin Empire was built on the ground of the broken down of the original Khmer Kambojan Empire (Known in Chinese texts as Funan). After recovering from the control of the Chenla power house, we know through Chinese sources, that Prey Nokor was the first to be reformed as Huang-wang (Xiang-mai: The Cradle of the Angkorian Empire: The startup of the Southeast Asian Cakravatin Empire). It was actually a Cakravatin in the making, formed by the fallen Kaundinya court of Prey-nokor. Conforming to the Laos tradition of Khun Lo (or Lo Dharni), Prithivindravarman was confirmed by inscriptions as the first king to be crowned as a Cakravatin monarque. It was actually a come back of the displaced court of Pry Nokor, after regrouping themselve at Central Java under the new identity of the sailendra. The Javanese attacks however would make the new empire prone to foreign incursion and forced Jayavarman II to move his Middle Kingdom inland to the Angkorian site of today. Out of the harassment from the Javanese attacks, Angkor thrived to become the next power house of Southeast Asia. At the mean time, Champapura along with Prey-Nokor became its first cardinal state. In the new development, Cambhupura ceased its existence while Champapura transformed itself as a major maritime port of Angkor. Due to its locality, Champapura became a strategic location of the seatrade that competed directly with the Chinese port of Tonkin. Due to its importance, Champapura was split from Prey-Nokor and in connection with Luang Prah Bang and Nokor Rajasima of the Khorat plateau, formed the Northeastern (Isan) cardinal state of Angkor. At the south where seated the ancient site of Vyadhapura, new emerged land provided the Khmer Kingdom of Prey-nokor with fertile land for its agriculturist development. However the success of the seatrade was too lucrative for the Angkorian court to ignore. With the help of the Sri Vijaya, Prey-Nokor became another major port of the Khmer Empire. Through the Mekong river, seatrade was extended in land into the heart of Angkor itself. Through colaboration of both the Sri Vijaya and later the Chola ruling houses, Angkor became the wealthiest kingdom of eastern Asia to rival China itself. Even after the Mongol incursion, Angkor still retained its reputation as a wealthy Kingdom that was normally attributed to the legendary Kingdom of Ta-tsin. Because of this wealth, Angkor was able to start on ambitious projects that have never been done before in Southeast Asia. Great temples, such as the temple of Angkor Wat, was then built to glorify the Khmer Cakravatin Empire.
Lavo as Angkor's military Command Center
Politically and demographically, Lawaratha or Lavo had important role to play in the formation of the Angkorian Empire. Along side with Xiang-mai and Haripangjaya, Lavo had very deep tradition in connection to the Soma line of the Sri Vijayan court (Notes: The Kamboj Legacy of the Sri Vijaya). Very much like other cardinal states of the Cakravatin Empire, Lavo was always part of Angkor. Known as Anindityapura in Khmer inscriptions, Lavo had deep past connection with Dvaravati of the Menam Valley. Starting from the conquest of Chenla, Lavo however became the traditional house of the line of kings descended from Bhavavarman and received the name of Bhavapura. In contrast to its antiquity as a city of the naga kingdom of Dvaravati, Lavo became now the city of the human kind or Nararatha. The transition reflects the Khmer legacy in regard to the internal organization of Angkor. While Angkor was its capital where state decision making was made, Lavo served as its military command center. Being more populous than its middle Kingdom and other cardinal states as well, it is expected that Lavo was Angkor's main source for people resource. In consistency with the strategic defense system of the Khmer Cakravatin Empire that was started at Prey Nokor, Lavo became the recruiting ground of the Khmer army during wartime. From then on, the title of Narapati was found in Khmer inscriptions and scholars agreed that it was the Angkorian title designated specially for Lavo' s rulers who hold the position of the Angkorian Obraja (army general) or viceking. Because of this high importance, they were often picked from eminent members of the the Angkorian court and many became eventually the Angkorian monarch during their next promotion. As a military commanding post of Angkor, Lavo was also controlling all northern Siam countries under Angkor' s cakravatin affair of dependent states. This close relationship explains why the northern Siam Tradition mentioned, in the formation of Haripunjaya, that the King of Lavo was the King Cakravati. We shall argue that he was no other than Jayavarman II who was reigning as a Chakravatin monarch at Angkor. On the same premisse, it is not a coincidence that Jayavarman II' s posthomous name was Paramesvara, a Sanskrit reference to the same ancestrial Khun Borom of Northern Siam tradition.
A shared History
For long, western scholars had been bothered by the similarity of events recorded in Burmese, Khmer and Siam chronicles after the formation of the Angkorian Empire. It appears that the historical facts recorded in these chronicles were copied from one to another and for most of the cases were relating to the same specific events. Dismayed, they downgraded all local records as having no historical values because of their lack of originality. To fit into their western format, only selective parts were vaguely mentioned and often enough, they were misinterpreted. The Khmer chronicles in particular, being sketchy in a story telling style, were among the firsts to be rejected. On the other sides, the Burmese and Siamese chronicles did no fare better. Being compiled by Buddhist monks for general audience, the historical events often linked to Buddhist concepts making their appearance more like religious manuscripts than chronicles. To make the matter worst, mythology was included as part of the Hindu heritage. In contrast to stone inscriptions, they were written on light material and were subject to change hand from one scribe to another. Despite the effort to preserve the originality, corrections from personal views during each copy were made and deterioration was unavoidable. The dating system, for instance, was the most neglected since it was not that critical to the general public as much as to historians. Another problem is the presentation of many historical figures as an essence of the same fictional character. It is quite common that a lineage of many kings is presented as only one person with the same surname. As we had seen, Prah Tong of the Khmer chronicle was actually a lineage of kings descended from the very first Kaundinya exiled from the Gupta court (Indianization: The Aryavarta's connection). In contrast to the Chinese records, these local chronicles clearly fall below western standard, but nonetheless are no less truthful. To their similarity, the reality was that under the Cakravatin umbrella, the mainland of Indochina was set to share the same history. As a result, it is not surprising that the historical event of the Cakravatin monarch was often quoted as part of the Cardinal court's historical record. A typical example is found in the record of the queen Camadevi in reguard to the formation of Haripangjaya. In the chronicle of Lapung, she was mentioned as the daughter-in-law of the Cakravati king of Lavo. In Pali, the word "Chakravati" mean the Cakravatin monarch and the title is reserved for the ruler of the Middle Kingdom only. As Lavo was part of Angkor, the title refers him as the Cakravatin monarch of Angkor who was at the time, Jayavarman II. From that finding, we conclude that she was the consort of Jayavarman III.
We had argued that Theravada Buddhism had been brought into Southeast Asia by the Kaundinya court of Prey-Nokor. After the attack by the Chenla clan, Buddhist practices suffered a serious setback that lasted until the fall of the Chenla Empire. The founding of Angkor by the surviving court of Kaundinya and the Nagi Princess nevertheless brought back the Buddhist legacy into the Khmer kingdom. The revival was however more visible in the Menam Valley after the Chenla King Bhavavarman had reinstated Buddhism into the Mon communities of Dvaravati. At the time that Angkor founded the military commanding post of Lavo, Sri Dharmarja already became a cultural center for Theravada Budhhism to spread along the Menam valley. Continuing this tradition, a new development was under way in making Northern Siam becoming more and more a part of the Angkorian Empire. The foundation of Haripunjaya was seen by many scholars as of Mon development, but we shall argue that it was instead an Buddhist expansion, initiated under the reign of Jayavarman II, the Cakravatin monarch of Angkor.
The Founding of Haripunjaya
The chronicle of Lapun (Annales du Siam: Chronicle de Lapun, Camille Notton) accounts a northern Buddhist community founded by Buddhist monks requested a leadership from Lavo court. The King of Lavo sent his adopted daughter, Camdevi, with a large retinue of its people to form a new country named Haripunjaya. The chronicle identifies the current ruler of Lavo as Cakravati, a title associated with the Cakravatin monarch of the Angkorian Empire who was no other than Jayavarman II. His adopted daughter Camdevi who was also his daughter in law, was at the time three months pregnant. Her husband whom we shall identify as no other than Jayavarman III was commissioned by the king Cakravati to rule over Ramana Nagara. This northern expansion is not a surprise since we had seen that Aninditpura was part of Angkor itself. Arriving at the site of Haripunjaya, the Queen laid plan for her new city.
She (Nang Camdevi) delegated the northeastern part of Muang Haripunjaya to be the residence for the people coming from Muang Lavo, the western part for the people coming from Miggasangara, the southern part for the people coming from Ramanigama. She dedicated the center for the descendants of the people born in the Samnok Sedaya who were native from the footprint of elephants, rhinoceros and bisons.
The passage indicates that beside the indigenous tribes born from the footprints of elephants, rhinoceros and bison, immigrants from the southern cities including Lavo, Ramanigama and Miggasangara joined in to form the original population of the new city. Beside Lavo where the new Haripunjaya's court originated from, Ramanigama was obviously the same as Ramana Nagara where her husband was residing. On the other hand, Miggasangara was obviously a synonym of lawaSangharatha and was referring to Chiang-mai that was also part of Aninditapura. It is a typical example of how a city of a Cakravatin Empire was formed by consolidating the control of local people with new migrants from surrounding cities or states. As we had argued, the Middle Kingdom of the Khmer Cakravatin Empire that is Angkor proper was also formed the same way.
The Spreading of Theravada Buddhism
The unreliability of dating system in ancient Chronicles, the chronicle of Lapun in particular, creates difficulty for us to come-up with the exact date of Haripunjaya's foundation. However, chronology allows us to approximate its formation to the start-up of the Angkorian Empire, which was in the nineteenth century. It was at the high of Angkorian's expansion under the reign of king Jayavarman II himself. The sending of the queen Camadevi, at her three months pregnancy, to Haripunjaya was clearly a hash decision from the part of the Cakravatin Monarch. On the other hand, her husband was sent to rule over Ramana Nagara that was likely the same as Sr Dharmaraja (The Chenla Empire: The Chenla Conquest: Sri Ksetra and Rampuri). The chronicle explain this decision, which queen Camadevi accepted without objection, as the outcome of a family's disruption due to a certain condition of her husband.
While he was named vice-king to rule over Rama Nagara, he left his duty to enter into religion and that Nang Camadevi was in the wake of divorcing him.
It reminds us about the specific condition of Jayavaman III' s strong commitment to his science and religion as mentioned in the inscription of Stok kak Thom, and most importatly to his lack of interest with women. The chronicle went-on to portray the queen Camadevi as a strong leader, capable to carry-on her assignment during her late pregnancy, even-though harassed by a nearby ruler of the Lua people name Vilanga. Continuing the tradition of Lavo, she succeeded to establish Haripunjaya as the spreading ground of Theravada Buddhism (Annales du Siam: Chronicle de Lapun, Camille Notton).
Haripunjaya was then very prosperous. There were five hundreds towns with their rest houses, parks and ponds with lotus, making the places very comfortable to stay. There were many villages all around. The devotion of the people was such that two thousands grand monasteries were built to serve as shelter for religious figures from Lavo who accompanied Nang Chamaradevi. These five hundreds venerable distributed disciples and pupils to receive donation from the people and practiced religious deeds in these monasteries. We counted five hundreds of these venerable but their disciples were countless.
The queen Camdevi gave birth to a set of twin brothers whom she made kings of Haripangjaya and Lampang even before they reached adulthood.
After seven days of reigning, Nang Chamtevi gave birth to twin brothers. She was pregnant since Lavo. She gave the name of Mahantayassa to the elder and Indavara to the younger, because they both were of the same beauty.
The older of the twins, Mahantayassa succeeded the queen Chamaradevi and reigned over Haripunjaya while he was only seven years old. Not long afterward, the cadet Indavara also made himself known to become sovereign like his brother. It was then decided to found another kingdom for him. With the help of an elder named Subrahma, another city was built and it was named Lampang. The twins continued on the work of their mother and both Haripunjaya and Lampun became the extension of Lavo to spread the Theravada Buddhism at the northern part of the Menam Valley.
The Founding of Lampang
Lampang was also known as Khelang or Khelyang, meaning the kingdom of mount Khale. The Jinakalamali moreover refers the name Khelang as an attribute to a hunter named Khelanga of the mount Luddapabbatta (Hunter's hill) because he was instrumental in helping the elder Subrahma to built the city. At the mean time, there is evidence that Jayavarman II was also actively involved with this northern development. A Sanskrit inscription, found at mount Prah Vihear (JSS, Sanskrit Inscriptions of Campa and Cambodia, by Abel Bergaine), makes a reference to Lampang, during its foundation, as not a totally an isolated area.
By the king's decree they have obtained the land of Maharatharuna, called Vana, along with Sacivalingam, which was previously unoccupied and where there is a linga of Civa. The boundaries of this territory are Cetanapuraka to the east, Mushikasthala to the south, Lampang to the west, Lampang to the north.
The king mentioned in the passage was Jayavarman II who found the Cakravatin Empire at the Angkorian site. The inscription indicates that Jayavarman II had granted a substantial amount of land to his family members in the vicinity of Lampang. It supports our assumption that Jayavarman II himself was the Cakravati monarch mentioned in the Lampang chronicle and that the establishment of his family members at vicinity of Lampang was actually a part of Haripuangjaya' s foundation. From the finding, we conclude that Haripangjya became since a Buddhist Cultural Center, formed to support the control of Angkor over the Northern Siam Countries. It is said that the queen Camdevi stayed six months at the new city and then she said good bye to her younger son and returned to Haripunjaya where she spent her last days.
Seven days barely passed after she arrived, she fell sick and her existence ended despite all the medical treatment administered to her.
We had seen that both Haripunjaya and Lampang were founded after Lavo' s legacy and once established, they kept theirs close relationship with its sister state Lavo and were well connected with Angkor. After a few generations however, the descendants of the queen Camadevi were no longer the sole rulers of Haripunjaya. Like many other parts of Southeast Asia, Lavo and Angkor included, Haripunjaya underwent dynastic changes and at the end of the tenth century, it declared war with its sister state Lavo. It was an event closely connected to the political dynamic development of Angkor that led to the creation of Ramandesa. We shall argue also that the post-Angkorian court of Cambodia actually was originated from these two courts.

  1. ISSA: The Indianized States of Southeast Asia, by G. Coedes
  2. RPNK: The Royal Pangsavadra of Nokor Khmer, by M. Tranet
  3. LAPUN: Annales du Siam: Chronicle de Lapun, Camille Notton
  4. JINA: Jinakalamali (The epochs of the conqueror), by Ratanapanna Thera, translated by N. A. Jayawikramma
  1. Chronology:
    802-869: reign of Jayavarman II; Foundation of Haripangjaya and Lampang; 869-877: reign of Jayavarman III; 877-889: Reign of Indravarman II; 889-900: reign of Yasovarman.
  2. Kuti
    The Pali word "Kuti" means temporary dwelling. It is used mostly as temple's building to shelter monks or religious party for temporary stay at the temple. In a general sence, Kuti could be made as permanent shelter but is intended for temporary stay only. As contrary to permanent residence, it could also be a reference to a camp built with permanent shelter.
  3. The dependencies of Angkor
    In the original translation of the inscription, the Sanskrit word "dadhana" is mistranslated as bordered while it should be translated as included or contained. The mistake was perhaps intentional due to the misconception that Champa could never be part of the Angkorian Empire that was normally restricted by scholar to be the same as Cambodia today.
  4. The Legacy of Indapathananagara
    During the Lokantara Kappa, a plague decimated the population and drove it to disperse in the whole world. A son of Praya Patariputa, descendant of the race Maha Samantaraja, with his spouse, broke the wall of his domain and took refuge in the forest. When the plague stopped, they did no go back to their city, because it was too far. Later they conceived a son and named him Kuruvamsa because he was very good looking. At the age of three years old, his father died and at the age of seven years old his mother also died. He managed to survive in the forest until the age of twelve years old and became so strong that he can build his shelter out of stone. Upon hearing about his strength, Praya Pothisan, want to make him king of his kingdom. He later took as his consort a member of Khattiya family, named Indapathana, who like him did not know that she was belonged to the Khattiya family. The kingdom Pothisan was then known after her as Indapathananagara.
  5. The Kamboj Legacy of the Sri Vijaya
    It is important to note that the Sri Vijayan court was still holding strong the Kambojan tradition of the West. As legend stated, the original Si Vijayan court was formed from the coupling of the lion of the Western Kambojan stock with the Naga stock of Vanga. The Kamboj presence was later strengtened by the Ashoka's family members during the hight of Buddhist expansion. Nonetheless, the western lion legacy was fading and for most of their existence they presented themselve as member of the Mahavamsa family of the Water Naga court. Because of their Kamboj legacies that they were known in Khmer tradition as KambojNaga.