Atrahasis


Project: Atrahasis
Author: Lem Chuck Moth

Started date: July/01/2018
Last updated: December/01/2018
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Note:
Since this paper is still drafted, the readers would be advised to ignore any context errors. The content is not final and subjected to be reviewed. Please kindly notify me of the discrepancies.


INTRODUCTION
The Atrahasis is the protagonist of an eighteenth-century BC Akkadian epic recorded in various versions on clay tablets. The oldest known copy of the epic tradition was dated to the reign of Hammurabi's great-grandson, Ammi-Saduqa (1646-1626 BC). Evidences however show that various Old Babylonian fragments exist and were continuously copied into the first millennium BC. The Atrahasis story also exists in a later Assyrian version that was first discovered in the library of Ashurbanipal, but because of its fragmentary condition its translation was left unfinished. In its most complete surviving version, the Atrahasis epic is written on three tablets in Akkadian, the language of ancient Babylon. The name "Atra-Hasis" also appears on one of the Sumerian king lists as king of Shuruppak in the times before a flood. Inscribed in three different tablets, the epic story divided itself into three parts. It includes both the creation myth and the flood account that were similar to those in the Christian Bible 's book of Genesis. The account of Men creation is followed by the disturbance that was made by men, prompting the god Ellil to inflict wrath on them. As one among three surviving Babylonian deluge stories, the flood story is presented as the last Ellil's decision as consequence of his previous unsuccessful mischief attempts on men. In correlation to the flood story of Southeast Asia, we date the event of the man creation and the flood deluge to happened prior to our current Kalpa of Buddha Gautama (Prehistory: The Flood Myth: The Indigenous (the Bru and the Koho) 's Flood Myths).

References to Previous Works
Many works on the epic had been published and are made available for the general audience by various scholars. As far as we agreed in most of their studies, we also found discrepancies in the historical interpretation that was due mostly to the lack of proper reference. Since it was compiled in Mesopotamia, there were general believes that the historical background of the myths occurred in Middle East. Most came to the conclusion that the myths were to be incorporated in the Christian Bible of the Genesis. As in the Bible, both the creation of men (Adam and Eve in the Bible) and the flood myths were believed to be literally taking places in Mesopotamia between the two rivers Tigris and Euphrate where Atrahasis (Noah in the Bible) lived. So far, no evidences show that any flood of such epic magnitude was ever happening at Middle East. Our finding show that it happening in Southeast Asia instead and that the epic flood story was later spread to the whole world to become part of the Genesis of humanity (Prehistory: The Flood Myth: In Correlation to the Noah Flood). In connection to the Man and later the Meru Culture spreading around the world, we start by asserting that the sumerian folklore were first implanted in Middle East (at Ur) to be compiled later as religious myths and taught in various religious pantheons. In that though, we shall use Hindu and Buddhist cosmogonies in providing additional information to explicit the real history behind the two abstract myths. If necessary, mythology from Southeast Asia could also be referenced to provide more reality to the story lines.

THE GENESIS
Evidences show that from the start of the Bhadrakalpas of which three supreme Buddha already ruled the earth, modern men were already created and reincarnation became the common process of God intervention on humanity. Nevertheless, the Atrahasis conveys that the high gods were also present in their spiritual forms (of Holy Ghost) to guide through out each kalpa. Under the supervision of the high gods, humanity already started with the gods Lgigi and the Anunnaki being born in human form and lived among modern men on selected places of the earth. Under these conditions, humanity had to adapt to the transition of the colored powers and made their best for the improvement of their spirituality.

The Religious Background
Of the Meru's tradition, Kalayuga is the most challenging time for humanity of all other yugas. It is the time that the lower spectrum of Red energy started to exert its potential obstruction into the whole ream of the earthly spiritual world. Unlike in other yugas where spirituality could come from diverse planes, notably from the Brahma world, the ruling spirits were mostly from the first heaven of the Red Energy (Anunna of the Sumerian cosmology). The Atrahasis is the epic story about their intervention on humanity that included both the creation of the man species and the flood deluge that was unleashed upon them. In that developments, scholars noticed that the epic story was actually one of the sources of the Bible book of Genesis on the accounts of the creation of men and the great deluge that came after. In addition, it provides us with rare information on how the Red Energy interferes in the earth cosmogony. through the eclipse god Ashur. Under his ruler-ship, nothing had changed to both the Man and the Meru Culture, but a complete reversal of discipline in their applications that made humanity in complete disarray. By then the Sumerian high godhead Brahma and Meru were no longer in control of the earth. Instead, there is mentioning of the congress of gods in the overall policy making of both the earth and heaven, Nevertheless, the epic story stresses out that most decision fell under the sway of selected godheads with the most power holding through verbal persuasion to the assembly of gods. Under the dark side of both the Sun and the Moon cultures, Zeus and his two siblings Hadis and Poseidon constituted the divine trinity that actually ruling over both the earth and the heaven. To make the matter worst, Hadis (Ellil in Sumerian folklore) appeared to be the most unholy one among the siblings but came to rule the earth with all the powers to command respect from both the god and men communities of the old earth (Notes: Merit vs Power). His favoritism of the Anunnaki over the Lgigi induced unrest among the latter against his rule. To solve the problem, his brother Poseidon (Enki in Sumerian folklore) decided to create the human kind to off-load Lgigi's burden of works. The assignment was given to the womb-goddess to create new specie of man that made its way into the Bible' s book of Genesis God's accounts of human creation and the wrath that he unleashed on them. In this Christian scripture, the Lord Gos was actually the combined essence of the interference of Enki (representing the force of creation) and his brother Ellil (representing the force of destruction) in the new creation of modern men and the subsequent of God's wrath on them due to their wickedness. Atrahasi who was the chosen one to be saved by Enki could be identified as Noah of the Christian Bible 's flood deluge.

The Conflict of Gods
In the opening of the story line, The epic story started with the eulogy of the Akkadian godheads making their way to rule the earth.
While Ellil went to make his abode among the men of earth and astute Enki acquired for himself the entire sea 's crater after Anu was in the sky, and the Apsu god did descend. Then the heavenly Anunnaki made the Lgigi take the load. . . So the immortals carved out the channel of the river Tigris and the divinities carved out the channel of the Euphrates. (Atra: Tablet I: p. 58)
In a normal situation, the Anunnakis were the apprentices of the Lgigi. In Kalayuga, the reverse role happened. Backed by the power of Anu, the Anunnakis oppressed the authority of their masters. In the show of their powers, they forced them to take on the heavy load of works. For almost the duration of the Kalayuga, the Lgigi endured their burdens (Notes: Average Duration of the Kalayuga).
It was 3,600 years in which they carried the heavy loads, the work was burdensome. (Atra: Tablet I: p. 57)
Knowing that the Kalayuga was going to end, the Lgigi started to rebel and the god Anu had no other choice than to find a solution to off-load their heavy works. Enki then proposed his own solution of creating men to take on the works of the Lgigi
Know that on the first, seventh, and fifteenth of the month, I will conduct water purification and one god will be slain. Thus the gods will be cleansed through these holy ablutions (Notes: the holy Ablution).(Atra: Tablet I: p. 67)
He proposed to use the slain god' flesh and blood to create a new specy of man. He then assigned the goddess Belet-ili who was known as the womb-goddess to take on the biological process. She was actually the goddess of reproduction (As her title implied) to be called for the task of creating the man species.
Then Nintu will combine the clay with his flesh and blood, so that a being, divine and mortal, will come from the clay. Then we will hear-beat rhythm from henceforth. Let the spirit arise into being from out of divine flesh, but let her relate to man, while he is alive, of his condition. So they will never forget that the spirit is eternally made.(Atra: Tablet 1: p. 67)
Human kinds were reminded on how they were made, so they would take responsibity of their eternally made spirit.

The Sumerian Legacy
Unlike the Enuma Elish, the Atrahasis did not elaborate on the gods who would play important role in both epic stories of men creation and the deluge flood. The lack of reference leads us to look for clue in the Enuma Elist for the origin of Gods (Enuma Elish: The Genesis: The Origin of Gods) to avoid possible misconception about the gods identities during the next interpretation of the story. For instances, we knew that Apsu and Tiamat were actually referring to the Brahman spiritual communities that sprung from their earthly settlement in Southeast Asia. Apsu was actually identified as the small Brahman community of mount Himalayas that acted as the source (of spirituality) for the earth, Also known in Buddhist tradition as Jumbudvipa, Apsu was actually referring to the earth 's continent that resided the five Buddhas of the Bhadrakalpas. On the other hand, Tiamat was the big Brahman community to represent the progenator of all living things on earth. The epic story would be then a good source of information why the Great Flood of Southeast Asia happened at the first place and shed some light on the Hoabinhian Cultural development during the last kalpa that preceded the flood as well. It was undeniable that Tiamat became already global and that the creation of modern men would be just another additional venture to the Anunnaki court. As the epic story continued, it was the Womb-goddess Nintu that was the mother who gave birth to all. Under the recommendation of Ea, she gave birth to a new species of man to help the Lgigi to carry on their works. In correlation with the Great Flood that followed the creation of men, we date the event to be at the last part of the Kalpa of which Buddha Kassapa already attained his enlightenment. If the dating is exact, the Atrahasis epic tells us that before the flood, major Middle Eastern development already occurred. Continuing on the Buddhist tradition, the next Buddhisatva named King Samata raja started his own kalpa as a new enlightenment Buddhist cycle for all lives residing on the surface of the earth. He was mentioned in Buddhist tradition to be descended from the last Buddha Kassapa in the lineage of Buddhavamsa to take on the lead of humanity of our current kalpa. From his first Kingdom at Baranasi, he would spread the Man Culture over the world and Mesopotamia was the first to be reconnected with Southeast Asia to facilitate the transition (The Man Race: The Human Civilization: Manu the Great). Ur was next to be built, by his son Urorojja to implant the Man Culture at the west. Due to its cultural close relationship with Southeast Asia that the compiled epic Flood story of the Atrahasis mistook Mesopotamia as the site of the flood.

THE CREATION OF THE MAN SPECIES
Presented in tablet I, the first part serves as the genesis of the story line that follows. It gives detail information on how human kinds were created by the congress of high gods to off-load the works of the gods Lgigi. As we shall argue, it was the story of creation of the austronesian speakers in complementary to the already created austroasiatic people. The second tablet was concerning about the gods (Ellil in particular) being increasingly fed-up with the new created humanity of which they tried very hard to take control. The epic ends in the last tablet (tablet III) in the unleashing of the flood itself that reduced the new created human communities back to ground zero.

The Cloning Process
Unlike the Enuma Elish that keep the epic story of men creation in abstract myth, the Atrahasis gives detail description of the process that provides a good information on how the creation of the austronesian speaking people was done. During the first, seventh and the fifteenth of the month, the god Enki conducts a water-purification to cleanse the spirit of the gods by a ritual processing called the holy ablutions. It required the sacrifice a god for the purification.
The wise god Ilawela was chosen to be slain at the congress, Nintu combine together the clay with his flesh and blood. So that they heard the heartbeat rhythms from henceforth and the spirit arose into being from out of the divine flesh. (Atra: Tablet 1: p. 68)
The flesh and blood of the slain god was then given to the womb goddess to proceed into the next step. We could not elaborate on the technical process of the womb-goddess who through both spiritual and physical means would complete the human speciation process. Nonetheless, the interpretation of the proceeding supports neither the Darwinist theory of natural selection nor the Christian creationism of men in their total radical or abstract statements. A medical approach to explicate the proceeding of both Atrahasis and Enuma Elish of human creation appears to show it as a duplicating (cloning in biological term) process of god's physical body for human soul instead. With that analogy, the following interpretation is intended to show the importance of supernatural process in the formation of human species through the simplified process of human physical cloning of gods. It starts with the womb-goddess using the slain god's flesh to mix with the damp-clay in a test tube to produce the gnome of a new human species. Of the damp-clay, she split into a number of cells to be each inseminated into a chosen primal human mother (Notes: The Primal Human Mother). The same for the medical duration of human pregnancy, she waited for ten months for the babies to be fully developed and born. Of the fourteen first specimens (of seven boys and seven girls) who were born and lived to their maturity, she made seven couples to reproduce the new human species. The account went on to describe on how the process was repeated to produce more and more modern men. During their lives, they were reminded of their nature to do not forget that their spirit is eternal made and of god origin. With a replica of a god's physical body, men were becoming more powerful than they were in their previous primal form (Notes: Human Primal Form). Nevertheless, men had to stand against their own temptation that come naturally with their new improved physical bodies. When the goddess Ishtar was in control over the new humanity after her brother Enki, she apparently did not care as much on the restriction.
The wife and the husband will select each other for partners and Ishtar will be gladdened by the wedding of man and wife.(Atra: Tablet 1: p. 70)
She started by pairing them up into a productive family as man and wife. In rather a short period of time, human beings were plentiful to populate the earth and started to make noises.

The Code of Conduct for the Race of Man
Of our interpretation, the Atrahasi 's account of men creation does not hint whatsoever about the Darwinist natural selection process in the rise of human species. In contrast, the epic story had made it clear that the birth of modern men were monitored and received full assistance from their god progenitors. Like other Sumerian epic stories, the rest of the story line would stress on the importance of god intervention in the survival of the man species as well as the extinction of other species from the surface of the globe (The History of Humanity: The Genesis: The Origin of Gods). Immediately after their births, the womb-goddess started on organizing their families to make sure that they multiplied and reminded them of their nature and duties in regard to their gods.
The man and wife will then live together, bound to one another and shall carry out the work for their existence, acting in virtue. Never straying from the honorable, bringing the gifts of gods. (Atra: Tablet 1: p. 70)
Beside that they were taught to do variety of works to bring up to sustain their existence and having been reminded of their spirituality origin, they have to worship their gods. At first, the gods enjoyed and were contents of men's offerings but theirs good feelings were soon fading. When their numbers grew, men started to annoy gods with their noise making.
Six hundreds years, not even six-hundred years went by, the inhabited land sprawled and the people grew plentiful and the inhabited lands raised a howl like a bellowing bull. But the god was annoyed by all the noise that they made.(Atra: Tablet 1: p. 73)
As they started to find out about their new potential, men were becoming arrogance and noisy. Made in the image of gods, they fell prey to their own self-indulgence (Prehistory: The Flood Myth: In Correlation to the Noah Flood). Some started to believe that they are actually equal to gods and should be treated as such. Their rebellious tendency against God's rule soon became their birth trait next to their physical sensation, and worst of all to their drive for material gain. Ellil was the most bothered and decided to inflict on them hardship in the effort to stop them from making more madness. For him, men are just not up to their potential in term of morality.

The Plea for Help
With the cooperation of the divine congress, Ellil unleashed plagues and famines in the attempt to quiet them down. First the god Namtara unleashed shivering decease upon them. Next the god Adad and the goddess Nissaba created weather' s harsh condition to the harvest of crops causing famine to men. While other men were coping with the plague and continued to Ellil by their noises, Atrahasis was the only one who understood the gravity of men 's misbehaving. In his distress, he had sent the offerings and called for the god Ea for help. Ea heard his plea and sent his Lahmu-men to investigate.
So they journeyed across the magnificently broad oceans until they went the entire way to the Apsu water's shore, conveying Atrahasis the message they brought from Ea. (Atra: Tablet II: p.80)
After the Lahmu-men found him, they conveyed to him the message from Ea.
Are you the weeping man who sent his plea into the Apsu? Kow that Ea has heard you and that we were sent by him. (Atra: Tablet II: p.80)
Ea sent one of his officers to explain to Atrahasis that the plague was a direct consequence of theirs owns actions. With Ea's advice, Atrahasis was able to foil Ellil's spell on men, but everytime that the plague stops men started on making noise again. Ellil soon found out about the breach.
The warrior Ellil was aware that this breach was done by Enki and that the other gods had repeal what they had decided and he was stomping mad from his elevated ire at the lgigi.(Atra: Tablet 1: p. 90).

THE FLOOD EPIC
After being created, men annoyed Ellil of their habit of noise making. Without elaborating on what kind noise making men had done, we had the impression that Ellil was over-reacting in his decision to annihilate men. As we are now on the same environment and experienced the same noise making that men do recently to humanity (The Westernisation: Introduction: The Apocalypse in the Making), we could understand why Ellil was very much annoyed and his subsequent decision against men.

The Congress of God
Unable to inflict damage to the new created men, Ellil summoned the god assembly to address his issue. The last part of the tablet II contains the proposal of Ellil to the congress of gods for the flood resolution upon men. Apparently composed of his own party members, Ellil spoke to them with authority. At he beginning of his speech, he blamed them for the harm done by creating men and urged them to undo their mistake.
You are the ones who passed your burdens onto mankind. You are the ones So you must who gave voice to man that he might speak and you have slain a god altogether along with his mind. So you must do something about it and bring about a flood. You ought to utilize your power against your own people. You are proceeded wrongly, thus do the opposite. (Atra: Tablet II: p. 93)
Ellil clearly conveys to the assembly that the creation of men was a mistake. No gods but only Enki was protesting. To no avail, his protest did not take effect on the congress. At the mean time, Elill gave to the god assembly more of his insight about men's problem.
The words that you heard Enki speak are of no significance to us. You know that the land is full and how much they have multiplied and how we have been so annoyed by all the noise they make.(Atra: Tablet II: p. 94)
With no other gods had made their objection, Ellil's proposition was granted.
Enki' s protest to save human kind had fell into deaf ears. The Congress decided in favor of the flood Ellil desired. (Atra: Tablet II: p. 94)
Ellil's argument reminds us of the Abrahamic School's account of Satan making his objection to the godfather on the creation of Adam. In contrast to the Abrahamic tradition that Satan would be next suffering from God's punishment and was banished from the heavenly court, Ellil really got his way across the congress. Despise Enki's effort to save men, the congress gave Ellil their vote to annihilate men. His decision was made irrevocable and set to be carried on by the congress of gods. Enki's final argument was nothing more than a lamentation.
This divine assembly has agreed to do something unfounded. You should not have listened to the justifications put forward, but you have made your commands strict and irrevocable. And Ellil has achieved something horrendous for the people. (Atra: Tablet II: p. 95)

Just as the Kalayuga was about to end, the new created human kind was about to endure the worst flood of the kalpa.

Atrahasis
Tablet III contains the flood story and how Atrahasis was saved. As the flood was planned to be unleashed upon men for their total annihilation. Enki tipped Atrahasis on how to save himself from the wrath of Ellil. He instructed him to build a boat, big enough to save selected human and animal lives, but strong enough to withstand a raging flood of seven days and nights. The boat is to have a roof "like Apsu", upper and lower decks, and to be sealed with bitumen. Through Enki's advice he kept the secret for himself and proceeded to the next plan. He gathered the local elders to help him build the boat and when the work was done he gathered them away to have a feast elsewhere so he could board his family and animals into the boat in preparing for the flood to come. When the storm started pouring he cut of the rope and let it floating on top of the floodwater. The flood was so intense to scare the gods themselves who went to take refuge at the highest heaven of Anu (on top of mount Himalayas). Seeing the destruction that they makes to men down below, they started to regret of what they have agreed to Ellil during the congress's session. After the flood started subsiding, Atrahasis landed his boat on a mountain yop. His offering to the gods thanking them for his safety made them even more felling guilty and started to blame Anu and Ellil for their mischief against men. Caught his first sight of the boat and knowing that Atrahasis and his family was spared, Ellil lashed out to the Lgigi gods.
Everyone of us of the great Anunna swore to carry this out. WE agreed there was not to be one thing left alive on earth. So how is it that any man was able to survive the disaster?(Atra: Tablet III: p. 103)
It was clearly an overstatement from the part of the compiler that Ellil wanted all men and living things on earth perished. The new created men's habit of making noises bothered him and he wanted them to quiet down. He had no reason to harm other men like the Lahmu-men and to have all animals perishing for nothing. This overstatement undoubtedly led the compiler of the Bible's genesis to the mistake that Ellil's wrath is for the whole earth. Nevertheless, Ellil was mad to see Atrahasis surviving the flood. He knew that Atrhiasis must to have support from a god for he had been challenging him for some time and had foiled his spell on men in many occasions. When Anu direct the blame, Enki admitted his doing and gave his own explanation why he was not cooperating with the congress's decision. It was in conformance to the exacting of any punishment' s principle.
The one who does wrong is blameworthy for his own wrongs and he who commits a crime is culpable for his own crimes.(Atra: Tablet III: p. 104)

The Destiny of Men
As his support from other gods eroding, Ellil's authority was fading and Enki was able to save Atrahasis and his family from perishing. Nevertheless, a big responsibility had fallen on him to make sure that the new generation of men would fit through the next chapter of humanity development. Continuing on the Atrahasis's epic, Enki then spoke to the Womb-Goddess Nintu informing her of his plan on how to take care the fate of the surviving men.
Nintu as womb-goddess, you are the ones who choose fates, you are the one who determines destinies for the people.(Atra: Tablet III: p. 105)
To keep the number of men in check, he gave her the following recommendation:
Have it be that a third of all people are able to have children, which will assure the continuance of the population of man. Have a third of them be unable to do so due to youth or age. Have there be a third of people who have among them women who are capable of giving birth, but not property, may the passitu-demon lift the baby from the mother's arms, and further make the ugbabtu, entu, and the egisitu-women who are off-limits to men, to further reduce the birthrate(Atra: Tablet III: p. 105)
The rest of his instructions to the womb-goddess were measures to limit men growing rate their conforming to the righteousness and their duty of regular offerings to gods (to incline away god's wrath). There are also restrains on men life-style and happiness so men could not forget their nature and the purpose of their creation by gods. The most important of all, Enki also instructed that the flood story had been recorded down to future generation s of men to be fully aware of it. He recommended that the record was to be made available at all time for the benefit of men.
Thus have them be recorded for all time to bear witness. So that it shall be written for future generations to understand under what circumstances we brought on the Great Flood (to destroy men), while a man among them was able to survive the disaster. (Atra: Tablet III: p. 107)
In reference to the survival of human specie, Enki wanted men to understand that only a just man (like Atrahasis) could survive any of god's wrath. At the end of the Buddha Kassapa's kalpa, the opening of a new Kalpa for humanity started with the Satyayuga. Under the Man and later the Meru Culture, Enki's recommendation was mostly kept on track. Evidences show that Atrahasis (Noah in the Bible's book of Genesis) and his descendants were recognized for their fairness and were treated as members of god communities. His three lines of descendants Ham, Sem and Jephet eventually became rulers of new created men, spanning around the globe. That was changed after the start of the next Kalayuga (Notes: ). When the Enuma Elish recorded accounts of the conflict of gods, similar problems with bigger potential crises of greater magnitude (as recorded in Atrahasis of the previous kalpa) started to plague first the Apsu and later the Tiamat communities of Brahmans. Started with the new generation of gods, the Anunnaki, the art of making noises had passed on to the next creation of men with greater impact. The original Enki's recommendation appears to be forgotten or simply ignored as western civilization became the vogue of the New World order.

THE MERU CONNECTION
By the time that the events of the Atrahasis occurred, Southeast Asia already fell into the sway of the Kalayuga. A New World order had been established under the leadership of the Greek trinity composing of the gods Anu, Enlil and Enki. According to the Enuma Elish, they were actually the offspring of Meru, but were operating outside of the Meru Culture. In their own ways, they imitated the creation and destruction duality of the Meru's heritage. While Enki represented the force of creation and maintenance, Ellil represented the force of destruction. Under the kalayuga however, their actions were brought to the extreme.

The Effect of Kalayuga
As many other epic stories of both the Sumerian and the Abrahamic sources, cross referencing with other sources, especially of Hindu and Buddhist literature, would not only be beneficial, but essential to retrieve the historical fact behind the myth. On the creation of modern men, we came to the conclusion that cloning a god physical body was eventually what Christianity claim of men being created in the image of god. It consists of a supernatural process of forming a new species of man from his own archaic kind. The good outcome of it is that men have now no more limit to enhance their spirituality. Unfortunately, the bad outcome also held true as men now have potential to do more harms as well. The epic story recreates the debate between Enki and Ellil, either the enhancing of men physical body is actually a good idea for humanity to progress in the right direction. In reference to the Great Flood of Southeast Asia, it is clear that the compiled story of the Atrahasis' epic flood could not be literally interpreted as happened in the real event. Evidences show that not all austronesians were perished and after the flood, many survivors continued to live in Southeast Asia while other were checking out the sea. As to the location of the flood, the epic story made its clear reference to the Apsu Seashore of Southeast Asia, but the western version of it changed its location to Mesopotamia (Notes: The Western Flood Myth). After saving Atrahasis and family from the flood deluge, it appears that Enki won his argument over Ellil, but would need to take on the challenge to prevent future human being from sinning against God. In the last section of the story line, Enki was to remind men on how and why the flood was unleashed upon them at the first place. The Buddhist tradition comments next on the work of king Samanta to start on a new kalpa to safeguard humanity after the legacy of the Sumerian god Enki. If the tradition is right, he was a descendant of the last Buddha Kassapa who was born to start his religion around 2500 years before the flood. A kalpa later, it is clear that Enki's attempt to avert the same catastrophic hardship on humanity had failed and history is about to repeat itself again. Perhaps out of the new concern that Hammurabi's great-grandson, Ammi-Saduqa (1646-1626 BC) recompiled the epic on clay tablets again for the availability of the new humanity to refresh their memory of Enki's recommendation. By then, the last of men creation as recorded in the Enuma Elish had already been completed and men appeared to commit the same mistake of making noises again. As conflicts aggravated, the apocalyptic consequence that happened since the exit of Meru from Middle East is still unfolding. Through Greed, anger and irrationality modern men did not only challenge God's authority, but took on the audacity to play God themselves in the determination of their own destiny. The Epic story indicates clearly that despite loosing his argument to Enki, Ellil still retained all his option to inflict harm on men, any time that they misbehave.

On the Creation of Men
The feud between Enki and Ellil reflects the antagonist tradition of the Greek Trinity, specifically between Posedon and Hadis. Under normal situation, the assignment is clear. While Anu (Zeus in Greek, Indra in Hindu) was to rule the heaven, Enki (Poseidon in Greek, Meruduk in Hindu) was to rule the earth and Ellil (Hadis in Greek, Yuma in Hindu) was to rule the hell. The Kalayuga however creates havoc that upset the world order. In Atrahasis 's case, Ellil is mentioned to have both controls of Hell and earth. His rule over the earth was contributing to the strain of humanity and earthly creatures that were usually under the control of Anu and Enki. Under Ellil's control, the gods Lgigi were forced to do hard-labor works and the formation of new species of men by Enki to relieve their work apparently became a challenge to Ellil. Unlike other epic stories, the Atrahasis give us a fairly detail information that enables us to have a clear idea on how a new man species was created (Notes: The Conception of Modern Men). During the next creation of humanity, Ishtar played important role in organizing humanity and overlooking its actual development. In the Sumerian cosmogony, Istar was often referred as the consort of Meru. Known in the Hindu world as the goddess Kali, she is actually the queen of the Kalyuga. Known also as the queen of the west, she is also renown of her materialism and her warlike attitude. Under her care, men became successful and started to make noise. In correlation to the Bible book of Genesis, Adam and Eve had already deceived the Lord God of their rebellious attitudes. After eating the fruit from the tree of knowledge of "God and Evil" they were banished from the Garden of Eden. As their descendants grew in number and spread over the world, they started to irritate the Lord by their wickedness. To make the matter worst, the supernatural beings had fell for the beautiful women and from their union a race of giants was produced. Overwhelmed by men' s induced problems, the Lord decided to wipe them out from the surface of the earth by the epic flood. Nevertheless, one man Noah (Atrahasis in Sumerian epic) and his family stood out to impress the Lord who then decided to save him. In the Sumerian epic flood story, it was Ellil who unleashed the flood deluge against modern men and it was Enki who went out to save Atrahasia and his family from perishing. By then, the epic already mentioned about the Lahmu-men of which we had identified as the Kamara people of Southeast Asia. Our assumption is that the Kamara (Lahmu-men in the epic story) were formed actually alongside the Lgigi at the beginning of the Bhadrakalpa. The fact that they lived closed to the Brahman communities (of Apsu and Tiamat), they were known also as the Burmans. They were part of the southern race who had dark complexion because they were openly exposed to the hot sun. The Shan were probably created at the same time with the austronesians and were experiencing the great flood of Southeast Asia. From the Atrahasis' s account, we had argued that men were created by cloning god through archaic human mothers. If our argument is correct, they were born from the same archaic mothers who descended from the Java Man to constitute the southern race of the new man species. On the other hand, evidences show that central Asians and the Chinese did not experience the flood like the shan and the austronesians did. Further DNA analysis might reveal that they descended from the northern archaic mothers who descended from the Peking Man (Enuma Elish: The Meru Connection: The Creation of Men). As suggested in the Enuma Elish creation myth, they were the last to be created along with white people of the northern race. The Denisovan ancestral connection between the Java and the Peking Man might explain the mtDNA link between the two races. Other than that evidences show that they have different look and life-styles that reflect their difference in their environment and most of all their different time of conception.

The Kamara Connection
Another interesting aspect of the epic story is the mentioning of the Lahmu-men who appear to be in close confidant with the god Ea and the assembly of gods in general. When Atrahasis had called for help, Ea was moved and to answer the call, he instructed the Lahmu-men to find out who actually made the call. After locating Atrahasis, he also used them to serve as his messengers. As we had identified Lahmu as Meru, the Lahmu-men or Meru-men could be identified as the Kamara (Kun-lun in Chinese) people who were the original people of Southeast Asia. Being the ancestors of the Mon-Khmer people, they were actually among the first men who populated Southeast Asia. They were probably the subjects of the god Lgigi who lived among them in human form and received from them the gift of civilization to be known later as the Hoabinhian culture. The gene analysis proved that the Orang Asli Tribesmen of southern Malaysia are actually their ancestors to live (as their remnants) until modern days (Prehistory: The Hoabinhian Culture: The Gene Factor). On the other hand, the next creation of men by Ea would coincide with the presence of the austronesians to form the Melanesian communities of the south (Prehistory: The Flood Culture: The Fish People and the Journey back to the Sea). The hero of the flood myth Atrahasis (Noah in the Bible Book of Genesis) was actually one of them. The Lahmu-men found him living at the "Apsu's water shore" and conveys to him Ea's messages. Considering that Apsu was referring to mount Himalayas, Atrahasis must to live with his austronesian compatriots around Manipura where the flood was supposed to take the most effect. According to the epic story, they were created to off-load the burdens of the god Lgigi at Mesopotamia that led us to believe that there were already Brahmanist venture extending itself to Middle East and the rest of the world. The creation was particularly in close connection with the start-up of Middle Eastern development by the Brahmanist extension of Tiamat. At the mean time, evidences so far show that the creation of men happened actually in Southeast Asia. According to the epic, it took a rather short period of time (less than 600 years) for their communities to grow plentiful and upset the god Ellil of their noise. The short time frame would undermine the current scientific claim of austronesian origin as men from the north and made their migration down south through Taiwan. With some adjustment, we then conclude that as much as their involvement with Mesopotamia and the rest of the world development along side the god Lgigi, their origin and their source of identity started in Southeast Asia. After the flood, we had argued that while some of them who survived the flood start to explore the sea along with the proto-Malay people and became like them as the sea or fish people. Others were absorbed by the Kamara people to form the agriculturist Khmer-mon people of Southeast Asia (Prehistory: The Flood Culture: The Xiang People and their Journey up to the Tian-Shan Range).


Reference
  1. Atra: Atrahasis: The first Great Flood Myth, Timothy J. Stephany

Notes
  1. Average Duration of the Kalayuga
    As of any other yugas, the duration of the Kalayuga is flexible to the situation of the Kalpa. Nevertheless, an average of 5000 years is the norm.
  2. Merit vs Power
    In the Meru Culture, the classification of the seven heavens reflects the difference levels of merit associated to each plane of spirituality. Once an individual spirit could collect enough merit, moving into higher plane is an option. The reverse transition also applies. Power (Karma in Buddhist term) is gained through action (either good or bad) in the form of kinetic energy. Evil spirit has the least merit, but could be high in bad karma. On the other hand, the holy (god) spirit is high in both merit and good karma.
  3. The holy Ablution
    A religious ritual of using water to wash the body for the purpose of cleansing the mind. Not found in the Meru Culture, the practice is found widespread among the Abrahamic schools. In the proceeding, one god will be slain for other gods to be cleansed. We know now that it was originated by the Akkadian God Anu and applied only to god (not man)'s spirituality.
  4. The Primal Human Mother
    Recent DNA analysis' finding of a fraction of Denisovan' gnome among modern men suggest that the Primal Human Mother was actually belonged to a Denisovan homo-erectus subspecies. Further DNA's analysis might clarify her role in the cloning process. The presence of Denisovans gnome in the mtDNA would indicate that her egg was used in the process, otherwise she was only used as the womb-mother of the modern human baby.
  5. Human Primal Form
    Empirical data show that homo-erectus were the last remnants of human species prior to the emergence of modern men of today. Reconstruction would show that they resemble modern men in many respects, but were still cranologically apelike.
  6. The Conception of Modern Men
    The process of cloning the god physical body actually gave support to the Christian claim that men were created in the image of god. It is important to stress out that the cloning does no result in the birth of a god, but a body that could accommodate of god spirituality. A human spirit that was chosen (by the womb-goddess) to possess the body would enjoy the full potential that the cloned body could offer. Nevertheless, the unison of the cloned physical body and the human spirit is still operating as human.
  7. The Western Flood Myth
    The Atrahasis made its clear reference to the flood at Atrahasis reed's hut, locating at the Apsu seashore of which we had identified as the southern sea shoe of mount Himalayas at Manipura. Recompiled one more time to include in the book of Genesis of the Bible, all reference to the Apsu and its Southeast Asian connection was omitted. Mesopotamia that is locating between the Euplhrate and the Tigris rivers was instead referenced as both the garden of Eden and the location as the flood myth.